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Sketches of the New Church 
In America 






3 1833 01177 0713 



Ednah C. Silver in 1910 

Sketches of the New Church 
in America 

Background of Civic and 
Social Life 

Drawn from 

Faded Manuscript, Printed Record, and 

Living Reminiscence 

By Ednah C. Silver 

Published by 
The Massachusetts New Church Union 
134 Bowdoin Street 

CopjTight, 1920, by Ednah C. Silver 


Dedicated to 


the richly endowed exponent 
of our beautiful Faith 


'T^HIS book is quite as much a character-study as a record 
of facts. It is devoted to those who have gone before, 
and to the message that enriched their lives. No one who 
is still living here is admitted to these pages except to illus- 
trate a movement, or to round out a situation; or — more 
important — to hold a lamp that it may throw light on a 
portrait. An obvious exception to this rule is made in favor 
of the present writer, who has drawn extensively on her 
memory-records, having found that grown people are very 
like children: a story is often more real to them if the 
narrator can say, I have seen and heard. It might be said in 
passing, that among the many persons whose names appear 
in the book, she has knoiv two hundred. 

To her, the opening date, 1784, is in no degree remote, 
but, on the contrary, very living and real: because at that 
very time there was a little tivo-year-old Huguenot boy named 
Daniel playing in a Baltimore nursery who lived to be ninety- 
five, and who maintained, during the last nineteen years of 
his life, a warm friendship with the Silver household. And 
there was a little girl named Margaret, who, in 1784, was a 
nine-year-old maiden in an English boarding school. She 
lived to be ninety-three, and also came within the present 
writer's ken. The eighteenth and the twentieth centuries 
have shaken hands. 




Glimpses of prominent public men in 1784 in the 
thirteen loosely joined American States, and the ec- 
clesiastical, social and financial conditions when Glen 
came. His education in Scotland, his part in organiz- 
ing the New Church in England, his Philadelphia lec- 
tures, his life in Demerara (British Guiana) and the 
religious, industrial, and topographical features of the 



Result of Glen's visit. Sketches of Messrs. Bailey, 
Freneau, Eckstein, James, Kinmont, Thuun, Young, 
Collin, Duche, Schlatter, Chauvenet, Lammot, and 





1792, First organized Society for worship. 

1792, First American edition of English Liturgy. 

1798, First ordination into New-Church ministry. 

1800, First House of Worship dedicated. 

1801, First religious periodical. 

Sketches of John Hargrove, Adam Fonerden, Dr. John 
Fonerden, and others. 




Career and character of " Johnny Appleseed ", as 
orchardist, peripatetic New-Church library, and live 



His life in Salem, and discovery of our faith. Devotion 
of his daughter, Margaret Hiller Prescott, to the 
Church; her little book, Religion and Philosophy 
United. Joseph Hiller's New-Church descendants to 
the sixth generation. 



Her religious ancestry, her picturesque life in the West 
Indies and London. Home in Massachusetts, and dis- 
covery of the New Church in 1796. The next chapter 
records her charter membership in the Boston Society 
and her devotion to its interests. 


Mr. Worcester's serious-minded ancestry in which ec- 
clesiastics abound. Conditions at Harvard in 1814-18: 
its faculty, religious freedom, and amusements. Mr. 
Worcester's discovery among Harvard's 50,000 library 
books of Hill's gift of the Arcana, sleeping the sleep 
of oblivion, and covered with the dust of neglect. 
Formation of the Boston Society under him in 1818, 
and its striking growth. His marriage and the excel- 
lence of his parishoners. Places of worship, and dedi- 
cation of the Bowdoin Street Church edifice in 1845; 
devotional quality of its music. Mr. Worcester's 
sermons and long pastorate. His wide-spread influence 
in the Church at large. Sketches of his children and 
description of other lines of New-Church Worcesters. 



His boyhood, betrothal, and marriage in New Hamp- 
shire; his early life on the banks of the St. Lawrence; 
his migration to Michigan in 1831, the varied condition 
of the territory, and his mercantile and public life. His 
discovery of the New Church through Edwin Burnham 

in 1839; his baptism by Rev. George Field in 1844; his 
ordination by Rev. Thomas Worcester at Philadelphia 
in 1849; his consecration as ordaining minister by Rev. 
Thomas Worcester at Chicago in 1865. His parishes 
in Contoocook, New Hampshire, Wilmington, Delaware, 
in New York, in Salem, and in Roxbury, Mass. 

Thirty-two sketches, thirty from life, of men and women 
of varying personality, attracted to the New Church, 
i. Law: Chief Justice Edward W. Gilpin of Delaware, Chief 
Justice Albert Mason of Massachusetts, and lawyer .Albert W. 
Paine of the Bangor Bar. 

ii. Medicine: Doctors August Negendank and John Ellis, 
iii. Education: Professors Truman H. Safford, Theophilus Par- 
sons, Rudolph L. Tafel, Thomas xMoses, Timothy O. Paine, Mar- 
shall Freeman Josselyn, Sarah Alice Worcester; Abby M. 
McClean in private school, and Anna L. Page in kindergarten, 
iv. Music: George James Webb, and William Mason. 
V. An: Daniel H. Biirnham, architecture, and Adelia Gates, 
flower painting. 

vi. Authorship: John Bigelow, Howard Pyle, and Adeline Knapp. 
vii. Editorship: William Cooper Howells (father of the novelist), 
editor of the New-Church periodical, The Retina. 
Horace P. Chandler, editor of Lovers' Year Book, Every Other 
Saturday, and Mariners' Advocate. 

viii. Altruism: Maria Moulton, Sir Francis Joseph Campbell, 
and Thomas Reeves, workers for the blind. Also a sketch of 
Helen Keller. 

ix. Travel-hostess: Mrs. Henry P. Nichols. 

X. Men of affairs: Robert L. Smith, importer; Simon H. Greene, 

xi. Social Life: Mrs. .\lfred du Pont (Margaretta Lammot), 
Mrs. Henry G. Thompson (Louisa Barnard), Miss Anna La 
Motte, and Mrs. J. Kennedy Smyth (Julia Ogden). 



The Fairfaxes of Virginia. 
The Carters of Virginia. 
The Cabells of Virginia. 
The Campbells of Virginia. 
The Earlys of Virginia. 
The Mosbys of Virginia. 
The Greenways of Virginia. 
The Hites of Virginia. 

* The story of several persons worthy a place in this list fits in elsewhere in 
this book. 



Ednah C. Silver Frontispiece 

Old Swedes' Church, Wilmington, Delaware 2 

Boston Society's Place of Worship in Phillips Place ... 78 

Professor Theophilus Parsons of Harvard 78 

Rear view of Audience of Boston Society Chiu-ch of the 

New Jerusalem 79 

Head of Christ by Hiram Powers 110 

Bust of Rev. Thomas Worcester by Powers Ill 

Head from statue of " The Greek Slave " 114 

" Faith " by Powers 114 

Model by Powers of his Httle child's hand 115 

Hiram Powers of Florence, Italy 115 

Interior of San Francisco Church erected under Rev. Joseph 

Worcester 126 

Rev. Noah Worcester 127 

Rev. Thomas Worcester 127 

Rev. John Worcester 127 

Rev. William L. Worcester 127 

Judge Digby V. Bell 156 

Wilham Bell, son of Digby 156 

Phoenix Cottage, the Abiel Silver home in Michigan .... 168 

Rev. George Field 169 

Mrs. Susan M. H. Dorr 169 

Captain Paul R. George 174 

Walter Scott Davis 175 

Mr. Daniel Lammot \ 

Mrs. Daniel Lammot 1 

Mrs. Mary Lammot Hounsfield / 

Mrs. Eleanor Lammot Gilpin ( Between 

Mr. Dan Lammot / pp. 184, 185 

Major Robert La Motte I 

Col. William A. La Motte | 

Brigadier-General Charles Eugene La Motte / 

Rev. John C. Ager 186 

Rev. Lewis P. Mercer 186 

J. K. Hoyt of New York 192 

Robert L. Smith of New York 192 

" The Apostle Peter's Deliverance from Prison," by Cephas 

G. Thompson 193 

Cephas Giovanni Thompson 193 

One of the treasures in Miss Silver's New York Sunday 

School class 194 

Another treasure in Miss Silver's class 194 

Dr. S. M. Gate of Salem 198 

Dr. John T. Harris of Roxbury . 198 

Mrs. William F. Jackson 204 

Mrs. Abiel Silver 204 

Glimpse of Roxbury Church of the New Jerusalem .... 205 

Lancaster home of Mrs. Mary G. Chandler Ware .... 208 

Roxbury home of Abiel Silver family 209 

Rev. Abiel Silver \ 

Monsieur Edouard de Chazal of Mauritius . / R t n 

Rev. Julian K. Smyth in 1882 .....) ^^^,, 

Rev. Julian K. Smyth in 1899 I PP' ^^^' ^^^ 

Ednah C. Silver in 1877 ) 

Chief-Justice Albert Mason of Massachusetts 218 

A Corner of the Old Historic Parlor in the Worcester House 

atHollis 238 

Colonial home of Anna Page 244 

Miss Caroline, younger daughter of George James Webb . 245 

Daniel H. Rurnham 248 

Mrs. Edwin Rurnham 249 

Mr. Henry P. Nichols 274 

Mrs. Hemy P. Nichols 275 

Glimpse of garden and rear of house at Goodstay 282 

Mrs. Alfred du Pont of Goodstay 283 

Corner of front porch at Goodstay 283 

Mr. Henry G. Thompson 284 

Mrs. Henry G. Thompson 285 

Mrs. Anna Cora Mowatt 286 

Mrs. Julia Ogden Smyth of New York 287 

Mrs. Lucy Lazelle Hobart of Roston 287 


For inquire, I pray thee, of the former age. 

And apply thyself to that which their fathers have searched out. 

— Job, viii, 8. 

JAMES GLEN: First Torchbearer for the New 
Church to the Western Hemisphere. Current conditions 
in the late eighteenth century. 

N a summer day in the year 1784 James Glen 
might have been seen approaching Philadelphia, 
where he was to give the first public proclamation 
of the truths of the New Jerusalem to the western 
world. What manner of man was James Glen, and what 
manner of folk were we? His native land was one of small 
streams to be made famous by Robert Burns — the Doon 
and the Ayr, the Nith and the Tay; as he sailed up the broad 
Delaware was he impressed, by contrast, with its stately 
majesty — a majesty always emphasized anew to some of us 
at each fresh sight of it? Our river had fine commercial 
possibilities, but no poetic bard; it had, however, an associ- 
ation with war, — General Washington having strategically 
crossed it in 1777, thereby giving heart to the Colonial cause. 
How did James Glen as a British subject regard our Com- 
mander-in-chief? Did he pronounce him an archrebel, or 
a friend to lovers of liberty? Did he realize that Washington 
had been fighting the Englishman's battles for representative 

Mr. Glen had discovered the Writings of Swedenborg and 
had accepted their message: did he know that his boat was 
traversing territory settled by Swedes; territory over which 
Swedenborg's father formerly presided as a nonresident 


bishop, by appointment of his king, Charles XII? As Glen 
sailed near Wilmington, Delaware, did he know that one of its 
treasures was the fine Old Swedes' Church dedicated in 1699; 
and that its archives contained beautiful pastoral letters from 
the good bishop? 

Should Mr. Glen, on his arrival at Philadelphia, wish to 
visit our Continental Congress, he would learn that that body, 
lacking means of defence, had been driven out by a handful 
of unpaid mutinous soldiers, had been recently sheltered 
under the Presbyterian wings of the College of New Jersey, 
(Princeton), and was now still farther afield. Did our New- 
Church visitor smile on us with sympathetic pity for our 
ignominious position? We were as feeble in finance as we 
were in arms. Was Mr. Glen sorry to see our paper currency 
so near zero, and his British gold at so enormous a 

Mr. Glen was familiar with countries whose hoary history 
was projected on a background of traditions still more 
ancient; would he care for our young nation which was only 
in the making, which had in 1784, no fixed capital, no strong 
central government, no Federal Constitution, no president, 
no national hymn, and no decisive name? We had, thanks 
to George Washington and Betsy Ross, our starry banner 
which had triumphantly defied the British government. The 
ocean was still a broad gulf of separation, although the last 
growling echo of British and Colonial cannon had died away, 
and our returned soldiers had hung their flintlock muskets 
above the fireplace. But it is a far cry from George III to 
George V; and how little could Glen foresee that, on the 
Fourth of July, 1918, our Old Glory would float over the 
House of Parliament by command of George V himself! And 
that the Prince of Wales in 1919 would honor Washington's 
tomb! We still had annoying home tariff wars between 
states and no adequate laws to meet them. Would our civic 

* Mrs. John Adams writes as early as June, 1779: "Linens are sold at twenty 
dollars per yard, the most ordinary sort of calico at thirty or forty, broadcloths 
at forty pounds per yard." And William Pynchon's diary records at Salem, 
Massachusetts, on June 2, 1781 : "The marketmen refuse bills of the old 
emission for provisions, the jurymen refused it at the Maritime Court, the judges 
declined to take it, yet this is our currency established by law! O Congress! 
legislators! money-makers aU! What ails you? " 

iMM'm^ 'M»i^:m^.^^'wm^'yii 




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1 -A "^ wlVI -^ 


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experimenters, our nation builders, be in a frame of mind 
to listen to Glen's spiritual message? 

Where, in the meantime, were our public men? General 
Washington, after giving eight years of gratuitous military- 
service, had resigned his commission in the army, delivered 
up his sword to Congress, and returned to his beloved Mount 
Vernon. His fifty-two years were beginning to tell on him; 
and, on assuming spectacles for a public address, he had said, 
half playfully: " I have grown gray in your service, and now 
I find myself growing blind. " 

Benjamin Franklin was seventy-eight. His persuasive 
speech had long since won over as a bride the girl who had 
ridiculed his early rusticity, his effective kite had won over 
the lightning, his able diplomacy had won distinction abroad, 
his self-training and native genius had won academic degrees 
from Harvard, Yale and Oxford; he had been crowned at the* 
Court of Versailles by a French duchess; he was now in Paris, 
where, to please King Louis XVI, he was investigating, in 
the intervals of diplomacy, the claims of Mesmer and som- 
nambulism. Alexander Hamilton was a lawyer of twenty- 
seven, his brilliant career as a political writer in The 
Federalist and as a great financier, being still in the future. 
Thomas Jefferson stood at forty-one, with the great Decla- 
ration behind him, and the Louisiana Purchase still to come; 
already dreaming of his great work in founding the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. Aaron Burr was twenty-eight, and the 
keen-sighted Washington already distrusted him. Benedict 
Arnold was forty-three; this prince of black traitors was 
residing in England, but could not live down his obloquy. 
Paul Jones at thirty-seven had already won a sword of honor 
from Louis XVI and a medal from our Continental Congress. 
This intrepid captor of the Serapis was now a drawing-room 
knight and ladies' man in Paris. In 1784, Mrs. John Adams 
describes him after this manner: 

" I should sooner think of wrapping him up in cotton wool 
and putting him in my pocket than of sending him to contend 

with cannon balls but under all this appearance 

of softness he is bold, enterprising, ambitious, and active. " 

Our supreme orator, Patrick Henry, whose fiery con- 


victions, titanic courage, electrifying eloquence, and moral 
nerve had made him a factor in the Revolution was now, at 
forty-eight, serving as governor of Virginia. James Madison 
was a stately, well-bred bachelor of thirty-three, with a head 
so capacious that it held Latin, Greek, French, and Italian, 
and much material for the coming Federal Constitution. He 
had been unconsciously waiting for little Dolly Payne to 
grow up and be his wife, and he discovered and married her 
in 1794, that he might bring her to his Virginia ancestral 
three thousand acres, where his mansion was set amid silver 
pines, where roses and jessamines clambered over the veranda, 
and the garden was gay with " a gorgeous tangle of scarlet 
and yellow vines." Dolly is described at twenty-two as "a 
broidered and frilled little Quakeress with a strain of Irish 
blood which gave her vivacious wit and good-nature." * 
Later she poured coffee for many years at the White House, 
although the coffee pot received a severe jar on August 24, 

Paul Revere was no longer producing graceful silver table 
ware, but was, at forty-nine, on the banks of the Neponset 
casting church bells in the cause of religion. John Adams, 
also forty-nine, was in Holland, negotiating in desperate 
terms a loan for his country; and in commercial treaties we 
were " disdainfully asked whether European powers were 
expected to deal with thirteen governments, or one." Mrs. 
John Adams was in Paris, and her letters give vivacious and 
incisive pictures of men and manners. Transferred from 
rural little Braintree to the tropical luxuriance of the Bourbon 
regime, she preserved her unworldliness as became a minis- 
ter's daughter. She never forgot her republicanism, and 
showed her colors spiritedly. At Braintree she had written 
abroad that, 

" The Revolutionary flame is kindled, and, like lightning, 
it catches from soul to soul." 

And her admiring husband wrote in reply to the wife who 
was both idealistic and practical-minded: 

* A charming and authentic book on social life at this period is entitled Our 
Early Presidents, their Wives and Children by Harriet Taylor Upton, 1890, 
D. Lothrop Co. 


" Your sentiments of the duties we owe our country are 

such as become the best of women I think you 

shine as a stateswoman of late, as well as a farmeress." 

John Quincy Adams, now seventeen, was to spend twenty 
years abroad in consular^ diplomatic, and other service, fitting 
him to an extraordinary degree in international statecraft 
for the United States Presidency. 

Lafayette, whose heart was larger than France, and whose 
democracy neutralized his blue blood, had thrown away his 
title of marquis among other insignia of rank submerged by 
the French Revolution, but had retained the title of general, 
given him when Washington, with wise diplomacy, had pro- 
moted him over the heads of American officers in our Revo- 
lution. In the same year of Glen's visit, Lafayette was at 
Mount Vernon, admiring proud little Nellie Custis, with her 
new thousand-dollar harpsichord and her new bandoria; and 
admiring her brother still more, the lad who was to be the 
head of the Arlington Mansion, and the father-in-law of Gen. 
Robert E, Lee. George Washington Custis was now four 
years old and Lafayette describes him thus: 

" A very little gentleman with a feather in his hat." 

Lafayette also had a child named George Washington, and 
we saw in Paris in 1900 the intertwined flags of France and 
the United States floating over the graves of father and son. 

Let us return from this glimpse of social life and observe 
the religious training of eighteenth-century young people. 
The Rev. Ezra Stiles, President of Yale, writes as follows: 

" My daughter Ruth, for fourteen years beginning in 1775, 
had read her Bible fourteen times through; and Eliza and 
Emilia had done as well in proportion to their years. " 

For the young Yale students, attendance at daily prayers, 
morning and evening, was required, the exposition of the 
Confession of Faith on Saturday evening, and not infre- 
quently "five hours in chapel on Lord's Day." Under- 
graduates must " uncover within ten rods of the person of the 
president, eight rods of the professor, and five rods of the 
tutor." This rigid pressure brought to bear upon the lively 
animal spirits incident to youth produced the inevitable re- 
action, as recorded by Mr. Stiles: " An hundred and fifty or an 


hundred and eighty Young Gentlemen Students is a Bundle 
of Wild Fire not easily controlled and governed, and at the 
best the Diadem of a President is a Crown of Thorns." * 

John Quincy Adams's religious nature was not neglected. 
In 1782, when a lad of fifteen doing secretarial work 
abroad, his father's letter to him shows the seriousness of the 
New England mind : 

" Your studies I doubt not you pursue, because I know you 
to be a studious youth, but above all, preserve a sacred regard 
to your own honor and reputation. Your morals are worth 
all the sciences. Your conscience is the minister plenipoten- 
tiary of God Almighty in your breast. See to it that this 
minister never negotiates in vain. Attend to him in opposi- 
tion to all other courts in the world. So charges your 
affectionate father, J. Adams. " 

Would the Churches listen to James Glen's spiritual mes- 
sage when they were so preoccupied in disentangling them- 
selves from the State? For the political break with England 
had brought about ecclestiastical complications, and disestab- 
lishment was in the air. South Carolina, where Episco- 
palianism was "rooted in the soil," easily detached the 
Church from England. Her high-minded clergy had been 
as a rule unswerving patriots, and were elected at home. 
Virginia's clergy were appointed by the crown, and would 
naturally enjoy having George III as the visible head of the 
Church. But she had a large Presbyterian population led by 
ministers of " learning and dialectic skill," who successfully 
protested against the voice of civil magistrates in matters of 
religion; and they found powerful allies in broad-minded 
Episcopalians like Jefferson, Madison, and Mason. John 
Fiske further tells us that New Jersey and North Carolina 
unwillingly endured state Anglicanism ; Georgia, turbulent in 
spirit, was even less gracious; and New York accepted it 
"with languid acquiescence." A goodly portion of the 
people in Maryland being, in 1784, strongly Roman Catholic, 
successfully petitioned the pope to establish a hierarchy 
empowered directly from Rome. 

Roger Williams emphasized successfully for Rhode Island 

* From the Neiv England Magazine, April, 1909, Boston. 


the sharp differentiation which should exist between Church 
and State. Pennsylvania had nothing to undo, thanks to 
William Penn's broad vision and love of religious freedom. 
Massachusetts, the most jealous of coercion among all 
England's thirteen children, established a state Church of her 
own — Orthodox Congregationalism — and maintained her 
civic hold on it into the nineteenth century. New Hampshire 
and Connecticut anticipated her in separating their Puritan 
religion from the State. In 1784, the very year of Glen's 
visit, Samuel Seabury, after exceedingly interesting ecclesi- 
astical and political complications, was consecrated as the 
first American Episcopal bishop, and became " a great 
organizer and strict Churchman " ; and Francis Asbury, 
through Wesley's independent action, became the first Ameri- 
can Methodist bishop, increasing the membership in thirty-two 
years from 300 converts to 214,000 members {Encyclopaedia 
Britannica) . 

Among a people of undefined nationality, among a people 
of ecclesiastical unrest, among a people verging on doctrinal 
revolt, came James Glen with his message. Conditions were 
not wholly unfavorable to him, as they were tending toward 
increased political and religious liberty. 

Swedenborg, speaking of the better among the English in 
the other world, declares that they are in the center of aU 
Christians, because they have interior intellectual light; they 
acquire it from their freedom to speak and to write, and 
thus to think. With others, who are not in such liberty, that 
light is wasted because it has no outlet {True Christian 
Religion, No. 807). 

We can answer the question, " What manner of folk were 
we? " But for James Glen's portrait we have so far con- 
structed an easel made chiefly of interrogation points, asking 
what he might, or did, feel, and think, and do; and we will 
now endeavor to place on this easel a sketch of him from 
authentic data. 

James Glen came on a Bible mission, to save God's Word 
by upholding its interior symbolic claim. He advertised his 
coming lectures in three Philadelphia papers, including 
Francis Bailey's Freeman s Journal. The advertisement is 


too long to quote,* but therein Mr. Glen defines the Science of 
Correspondences in which the Holy Scriptures are written, as 
the relation of things of earth to higher things, whereby 
objects in this world become types or symbols of things of 
the spirit, and he continues: 

"The honourable Emanuel Swedenborg, the wonderful 
restorer of this long lost secret, thro the Divine Mercy, for 
the last twenty-nine years of his life had the most free and 
open Intercourse with Spirits and Angels and was thus taught 
this Science of Heaven. From his invaluable Writings, and 
Conversations with gentlemen who have studied them, the 
Discourser hopes to convey some Idea and Taste of this 
Science to the wise and to the good of every denomination. " 

Mr. Glen's first lecture was on June 5, 1784, at Bell's 
bookstore, near St. Paul's Church, on Third Street, Phila- 
delphia. And many of us saw, in 1917, the unveiling of a 
bronze tablet on that building commemorating the significant 
eighteenth-century event. 

For James Glen's early and latter days we draw great 
value from the forty pages of material carefully gleaned by 
Mr. Charles Higham of London in the New-Church Review 
for October, 1912, pp. 532-572. Glen was born at Glas- 
gow, Scotland, about the year 1750. At twelve years of age 
he entered a three-century-old grammar school in whose 
archives the following letter from Glen, written long after, 
has been discovered: 

"I am," says he, "a merchant by profession; in politics, 
I am for peace, hating the very name of war; in religion, I 
have professed the tenets of Emanuel Swedenborg for twenty- 
one years, and will be glad to hear if there be any of that 
persuasion in Glasgow, and would most earnestly recommend 
the works of that great man to your particular attention and 
candid perusal." 

In 1783 Mr. Hindmarsh and Mr. James Glen met for the 
first time; and the former tells us in his Rise and Progress 
of the Neiv Jerusalem Church, p. 17, how he heard from the 
Scotchman's own lips his discovery of Swedenborg. Mr. 

* For the complete advertisement, turn to vol. i, p. 70 in The New churchman, 
Philadelphia, January, 1841. 


Glen was on the ocean, on his voyage to England from his 
plantation in South America : 

" The captain of the vessel in which he was sailing, after 
many conversations with Mr. Glen, whom he found to be a 
person of literary habits and liberal sentiments, in a great 
measure free from the influence of religious prejudices, told 
him that he was in possession of a book, written in the Latin 
language by a very extraordinary man, which he thought 
would prove acceptable to him; whereupon he presented him 
with a copy of the Latin work De Coelo et Inferno (the 
Treatise on Heaven and Hell) . As soon as Mr. Glen had read 
the work and well considered its contents, he was all astonish- 
ment, first, at the nature of the information which that book 
conveys; and in the next place, at the goodness of the Divine 
Providence which had so unexpectedly brought him into such 
a peculiar situation, that while sailing on the surface of the 
great deep, of an abyss of water beneath him, his eyes were 
opened to behold an abyss of divine truths above and around 
him. That day Mr. Glen declared to be the happiest day of 
his life, which thus brought to his view the glories of the 
heavenly state, and the stupendous realities of the eternal 

After recording preliminary movements, Mr. Hindmarsh, 
on pp. 57, 58, writes of a " select meeting " of Members of 
the New Church on July 29, 1784, with thirteen present, the 
name of James Glen leading the list. " The Lord's Prayer 
was read, and No. 625 of the Universal Theology (True 
Christian Religion) being the Glorification of the New 
Heavens for the Lord's Second Advent. A Paper drawn up 
by Mr. Glen, containing general principles of the New 
Church, was also read and with some alterations and ad- 
ditions unanimously approved of." James Glen's name also 
leads the list of persons assembled in London on July 31, 
1787, for the formation, under the initiative of Robert Hind- 
marsh, of the first Society of the New Church on earth, and 
for participation in the Holy Supper. 

James Glen had previously, as recorded, proclaimed the 
New-Church message in Philadelphia; and we will now follow 
him to his South American plantation, where with occasional 


visits to London he spent his -remaining days from 1771 to 

What manner of country was Demerara? 

Demerara is the name of a river and of the province 
watered by it which is now called British Guiana. Its man- 
ners, customs, and laws have been admirably described by 
Bolingbroke,* a sojourner there at the same time with Glen 
from 1799 to 1806. The author writes with an almost 
official texactness and with the eye for pictorial detail of a 
born observer. The book is accessible, is eight by ten inches 
in size, with sumptuous margins, fine paper, clear type, and an 
excellent map. The writer was an articled clerk for a 
commercial house in Demerara, received a large salary, and 
traveled extensively for seven years over the territory. He 
sailed from Liverpool on Christmas, 1798, and after seven 
weeks he sighted the land of expectancy. The low and 
perfectly flat coast was not inspiring to a young man with 
ideals in his head, the sand bar which bade the boat wait for 
high tide checked his enthusiasm, the soundings of lead 
brought up mud, the seaman finally landed near Fort William 
Frederick where eighteen heavy pieces of cannon were 
mounted. The province has been repeatedly under alternate 
Dutch and British rule, the latter prevailing during the stay 
of Bolingbroke. Landing at Stabroek, now called George- 
town, at the mouth of Rio Demerara, he found himself 
surrounded by native blacks, yellows, and tawnies, vocifer- 
ating their wares in a jargon half English and half Dutch. 
The two-story houses with colonnaded porticoes and balconies 
were shaded by projecting eaves and were roofed with red 
shingles resembling mahogany. The windows without glass 
were covered with Venetian blinds furnishing a secluded out- 
look for the ladies. Rooms projected in all directions in 
order to catch every draft and the ground plan of the 
dwellings was mostly in the shape of a cross. 

Mr. Bolingbroke was met by a handsome tent-boat rowed 

* A Voyage to the Demerary, containing a statistical account of the settlements 
there, and of those on the Essequibo, the Berbice, and other contiguous rivers 
of Guiana; 400 pp. By Henry Bolingbroke, Esq., of Norwich, Deputy Vendue 
Master at Surinham. London, printed for Richard Phillips, No. 6, Bridge 
Street, 1807. 


by six negroes, and was conducted to his employer's home 
which he was to share. The dinner-table was cosmopolitan: 
French soup, Dutch salted ling, English beef, Muscovy ducks, 
Italian salad, and native fruits — guavas, pineapples, 
oranges, shaddocks, and avoiras. The household establish- 
ment consisted of eight male and two female negro servants, 
who were summoned by a whistle instead of a bell. 

As Mr. Glen had already carried his spiritual light to 
Demerara, it would be interesting to know the state of 
religion there. Bolingbroke says of it in 1799-1806, " that 
religious liberty prevailed, that ecclesiastical feuds were un- 
known, that Protestant forms of worship were found on the 
north-eastern Atlantic coast; that heathenism, not yet ad- 
vanced to idolatry, existed in central Guiana where the 
elements of nature were treated with fear and propitiatory 
worship. The Roman Catholic religion flourished in the 
western and southern borders. In the region of Paramaribo 
six German missionaries called Hernbooters or Moravians 
liad a very numerous and a very orderly audience in the 
negro chapel. The leaders had translated the Bible and a 
book of hymns into the talkee-talkee, or negro language" 
(pp. 340, 341, 371), 

Let us start from the mouth of the Demerara two miles 
wide and sail up the river towards Glen's home, seeing every- 
thing through Bolingbroke's eyes. His tent-boat is one of a 
kind described on page 28: 

" They are generally from twenty to thirty feet long, and 
wide in proportion ; they are built very sharp for the purpose 
of sailing or rowing fast. About six or eight feet of the stem 
are occupied by the tent, in the inside of which are blinds to 
let down as occasion requires. A cockpit is behind for the 
cockswain to steer in. He is styled captain, and has entire 
command of the boat. The negroes, while pulling, took off 
their hats and jackets; they appeared quite merry and sang 
all the way. The chorus of their principal song was, 

Good neger make good massa." 

As Mr. Glen owned a plantation in Demerara, we will 
observe this kind of property as we sail southward. 


" Shortly, the river flows perfectly straight for ten miles to 
Diamond Point. The scenery is picturesque and uniform. 
The plantations on either side are surveyed and laid out in 
grants or allotments, of five hundred acres, by the Dutch 
West India Company. They have a frontage of one hundred 
roods, and a depth of seven hundred and fifty. A ditch ex- 
tends around four sides to effect drainage if the land is un-* 
duly wet, or to shield against inundation from the spring 
tides, making each plantation an island, and demanding a 
bridge on each side which must be painted white that it may 
be discerned at night. Up these trenches or canals go punts 
or flat-bottomed boats to carry off" for sale the products of 
the estate; they will each carry twenty hogsheads of sugar 
with facility. Coffee and plantain are the other prominent 
products in the beginning of the nineteenth century. The 
dwelling house is close to the river with a wharf, or landing 
place, in front. The wheels of the mills turn by wind, water, 
or cattle power" (pp. 29-31). "At the aristocratic Rey- 
nestein estate which we pass, there is a walk of fruit trees 
nearly a mile long consisting of orange, lime, lemon, mammy- 
apple, sour sop, cocoanut, and wild cherry trees." 

Continuing up the river in Mr. Bolingbroke's boat we 
observe that civilization diminishes and life grows simpler 
and wilder. After perhaps forty miles we reach Miribi 
Creek which, on the right, enters the Demerara, and on this 
creek James Glen lived as a hermit although Bolingbroke 
does not mention him. We will now turn our ear to Mr. 
Edmonstone who, in 1808, described Glen, his neighbor, as 

" He is a native of Glasgow, in Scotland, and came to this 
colony many years ago as mate in a merchant ship. He was 
then a stout young man not more than twenty years of age 
and full of enterprise and speculation. The novelty and 
beauty of the New World delighted him and the lovely scenes 
of nature in this country bent his mind on settling among 
them. He visited most of the plantations which then existed 
and, gaining knowledge in a small way from his observations 
and questions, he at length determined to apply to the prin- 
cipal owner of this colony — for at that time no governor 


was appointed from Holland — and a good tract of land was 
allotted for him. ... In seven years he was seated on his 
own plantation in the midst of fine crops which filled his 
pockets with money and with negroes enough to work the 
property. At the end of twenty years he was considered 
a man well to do in the world" {Review, pp. 538, 539). 
But financial reverses came. 

Thanks to the Review, pp. 544-546, we have another 
glimpse of Mr. Glen through a book, The Life and Labours 
of John Wray. The author was a Dissenter, and a Pioneer 
Missionary sent out from London. In his diary he designates 
old Mr. Glen as the " Swedenborgian Hermit," and he visited 
him on March 15, 1813. He found him humbly clad, stand- 
ing at the door of his hut. We now take up his narrative: 

" We sat down in the shade, under a large silk-cotton tree, 
and conversed some time on religious subjects. Saying he 
was much pleased with the missionary and Bible Reports 
I had sent him, he told me to read the Bible by Swedenborg's 
works. After some conversation, he said, 'Do you read 
Greek? ' ' A little, sir,' I replied, ' but only the New Testa- 
ment.' He said, ' I read that only. Have you got a Greek 
Testament? ' ' Yes, sir, I have three.' ' Do you read Hebrew? ' 
'Yes.' 'Have you a Hebrew Bible?' 'Yes, sir.' I was now 
qualified to enter his hut. He made me a present of a very 
beautiful Psalter, to read Hebrew with him. Possessing 
Parkhursfs Greek Lexicon, he requested me to lend him the 
one in Hebrew, which he had not seen, and also Campbell's 
translation of the New Testament. This eccentric character 
understood Latin, Greek, Hebrew, English, French, Dutch, 
and German, and was familiar with divinity, law, physic, and 
other subjects. He had an extensive acquaintance with the 

At sixteen years of age Glen had matriculated at the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow and he had certainly labored faithfully 
at his studies. As a Bible student he would care for Greek 
and Hebrew, as a Swedenborg student he would care for 
Latin, as a resident for forty-three years in Demerara which 
still bore the imprint of Holland he would care for Dutch, 
as a correspondent of men in France he would care for their 


tongue; and he even knev»r Arabic, bequeathing his Bible in 
that language to a New-Church Society in England, where 
it is still preserved (Review, p. 568). 

Turning to the New-Church Monthly Observer, 1861, pp. 
138, 139, we find a letter, written by Mr. Glen on January 
16, 1808, in which he says: 

" A negro of Mr. Edmonstone's calls for this, going to the 
island; therefore can only say, if I die in half an hour, I 
can and will testify that the revelations of Swedenborg are 
infinitely more valuable than all the riches and honour of 
this short life, the value of which I certainly must know by 
knowing the want of them! " 

Picture him at last in a self-built hut thatched after the 
Indian fashion with palms and furnished with frugal sim- 
plicity. He is on the woodcutting estate of his old neighbor, 
Mr. Edmonstone. Another friend, not of our faith, was de- 
voted to care of the hermit and writes as follows: 

"For the last six months of Mr. Glen's life he had two 
of my most careful negroes constantly attending him and for 
the few days previous to his death two more of my most 
trusty men attended him. Mr. T. and myself saw him every 
few hours of the day all the time. He appeared to die 
without pain, and never uttered one word which could lead 
any person to suppose he had altered his opinion with respect 
to the persuasion he had professed for so many years; and 
we must therefore suppose that he is now reaping the fruits 
of his good works" (Review, pp. 566, 567). 

Thus passed to another life the man who publicly intro- 
duced the New Church into North America, who fostered it 
in South America, who helped in its first organization in 
Great Britain, and who, for more than thirty years, from his 
reception of it until his death, gave without stint of his sub- 
stance, his time, and his vitality for its sake. 



James Glen brought to Philadelphia his torch of truth. 
Who kindled their lamps from it, and transmitted its light 
abroad after his manner? We know to some extent how far 
the New Message warmed the feelings, softened the temper, 
quickened the conscience, sweetened the hearthstone, and 
smoothed the hard places in life for these eighteenth-century 
people ; and we know that God measures His children thereby. 
We will now chiefly watch the beacon lights extended from 
point to point and from generation to generation, revealing 
occasionally some noble trait in the light bearer. 

Francis Bailey (1744-1817), son of Robert and Margaret 
McDill Bailey, was Glen's first disciple. He was approach- 
ing forty years of age when he turned from the theology of 
the Genevan reformer to that set forth by the Swedish seer. 
He had been an elder in the Pine Street Presbyterian Church 
in Philadelphia; but now Glen's lectures on Scriptural sym- 
bolism had aroused his interest, and soon after there fell 
into his hands some works of Swedenborg sent on to Phila- 
delphia for the Scotchman after his departure. These Bailey 
eagerly read, and he sent to Hindmarsh in England for 
additions. He had married Eleanor Millar, a maiden eleven 
years his junior, who now warmly accepted the new faith with 
her husband, and their home became a little center for re- 
ligious reading and conversation and for circulating the 
good tidings among friends (see Neiv Jerusalem Church 
Repository for January, 1818, p. 326). He was printer in 


1784 to the State of Pennsylvania, but desired a larger field. 
President Washington says of him on January 25, 1790: * 

"A Mr. Francis Bailey, introduced by Messrs. Scott and 
Hartley of Pennsylvania and Mr. ^Tiite of Virginia, offered 
a paper, in the nature of a Petition, setting forth a valuable 
discovery he had made of marginal figures for notes, certifi- 
cates, etc., which could not by the ingenuity of man be 
counterfeited — requesting I would appoint some person to 
hear and examine him on the subject; that if the facts stated 
by him should appear well founded, he might (being a printer 
of Philadelphia) have the printing of all that sort of the 
public business for which this discovery should be found 
useful — and which he would do on as good terms as any 
other printer, independent of the discovery above mentioned, 
all the advantage he should expect from which being to obtain 
a preference." 

In the meantime Bailey was consecrating his knowledge 
of the art of printing by enlarging his field, and publishing 
in 1787 A Summary of the Heavenly Doctrines which he 
distributed gratuitously. This was the first silent message 
by type representing our faith which was sent out from the 
western continent. Other small works following were freely 
distributed to colleges and libraries (See his daughter's letter 
in The Neivchurchman, vol. i, pp. 70-73). 

Francis Bailey in 1789 issued an invitation for subscrip- 
tions to his coming edition of The True Christian Religion 
(See pp. 77, 539 in vol. i. of The New Churchman). Fifty 
names were secured including those of our magnificently 
self-sacrificing financier, Robert Morris, and our wonderful, 
many-sided Benjamin Franklin, who had shown himself a 
master printer in 1723, and whose hand press is still proudly 
exhibited in Boston. Franklin was already an octogenarian. 
His copy of the True Christian Religion told him in No. 792 
that man's soul is not ether or a mere breath of air; and it 
declared that man exists hereafter in a substantial spiritual 
body, that he has sight, hearing, speech; and that death is 
not the extinction of life, but its continuation, and only a 

* Diary of George Washington from 1789 to 1791. Edited by Benson J. Lossing, 
N. Y., 1870, p. 74. 


passage across. In 1729, in the composition of an epitaph 
when a young man of twenty-three, Franklin had written 
intelligently on the relation of the material body to the soul. 















Franklin had already reacted strongly against his own 
extreme free-thinking Dissertation on Liberty and Necessity, 
Pleasure and Pain, written when he was nineteen. He was 
seventy-eight at the time of Glen's visit, and had expressed 
his hesitation at receiving the Bible as wholly from heaven 
because of recorded incidents like the killing of Sisera by 
Jael. He was past eighty when his subscription for the True 
Christian Religion was obtained through John Young, the 
man who afterward sat long on the bench and held the scales 
of justice with scrupulous and enlightening impartiality. 
Franklin, three years after receiving Swedenborg's crowning 
work was questioned regarding his own faith, and he replied: 

"Here is my creed. I believe in one God, the creator 
of the universe. That he governs it by his Providence. That 
he ought to be worshipped. That the most acceptable offer- 
ing we can render to him is doing good to his other children. 
That the soul of man is immortal, and will be treated with 
justice in another life respecting its conduct in this. . . . 
As to Jesus of Nazareth, my opinion of whom you particu- 
larly desire, I think his system of religion and morals the 
best the world ever saw or is like to see; but I apprehend 
it has received various corrupting changes, and I have, with 


most of the present Dissenters in England, some doubts as to 
his Divinity; ... I see no harm, however, in its being be- 
lieved, if that belief has the good consequence, as probably 
it has, of making his doctrines more respected and ob- 
served. . . ." * 

Bailey's name heads a list appended as witnesses to Frank- 
lin's last will and testament in 1790. The two men were 
brother printers and good friends, sharing Philadelphia as 
a home for twenty-five years. 

Subscriptions to the True Christian Religion were not 
adequate to the cost. Bailey, with his characteristic disin- 
terestedness in the cause of religion, assumed the burden of 
the deficit, issuing one thousand copies largely at his own 
expense (See Hindmarsh's Rise and Progress, p. 71; The 
Newchurchman, vol. i, pp. 539, 540). In 1795 he wrote 
Robert Carter, the Virginian, of persecutions experienced 
because of adhesion to his new faith; and in 1800, having 
met with great financial losses, he removed from Philadelphia 
to Lancaster, Pennsylvania [New Jerusalem Magazine, vol. 
XV, p. 74; New Jerusalem Magazine new series, vol. xvi, p. 
290) . He was called to the other life in 1817. 

Would you care to visit the spot where lies the discarded 
garment of clay which Mr. Bailey wore while here, and 
which he has forgotten for a hundred years? Go with us 
on the centennial of his transition, 1917. In the interim 
between sessions of the General Convention, at Philadelphia, 
we are conducted hither by Mr. Ezra Hyde Alden on May 
20. The grave is near Lansdowne, just west of the city, and 
the air is full of serene tranquillity. The neighboring oak 
trees, strong in their hold on the earth and in their power of 
resistance, remind us of Mr. Bailey's tenacious grasp on 
the elements of true strength. The verdure, flooded with 
sunshine, is alive with birds, as Mr. Bailey's mind, luminous 
with spiritual light, was alive with beautiful thoughts. We 
note the robin, " giving thanks for abundant supplies," and 
the song sparrow which the Bible tells us finds a nest for 
herself near the altar of God; the other birds are cheerful 

* Franklin's Autobiography, edited by John Bigelow in three volumes. Lip- 
pincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1875. See vol. iii, pp. 289, 364, 365, 459, 460, 489. 


in attire — the blackbird, who would be sombre except for 
his red wings, the meadow lark with a gay yellow breast, and 
the woodpecker, sometimes called the flicker, with pretty 
golden wings. 

The grave is on land once occupied by the Upper Darby 
Society of the New Jerusalem, and we are shown the site of 
its former chapel for worship whose dimensions, thirty by 
fifty feet, are outlined by low, well-set stones. In the shifting 
of population the world has drifted away from this imme- 
diate region, so that it is not directly on any road and is a 
good place for meditation. 

A small stone on the edge of the churchyard is commemo- 
rative of the printing-press missionary whose dust lies be- 
neath. The headstone bears the following inscription: 

Francis Bailey, the first American New Churchman, 1784. The 
first American publisher of the Writings of Emanuel Swedenborg, 
1787. A bright example of active love and of doing good to others. 

On the footstone we find the following: " F. B., Ter 
Sepulium, Requiescat in Pace. J. H. J., 1863." 

Other graves of followers of our faith are near, and we 
read the names of Da Charms, Sellers, and Tyson. Quaint 
lines are on the commemorative marble here and there — in- 
scriptions telling us of happy hearthstones and prayerful 
mothers : 

Remember, wife, our happy days 
When in the grave my body lays. 
My spirit rests with God on high 
Where you may meet me by-and-by. 

Farewell to my child who is left behind, 
May God direct his youthful mind. 

The preservation of this ground, dear for its chapel and 
other associations, is pleasant to see. In the New-Church 
Messenger of October 27, 1915, is the account of a memorial 
service for the Society, conducted by the Rev. Charles Harvey 
of Philadelphia, who spoke appropriately of the Society's 
purpose and work. Reminiscences from the Sellers and Kent 
families testified to the loving devotion of early parishioners, 
and a little Kent granddaughter named Rosamond unveiled 


a massive granite memorial stone suitably inscribed and elo- 
quent of the past. 

Philip Morin Freneau (1752-1832) was a co-student with 
James Madison and Aaron Burr at Princeton University. 
After graduation his spirited Revolutionary War verses 
stirred the patriots. He also wrote a poem entitled The True 
Christian Religion, for which I vainly searched the Congres- 
sional, the Widener, and the Boston libraries. It was dis- 
covered in the Cambridge town library in a three-volume 
edition of his writings together with his biography. The 
sought-for poem first appeared in Bailey's Freeman's Jour- 
nal on October 4, 1786, followed in the issue of October 
25, by a column advertisement. It was reprinted in 1788 by 
the Historical Association of Princeton, which published 
the three-volume edition of his works. Extracts are given 


The True Christian ReHgion 
In this choice work, with wisdom penned, we find 
The noblest system to reform Mankind, 
Rold truths confirmed that bigots have denied, 
By most perverted, and which some deride. 
Here, truths divine in easy language flow, 
Truths long concealed, that now all climes shall know. 

Then slight — ah, slight not, this instructive page 
For the mean follies of a dreaming age: 
Here to the truth, by Reason's aid aspire. 
Nor some dull preacher of romance admire: 
See One, Sole God, in these convincing lines, 
Reneath whose view perpetual daylight shines; 
At whose Command all worlds their circuits run, 
And night, retiring, dies before the sun ! 

Francis Bailey handed down the light of the New Church 
to his descendants. His attractive daughters brought sons- 
in-law into the family who were of kindred faith and who 
became joint lamp-bearers with their wives, as they carried 
them on little migratory journeys to their new homes. 


Francis Bailey's daughter Abbe married John Hough 
James whose life began in 1800 and ripened into that of 
an octogenarian. The New Church had been introduced 
into the bridegroom's home, Urbana, in 1825 {New Jerusalem 
Messenger, vol, xlvii, p. 201). The Jameses contributed very 
generously to its continuance and founded the movement for 
3ie Urbana New-Church University. The Silver family have 
seen Mrs. Abbe Bailey James and have often recalled with 
pleasure her large-hearted hospitality. Her daughter Ger- 
trude married Henry Mayer Niles, whose surviving children 
constitute a New-Church group at Toledo, Ohio, and they 
are kinsmen of the Nileses who have enriched the Societies 
of Laporte, Indiana, and of New York. 

Another child of Abbe Bailey James, Captain John 
Henry James, made the acquaintance of Harriet Hall 
Lynch, a student at the Urbana University; and at twenty- 
nine he went to Brampton, Ontario, to claim her as his bride 
in marriage at her father's home. The Jameses' wedded 
life was spent largely in Urbana, several children gathered 
around their hearthstone, and she lived beyond the Biblical 
three score and ten. 

Through the James-Lynch marriage came another Abbe 
Bailey James, who married Professor Lewis Field Hite, then 
presiding over Greek and Latin courses in the Urbana Uni- 
versity. His Virginia ancestry dates back to 1710. His 
father discovered the New Church through a hostile article 
in the New York Observer; he differed at once from it, fol- 
lowed the matter up, and ended in Church membership. Pro- 
fessor Hite was ordained into the New-Church ministry the 
very year of his marriage, 1893, and is now (1920) Professor 
of Philosophy in our Cambridge Theological School, and is 
Managing Editor of the New-Church Review. 

Here is a New-Church genealogical ladder; I never record 
one of less than five runsis. 

Francis Bailey married Eleanor Millar. 
Abbe Bailey married John Hough James. 
John Henry James married in 1863 Harriet Hall 


iv. Abbe Bailey James married in 1893 Lewis Field Hite. 
V. Ensign Hugh Maury Hite of Harvard has been flying 
over France in the Aviation Corps in the World War. Harriet 
James Hite, a cum laude alumna of Radcliffe, is (1919) in- 
structress in Spanish in the Urbana University. These young 
people are great-great-grandchildren of Francis Bailey, the 
first American light-bearer for the New Church, who was 
born in 1745. 

Frederick E. Eckstein was another wooer drawn to Francis 
Bailey's home, marrying his daughter Jane. Frederick's 
father, John Eckstein, was bom in Germany in 1736, being 
four years old when Frederick the Great came to the throne, 
and remaining in Berlin more than forty years. Young Eck- 
stein grew up to become a sculptor and his ability was recog- 
nized by His Majesty, who gave him commissions covering 
many years for the execution of work to adorn the royal 

What led John Eckstein, sculptor also to the King's suc- 
cessor, to quit Germany for a country of political self-de- 
termination? He brought his family to Philadelphia probably 
about the year 1790, where he is described by Mr. Condy- 
Raguet as a sympathetic member of the group of New-Church 
disciples. His son, Frederick Eckstein, with his wife, Jane 
Bailey Eckstein, was living in Cincinnati in 1826 and taught 
modeling to Hiram Powers, who lighted, in Cincinnati, his 
spiritual torch of truth which he never allowed to grow dim 
during the thirty-six years of his life abroad and who was 
baptized by Rev. Thomas Worcester in 1850 [New Jerusalem 
Messenger, vol. xxv, p. 438). Sons-in-law came into the 
Eckstein family as follows: 

Alexander Kinmont, who married Mary, daughter of Fred- 
erick E. and Jane Bailey Eckstein, was bom in 1799 near 
Montrose, eastern Scotland. His parents were devout Pres- 
byterians, living in a century when the kirk was militant, 
and the conservative Old Lights accused the liberal New 
Lights of an attempt "to jostle Christ out of His Church." 
Barrie, in his humorous, pathetic, and whimsical way, has 
given us glimpses of this in his Auld Licht Idylls, and his 
Window in Thrums. Alexander Kinmont entered St. Andrews 


at Glasgow at nineteen, and carried off first prizes in Greek, 
Geometry, and Latin, conversing with ease in the latter, and 
gaining a valuable scholarship. Transferring after three 
years to Edinburg University, he studied philosophy and 
theology; but questioning the prevailing tenets, he narrowly 
escaped agnosticism. 

An ardent friend of free institutions, and living near the 
alluring sea, young Kinmont abruptly sailed for New York 
in 1823. Finding no employment and with an exchequer 
alarmingly low, he walked to Baltimore and on to Bedford, 
Pennsylvania. Here he at once secured the Principalship of 
its Classical Academy where the brilliant scholar became the 
successful teacher. 

And now came a turn in his life when the skeptical views 
in his mind and the gloomy feelings in his heart were grad- 
ually dispersed by a knowledge of the Arcana by Sweden- 
borg. He opened it reluctantly, read it carefully, gradually 
recognized its worth, and became thoroughly convinced of 
the inspiration from God of the Scriptures. After four years, 
he went in 1827 to Cincinnati, and became not only instructor 
in higher secular branches, but a live lay teacher of the 
New-Church doctrines for the remaining years of his life. 
His favorite authors were Swedenborg, Plato, Homer, Tacitus, 
Cicero, Bacon, St. Augustine, and Milton in Paradise Lost 
apart from its theological dogmas. 

In 1829 he married Mary Eckstein and was called to the 
higher world seven years later. At the Cincinnati General 
Convention in 1857 Mrs. Kinmont presented to the Rev. 
Abiel Silver a copy of her husband's work of three hundred 
and fifty-five pages, published by U. P. James of Cincinnati 
in 1839, entitled Twelve Lectures on the Natural History 
of Man, and the Rise and Progress of Philosophy. It is ac- 
companied by a biographical sketch of the author written by 
one of his pupils, whence m_aterial for this chapter has been 

Alexander Kinmont's daughters. Misses Eleanor and Jane, 
came pleasantly into my life on Sunday" afternoon, June 21, 
1908. After services in the little Glendale, Ohio, chapel 
situated in a grove; after simple, heartfelt worship and an 


impressive sermon by the Rev. Louis G. Hoeck, a few of the 
worshippers were invited to the Kinmont house near by. We 
sat on the generous porch festooned by vines and fragrant 
with flowers, and listened to Browning's Saul effiectively ren- 
dered by the minister. Then we entered the old family man- 
sion, and the aunt of the family, Miss Frances Eckstein, 
showed us interesting bas-reliefs of sacred subjects made by 
her Prussian Eckstein grandfather, sculptor to King Frederick 
the Great; we saw also, the precious family Bible bound in 
red morocco in which grandmother Eleanor Millar Bailey 
devoutly read daily in the olden time. Miss Frances, born 
in 1815, lost her sight at eighty, but resolutely learned the 
alphabet of touch, and at ninety-nine grasped current news 
in periodicals and daily papers. She celebrated her birth- 
day with a festive reception and attended a suffrage meeting 
the next day. She was spirited on this, my second visit, and 
lived to be a centenarian. 

Another wooer came into Frederick Eckstein's home and 
married the daughter Charlotte. Daniel Thuun, like his 
father-in-law, was born in Germany. We first hear of him 
in 1803 at Philadelphia, a neighlDor and warm friend of 
the English Rev. William Hill who translated Swedenborg's 
Apocalypsis Explicata into English in six octavo volumes for 
publication in London. This work Thuun gratuitously tran- 
scribed for preservation in case Hill's original niss. should 
be lost at sea. Thuun, formerly an extensive merchant, was 
now zealous in his religious faith and cooperated in 1815 
in the organized work of the Central Convention. He is 
described by a coworker as being in 1841 " an aged gentle- 
man" {New Jerusalem Magazine, vol. xliv, p. 178; New 
Churchman, vol. i, pp. 163, 165). 

Miss Margaret Gary gives us another glimpse. She dis- 
covered Swedenborg in 1796 in Boston, and in her subse- 
quent visits to her fourteen brothers and sisters scattered 
about the country she visited many New-Church people. In 
her autograph private letters lying before me addressed to 
Mrs. Henry A. Worcester she describes the Thuun hospi- 
tality as whole-souled and sympathetic. 

A new and interesting element now came into Thuun's 


life which deflected his outward path and gave him pictur- 
esque experiences. He made the acquaintance, ripening into 
warm cooperation, with a son of Gen. J. R. Steiger of Na- 
poleon's army. Baron Steiger came from Switzerland 
bringing several hundred compatriots with him. He pur- 
chased a thousand or more acres in Athens County, on Little 
Federal Creek, southern Ohio, about forty miles west 
from Marietta. Here, having considerable wealth, he at- 
tempted to establish a baronial home in the wilderness and 
here he planted his Swiss colony. 

We first hear of the titled Swiss pioneer in 1821, through 
a letter from the Rev. Holland Weeks who has given up his 
"darling Calvinistic doctrines," who has been excommuni- 
cated in 1820 from his former church at Abington because 
of Swedenborgian heresy, and has been ordained into the 
New Church. Weeks, in his communication to the New 
Jerusalem Messenger, vol. xxx, p. 177, tells of a letter from 
Thuun (misprinted Thuren) announcing Steiger's arrival in 
Philadelphia, his discovery of Swedenborg's teachings, the 
acceptance of them by his wife and himself, and his de- 
termination to make the New Church the religion of his 
Ohio Swiss colony. He is contemplating the New-Church 
ministry for his son, and Thuun wishes him to be trained 
by Mr. Weeks. The plan did not come to fruition, the young 
Swiss apparently deciding to remain a layman. In 1822, in 
the Journal of the General Convention, page 17, appears a 
letter from the Baron written at Steiger s Rest, as follows: 

"I have formed a new settlement of Swiss emigrants and 
I shall admit no other than sober, orderly, and well disposed 
people. All these I intend to introduce to the New Jerusalem. 
For this purpose I have concluded to erect a place of wor- 
ship on my ground." 

Accompanying this letter is a declaration of belief in the 
doctrines signed by twenty-one persons; all of whom, except 
two, are Swiss. 

Another testimonial comes from Rev. John Randolph 
Hibbard who was bom only four miles from Steiger s Rest. 
In his youth he had seen the aged Baron once or twice and 
he speaks of the brick church on a hill where Mr. Thuun 


served as chaplain to the family ("Reminiscences of a Pio- 
neer " signed " H " in New Jerusalem Messenger for 1883, 
vol. xliv, pp. 207, 208). This place of worship on Thuun's 
own estate recalls New-Church services I have heard in three 
private chapels on grounds of the owner's residence: in 
1878, in that of Rev. John Worcester at Intervale, New 
Hampshire; in 1880, in that of Mr. Simon H. Greene at 
River Point, Warwick, Rhode Island; and in 1904, in that 
of Mr. Arthur Astor Carey on Little Harbor Road near Ports- 
mouth, New Hampshire. 

We have now traced the radiating light of the New Church 
in Philadelphia down through Francis Bailey's descendants 
— the Jameses, Nileses, Hites, Ecksteins, Kinmonts, and 
Thuuns. Mr. Bailey's daughter. Miss Margaret, after shar- 
ing her father's religious zeal, caring for his old age, and 
leaving us valuable reminiscences, carried her virgin lamp 
to her final home, Urbana. 

Miss Hetty Barclay was also one of those good virgins 
who kept her lamp trimmed and burning and, using it as a 
radiating instrumentality, carried it from Philadelphia 
westerly to Bedford, Pennsylvania, in 1789, for the further 
illumination of that region and for the guidance of her own 
footsteps. Hindmarsh says of her seven years' residence 
until her death in Bedford: 

" There, by her intelligent and spiritual conversations and 
a variety of Swedenborg's works which she took with her, 
she laid the foundation of a New-Church Society which, 
so long as it existed, had reason to bless her memory." We 
recall that Alexander Kinmont discovered the Arcana in 
1823 in Bedford. We find Miss Barclay of Bedford in 
1792 writing of her own desire for baptism in her letter to 
her sister Polly in Philadelphia, and sending a communica- 
tion over the Alleghany Mountains and the Laurel Hills to 
Judge John Young at Greensburg. She speaks of her Phila- 
delphia visit and of the gatherings there " to read the works 
of our enlightened Swedenborg"; of her new possession of 
five small volumes in German — including Heaven and Hell 
and Earths in the Universe — which will be most acceptable 


to a few persons who cannot read English ; and of her assured 
feeling of real joy that there will be formed a Bedford So- 
ciety which will not be afraid nor ashamed to acknowledge 
publicly their reception of the New Jerusalem doctrine. She 
is receiving the New Magazine of Knowledge, a monthly peri- 
odical concerning heaven and hell founded in London in 
1790, and desires copies of all other Church literature 
{Newchurchman, vol. i, pp. 401, 402; Hindmarsh's Rise 
and Progress, p. 29). She has been classed as the first 
woman in the world to accept our faith. 

John Young was, according to available data, the bride- 
groom at the first New-Church wedding in the world; he 
and Miss Maria Barclay solemnizing their marriage in unity 
of religious faith on November 12, 1794 {Newchurchman, 
vol. i, bottom of page 77). Priority of claim in this respect 
has been made for the Hill-Duche marriage which really 
ranks second in time, occurring, as their warm friend, Mar- 
garet Gary, states, in ]797 {New Jerusalem Magazine, vol. 
XXX, p. 393). 

John Young was born in Glasgow in 1762. As he grew up 
little did he suspect that another Scotch lad named James 
Glen, twelve years his senior, was in the same town and was 
to be his spiritual benefactor in a far-away land. Thus do 
ships pass in the night to meet finally in the same haven. 
John was one of five children " all sedulously and piously 
instructed in the Solifidian dogmas of the antiburgher 
school." These dogmas, as the Latinized adjective suggests, 
teach this: "that faith alone without works is sufficient for 
justification." Swedenborg, in denying this tenet, said a 
good word for the Scotch laity as turning in part away from 
it {True Christian Religion No. 812). 

John Young's father was a prosperous cloth merchant in 
Glasgow until he became security for a large amount in be- 
half of his brother William. Both went down in the financial 
crash, the former surviving it only ten days. John was at 
this time in Edinburg studying law with Waher Scott's 
father, "a man conspicuous for methodical and thorough 
industry." Waher became very proud of his pastoral ances- 


try through his father — descended from the " Border lairds " 
who were sheep-farmers and lively marauders. Little Walter 
was seven years old when John Young was privileged to 
study law under the man with the picturesque forbears. 

Law studies were abruptly terminated through the finan- 
cial disaster to the Youngs; and John, after procuring posi- 
tions of self-support for his brothers, emigrated to Philadel- 
phia with, it is affirmed, only one English shilling in his 
pocket. He was, however, accomplished, and attracted the 
attention of Mr. Duponceau, a notary public, and sworn in- 
terpreter of foreign languages. The latter accepted John 
and certified later to the great and valuable services ren- 
dered by him in legal matters and in the French language. 
Passing on to the law office of Judge Wilson, John Young 
was finally admitted to the bar and practised for many years 
until his promotion to the bench in 1805. 

A sharp turn, fatal to any remnants of Solifidianism in 
John Young's mind, came to him soon after his arrival in 
Philadelphia. He was impressed in 1784 with the new mes- 
sage of the spirit that fell from the lips of his fellow-country- 
man, James Glen. From the latter Mr. Young borrowed the 
first volume of the Arcana in Latin, read it with attention, 
and ripened into deep conviction of its truth. Possessing 
himself through London of the True Christian Religion in 
1788, he cooperated vigorously with Francis Bailey in gain- 
ing subscribers for its publication. 

Lawyer Young, the spiritual light-bearer, removed in 1789 
to Greensburg, a little southeast of Pittsburg. He practised 
his vocation according to his religion: 

"He was ever careful to avoid the prosecution of an 
unjust cause ; and when he was satisfied of the entire want of 
justice in a client's cause he would refuse his professional 
skill and counsel under the strongest temptations from pe- 
cuniary inducements. In every important case when satisfied 
of its justice he secretly addressed himself in prayer to Him 
who is Justice and Judgment itself." 

An impeachment against him by rival lawyers " was treated 
as it deserved, by the legislature's throwing it under the 
table." A subsequent attempt by them proved abortive. 


Heaven prospered him and his yearly income reached five 
thousand dollars. He gave liberally to neighboring churches, 
not forgetting his own. He corresponded extensively with 
coreligionists abroad and cultivated their acquaintance as 
visitors here. When traveling in Europe, he took his precious 
New-Church books for private reading and possible distri- 
bution; and he defended them with energy and effect in 
periodicals at home. 

Romance came into his life. Law collections and agencies 
took him frequently to Philadelphia where he wooed and 
won Miss Maria Barclay, an orphan living under the warm 
roof-tree of Francis Bailey. As there was in 1794 no New- 
Church ordained ministry in the western hemisphere, these 
coreligionists employed as officiating clergyman for their 
wedding the Rev. Nicholas Collin, who filled the pulpit 
for forty-five years (1786-1831) of the Old Swedes' Church 
in Philadelphia. The building which was dedicated in 1700, 
is the oddest structure, with a pronounced elongated effect 
in height; its very narrow front terminating in a spire resting 
on a tall slender base. The apse is hexagonal, and the pedi- 
ments of the steep-roofed front and transepts are equilateral 
triangles. Within is a wood carving brought over by early 
colonists which represents animated cherubic heads with out- 
spread wings, and a Swedish Biblical inscription below. 

Judge Young and his wife might well be interested in 
Pastor Collin's letters of 1801 regarding Swedenborg and 
his father published in the Philadelphia Gazette for August 
5, 8, and 10. Pastor Collin had been a student at Emanuel 
Swedenborg's Alma Mater, the Upsala University of Sweden, 
and 'was familiar with his Arcana, Heaven and Hell, and 
minor works, although not professing his sentiments. In 
1766, when twenty years of age, he went to Stockholm and 
waited on Swedenborg at his house. They conversed for 
nearly three hours. Collin had heard of Swedenborg's inter- 
course with those of the other world, which was always direct, 
and never through mediums or any instrumentality, and 
he asked his host for an interview with his departed brother. 
Swedenborg questioned him as to his motives, but did not 
consider them sufficiently cogent to justify a communication. 


saying that God, for good and wise purposes, had separated 
the world of spirits from ours. Mr. Collin's three years in 
Stockhohn gave him opportunity to testify in many ways 
to the excellencies and attainments of the Swedish seer, and 
he comments as follows: 

"Swedenborg was universally esteemed for his various 
erudition in mathematics, mineralogy, etc., and for his 
probity, benevolence, and general virtue. Being very old 
[78] when I saw him, he was thin and pale, but still retained 
traces of beauty and had something very pleasing in his 
physiognomy, and a dignity in his tall and erect stature." 

Pastor Collin also comments in laudatory terms of Sweden- 
borg's father, Jesper Swedberg, who was appointed in 1696 
superintendent of the Swedish churches in America, London 
and Portugal, and was made Bishop of Skara in 1702 by 
Charles XII. A letter from distressed Swedes in America 
asking for spiritual aid was referred to Swedberg by His 
Majesty, who said, " The means shall be provided, and they 
shall have clergymen, God's Word, and the necessary books, 
only select for me useful clergymen." Whereupon, Anders 
Rudman, Jonas Auren and Eric Bjork were selected and sent. 
The latter served indef atigably for sixteen years and his name 
is on a window in the Old Swedes' Church in Wihnington, 
Delaware, which I have visited. The building was dedicated 
in 1699 (From carefully sifted data including Collin's letters 
collected in Sweden by Prof. Rudolph L. Tafel and printed 
under the title. Documents concerning the Life and Character 
of Emanuel Sivedenborg, London, 1875. See vol. i, pp. 83, 
127-129; vol. ii, pp. 417-424). 

Mr. and Mrs. Young, after the closing marriage benedic- 
tion on their heads from Rev. Nicholas Collin, went to their 
Greensburg home. As years went on, eight little olive plants 
gathered around their table and happiness crowned their 
board. If Mrs. Young had ambitious pride it was gratified 
by her husband's appointment in 1805 as presiding judge 
of the tenth judicial district of Pennsylvania over an area 
comprising five counties, where he held office for thirty-one 
years. It was currently reported that Governor M'Kean 
gave him authority over the talented though turbulent bar. 


because of his firmness, integrity, and great legal acquire- 
ments, but he did not like his religion! 

Judge Young made six languages his servants. Latin was 
to him as English, he read Swedenborg in the original, and 
enjoyed the Bible version by Schmidius. He acquired Span- 
ish that he might greet his boy returning from South America, 
and the Tuscan tongue, that he might entertain Italian visi- 
tors; he was called the German Judge by the Germans. His 
knowledge of the tongue of Paris was praised by the French 
Duponceau; he loved the French review, La Nouvelle Jeru- 
salem, edited by Richer (see Newchurchman, vol. i, pp. 

John Adams tells us that, "as the Continental Congress, 
opening at Philadelphia in September, 1774, included per- 
sons of many creeds, a serious question arose as to the choice 
of clergyman for the opening prayer; whereupon Samuel 
Adams named Mr. Duche as a gentleman of piety and virtue. 
Congress consented and Mr. Duche, an Anglican clergyman, 
appeared in full pontificals." Appointed chaplain of Con- 
gress, he, who appropriated all his salary to the relief of 
soldiers' families, grew in popularity. 

But now came the parting of the ways; every man must 
rebel with the Colonies, or uphold the British king. Duche 
wrote to George Washington a letter urging him to retract; 
it was sharply rejected, and forwarded to Congress. Duche 
fled to England in 1777. 

The erroneous statement is often made that the opening 
prayer of the Continental Congress was made by the Rev. 
Jacob Duche, a New Churchman. He did indeed possess at 
that time a set of Swedenborg's works in Latin whose message 
was apparently unread. Now a light hidden under a bushel 
will no more illumine the mind than uncut wood in a forest 
will warm a hearthstone. But, when Mr. Duche went abroad, 
he learned the value of his own books. Robert Hindmarsh 
in his Rise and Progress, pp. 40, 41, tells us that, until there 
was distinctive organized worship in London for New Church- 
men, they attended Mr. Duche's Anglican services at the 
Orphan Asylum on Sunday mornings, and met at his house 


during several years for private conversation on our doc- 
trines in a truly delightful manner, receiving from Mr. 
Duche's lips " the most impressive lessons of instruction, and 
mutually interchanging sentiments of pure affection for the 
truth, and for one another." Mrs. John Adams praises the 
morning services. 

After the removal of the Congressional embargo on Tories, 
Duche returned to America in 1790. He identified himself 
with the New Church, and traveled with his wife, "through 
many parts, preaching the doctrines." They were called 
to the other life with but a brief interval between. 

A lover of Duche's noble daughter Esther did not come any 
too soon to furnish the orphaned girl a sheltered and beautiful 
home. The Rev. William Hill, an Anglican divine, but an 
eager advocate of the New Church who had, in 1794 pre- 
sented the Arcana to Harvard, took ship again from Eng- 
land in 1797 with romance in his heart. He had known Miss 
Duche in England for ten years and had won over her father 
to our faith. He had no need to convert the damsel to the 
New Church, for both she and her short-lived brother loved 
the religious faith of their parents. Miss Margaret Cary, 
of Boston, a disciple of Mr. Hill, describes him as tall and 
elegant, with clear complexion and bright blue eyes. Quaint 
pictures of Mr. and Mrs. Hill are given in the New-Church 
League Journal for April, 1917. (For Duche, see the 
Monthly Observer, 1857, vol. i, p. 79; New Jerusalem Maga- 
zine, 1866, vol. xxxviii, pp. 496, 561, 615). 

Daniel Lammot (1782-1877) is much associated with 
Philadelphia, although his lamp of truth caught the flame in 
Baltimore; and he kept it trimmed and burning under seven- 
teen of our presidents, from Jefferson to Hayes. Espousing 
our faith at twenty and dying a ripe nonogenarian, Lammot 
served as its staunch defender for seventy-five years. 

Wliat ancestral blood flowed in his veins? 

Daniel's grandfather, Jean Henri de la Motte, a Huguenot, 
was born in Paris in 1720, in the troublous times of little 
King Louis XV and he gladly fled to Switzerland, taking final 
refuge in America. Escaping religious persecution abroad 


he was also driven temporarily from his Maryland home by 
the hostile redskins. He resolutely clung to the new world 
and refused an offer of adoption for one of his four sons from 
his brother, General Nicholas de la Motte, who was here with 
the fleet of d'Estaing in our Revolutionary War. 

Daniel, bom in 1753, son of Jean Henri, lived in Balti- 
more, where he discovered the New Church. His son, Daniel 
2d, in endeavoring to convince his father of the "error of his 
ways," became himself converted and commenced laboring 
for the Church under Rev, John Hargrove in 1802. 

Daniel Lammot, Jr., the subject of our sketch, simplified 
the spelling of his family name. Successful in a large 
importing house, he married in 1806 a daughter of Paul 
Beck, a leading merchant of Philadelphia, and removed to 
that city in 1808. His name figures in early records, he 
became president of the Central Convention, and carried on 
an international correspondence on the subject nearest his 
heart. He had the French ease of expression and extended 
wide and courtly hospitality. Four children were born to 
him by his first wife, and nine by his second, Anna P. Smith. 
Of the thirteen sons and daughters, I knew eight, each dis- 
tinctly characteristic and interesting. 

Lammot sat to the artist Sully, familiar to us all by his 
delightful child-picture. The Torn Hat. Sully was known 
at home and abroad through training under Stuart and West, 
and his patrons ranged from Queen Victoria and Fanny 
Kemble to Thomas Jefferson and Daniel Lammot. Sully's 
portrait of the latter depicts him in the grace and elegance 
of his early years, with the white waistcoat, the ruffles, and 
the voluminous white neckcloth of the period. 

Mr. Lammot after seventy-three years in Maryland and 
Pennsylvania removed southward, and became for the re- 
maining twenty-t^vo years of his life "Father of the New 
Church in Delaware." But it must never be forgotten that 
his eldest daughter, Mrs. Margaretta Lammot du Pont, was 
its gracious godmother. She was his avant-courriere, pre- 
ceding him by thirty-one years in coming to Wilmington as 
a bride. Three other adult children also came hither before 
him bringing their lamps with them. 


William M. Chauvenet was a Philadelphia New Church- 
man, seven of whose autograph letters lie before me, written 
in 1837-1839, and addressed to his dearly esteemed friend, 
Rev. Henry A. Worcester of Bath, to whom he looked up as 
an ecclesiastical advisor, being conscientiously solicitous for 
the organization of the New Church according to the laws of 
spiritual order. He is corresponding with M. Edouard Richer 
at Nantes, on the Loire, who, in spite of childhood and youth 
contemporaneous with the tumultuous French Revolution and 
Napoleonic wars, lived to write books of serene spirituality. 
Chauvenet's letters reveal large-hearted hospitality. Church 
devotion, and parental loving pride in his son William at 

This Yale alumnus of 1840 was shortly after appomted 
Professor of Mathematics in the United States Navy, adding 
astronomy, navigation, and surveying in his subsequent 
position at Annapolis. His last years terminating in 1870, 
were spent in St. Louis, where he was Chancellor of the 
Washington University. Many years after his death, Presi- 
dent Taft, Charles J. Bonaparte, and others urged Congress 
successfully to a proper act of recognition of him by which 
a bronze tablet was placed at the entrance to the Naval 
Academy together with a portrait of him in bas-relief (see 
New-Church Messenger, pp. 475, 476, for June 11, 1919). 
Upon the tablet is the following inscription: 

William Chauvenet, Professor of Mathematics United 
States Navy and President of the Academic Board from 
1847 to 1850, largely through whose efforts and plan 
the naval academy was established and organized at 

Mr. W. M. Chauvenet, of St. Louis, son of the Naval 
Professor, has arrested our interest and attention by his 
notable front-page articles in the Messenger for October, 
1918, and for Mav, 1919, entitled, " And Simon Peter stood 
by the fire and warmed himself," and " The New Patriotism." 

We will now turn to a Swiss Presbyterian. Paulus 
Schlatter (1685-1748) lived in St. Gall, a pretty Swiss 
canton with much Alpine pasturage which we traverse in 


visiting Lake Constance. The forceful Roman Catholic 
Abbot lived in St. Gall, which was also the birthplace of 
Zwingli, the Protestant Reformer. The latter exercised much 
influence, and had laid down his Confession: 

" The Canonic Scriptures, the Word of God, given by the 
Holy Spirit, and set forth by the Prophets and Apostles, 
the most perfect and ancient of all philosophies, also contain 
perfectly all piety and the whole rule of life." 

Paulus Schlatter married a lady with a sonorous and 
interesting name, Magdalena Zollikofer, and their little son 
Michael, born in 1716, grew up under intelligent and pious 
influences. Michael was much in Holland and married a 
lady with a name that suggests Dutch nationality — Mar- 
garetta Van Schleidom. He allied himself with Protestantism 
and was sent by the Dutch Synods of Holland to represent 
the Reformed Church in America in 1746. He convened 
prominent clergy in Philadelphia, planned an organization, 
solicited pecuniary aid abroad, came back permanently in 
1752 bringing six ministers with him, became himself a 
clergyman, preaching earnestly, and also engaged extensively 
in Charity Schools {Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. xxiii, page 
24). He served as chaplain under the British government 
in our French and Indian wars, but courageously espoused 
the Colonial cause in 1777, was imprisoned, his spacious 
stone house at Chestnut Hill was plundered, and valuable 
family papers were lost. * 

Gerhard Schlatter, Michael's son, kept alive the patriotic 
war spirit, served as adjutant in the battles of Germantown, 
Princeton, and Brandywine; and, in spite of having two 
horses shot under him, lived until our wise nation-makers 
had completed the Federal Constitution in 1787. 

How did " Old Parson Schlatter," as the Reverend Michael 
was affectionately called, learn of the New Church? Tra- 
ditions, transmitted by the lips of his descendants, tell us that 
he used Swedenborg's works in the original as text-books in 
Latin for his boys. It must be remembered that he was 

* Life of Rev. Michael Schlatter, with full account of his travels and labors 
among the Germans, by Rev. H. Harbaugh, Lindsy and Blackiston. 375 pp. 
PhUadelphia, 1857. 



intimately associated with Holland where many of the Swede's 
writings, scientific and theological, were published, that he 
outlived Swedenborg by eighteen years, and that he was in 
Philadelphia during Glen's visit. 

William Schlatter (1784-1827), grandson of Michael and 
son of Gerhard, was the Father Bountiful of the Philadelphia 
New Church. He published at his own expense thousands of 
copies of Swedenborg's small doctrinal works, and we read 
that, being an extensive importing merchant in 1816, 
"through the medium of his regular business he has sent 
in his packing cases nearly two thousand books, large and 
small, to every quarter, especially to the West, reaching 
men of great independence and intelligence, who assured him 
that they would read and distribute the gifts" (Hindmarsh's 
Rise and Progress, pp. 268, 273). 

The Philadelphia New-Church Society, being unable to 
erect a suitable House of Worship, " Mr. Schlatter, with a 
liberality indicative of his ardent zeal in the cause, resolved 
in 1816 to undertake the construction of such an edifice out 
of his own private funds" {New Churchman, vol. i. p. 166). 
A picture of the completed building at the corner of Twelfth 
and George Streets, near Chestnut Street, may be seen in 
Odhner's Annals, p. 256. It was square, with arched doors 
and windows, and small oval apertures above. It was sur- 
mounted by a broad dome crowned by a small hexagonal 
lantern. Mention should be made of Mr. Schlatter's very 
extensive correspondence — fortunately preserved — with 
New Churchmen in various parts of the world. Let us follow 
the light he loved through his marriage with Catharine Vaughn 

Theophilus Parsons Chandler (1807-1886) who married 
Elizabeth the daughter of William and Catharine Schlatter 
had an ancestral story of color and incident pertaining to 
colonial life. He sprang from four generations of Duxbury, 
Massachusetts, Chandlers, beginning with Edmond (1588- 
1662), an English immigrant. 

The grandfather of Theophilus was Peleg Wadsworth 
Chandler (1735-1819), who married in 1762 Sarah Wins- 
low. According to tradition he gave her a wedding journey 


in an ox cart, and he truly did present her two chairs carved 
with his own jack-knife, which, as heirlooms, I have seen in 
Horace Chandler's house. The characteristic products of the 
early American craftsmen are more interesting than the soul- 
less outcome of the steam-turned lathe. Moreover, these 
chairs embody the ardor of a lover cherishing visions of a 
new home with his unparalleled Sarah. 

They adopted as a home New Gloucester, a town with a 
history north of Portland, Maine (see The New Gloucester 
Centennial, 1874, by T. H. Haskell, Portland). The Old 
Block House erected in 1753 was a fort and a church and a 
home all in one, with two swivel guns, twenty-five pounds of 
powder, and seventy-five pounds of lead. The building was 
of hewn pine, bullet proof, with oak door and narrow slot 
windows. Later, came better laws, a schoolhouse and a 
church. Into this town, in the days of its grim but growing 
idealism when striving for freedom, education and religion, 
came young Peleg and Sarah Chandler, who became charter 
church members and pioneers of Orthodoxy. Soon, Samuel 
Foxcroft, a Harvard graduate, was called as pastor, who 
should receive $400.00 salary, and $500.00 worth of shingles 
and boards for his house. I am afraid that at his consecra- 
tion there was no rigid prohibitory law to be enforced, 
because Parson Smith said that " it was a jolly ordination, and 
they lost sight of decorum." A Chandler and a Parsons bid 
off church pews together, little realizing that their descendants 
would worship in Boston and Brookline Churches of the New 

From the spacious dwelling house erected for Mr. and 
Mrs. Peleg Wadsworth Chandler, their son Peleg at eighteen 
went forth on his gray horse Rosinante for Rhode Island 
College, now called Brown. His father hoped that he had 
especial regard for God's glory and for his own soul. After 
graduation he married Esther, aged twenty-two, daughter 
of his neighbor, Isaac Parsons, Jr. 

Theophilus Parsons Chandler, son of Peleg and Esther, 
settled in Bangor, adopted the law, and was associated with 
Albert W. Paine. Later he married Elizabeth Schlatter, and 
made Brookline his home, opening his hospitable gates to the 


General Convention for a garden party which I recaU. His 
mother, Mrs. Esther Parsons Chandler, surviving her husband 
eighteen years, spent her last days with her son, bringing 
sunshine with her, and accepting New-Church baptism in 
1865 at ninety years of age. 

We first knew Mr. Schlatter's daughter, Mrs. Theophilus 
Chandler, in Wilmington, Delaware, as a guest of Mrs. Houns- 
field, to whom, in her characteristically demonstrative way, 
she brought " oceans of love." In my father's ministrations 
to Brookline we learned to esteem her warmly. I saw her 
last in 1892 in her own home. My household treasures were 
all in the invisible world; and there was in her welcome the 
cordial touch of the hand, the warm breath of hospitality, 
and the loving reminiscence of those dear to both of us. It 
was the year of her own transition to the better world. Her 
face, framed in silver curls, was beautiful and serene, illum- 
ined by the higher light from above. Her New-Church 
descendants continue the line, only we must remember that 
the head of the Schlatter line never heard of our faith, 
i. Paulus Schlatter married Magdalena Zollikof er. 
ii. Michael Schlatter married Margaretta Von Schlei- 

iii. Gerhard Richard Schlatter married ? 

iv. William Schlatter married Catherine Vaughn Lyon. 

V. Elizabeth Schlatter married Theophilus Parsons 

vi. Mary Chandler married Edwin A Gibbens. 

vii. Frances Vaughn Gibbens married George Copp 

viii. Herbert, Edwina, Lewis and Constance Warren, of 
Brookline, who have received the rite of confirmation, and 
three of whom have served overseas in the Great War, are 
great-great-great-great-great-grandchildren of Paulus Schlat- 
ter, the Swiss of St. Gall, born in 1685. 



I. The first Society for New-Church religious worship 
in the United States was organized in Baltimore in April, 
1792, with a score or more members. Prominent among them 
was Christian Kramer, who had rebelled against predesti- 
nation and other dogmas, had examined many creeds, and had 
narrowly escaped complete atheism. His clinging faith in a 
First Cause was as a glimpse of light. His casual remark 
to a friend that Swedenborg was " a wonderful writer, like- 
wise a madman " led to a reply that sent him in quest of the 
True Christian Religion. This book was accepted and brought 
him into clear, well-ordered thought. He belonged to the 
church militant and stood his ground permanently against 
misrepresentation and persecution. 

President George Washington made a tour of the United 
States early in 1793. Visiting Baltimore, he was presented 
by the New-Church Society with a copy of The Compendium 
of the New Church. An accompanying letter expressed their 
joy that the Holy Word is being spiritually fulfilled in our 
day, and they offered a warm tribute to the Chief Executive, 
expressing the " fervent aspiration of his faithful fellow- 
citizens and affectionate brethren " that the Lord Jesus, whom 
alone they acknowledged as " the True God and Eternal Life " 
would preserve him long to reign in the hearts of the people 
and finally to shine in the unfading mansions above. 

His Excellency in reply, after thanks, and the recognition 
of an over-ruling Providence in our national affairs, declared 
that every person might here worship God according to the 
dictates of his own heart, and he concluded as follows: 

"Your prayers for my present and future felicity are 
received with gratitude; and I sincerely wish, gentlemen, that 
you may, in your social and individual capacities, taste those 
blessings which a gracious God bestows upon the righteous " 


(For Kramer and Washington, see Hindmarsh's Rise and 
Progress of the New Church, pp. 150-155). 

The Rev. Philip CabeU of Virginia (1836-1904), who 
had large social facilities for knowing the people of his state, 
reports the statement made by a member of the Washington 
family that the General was during his later years a reader of 
Swedenborg's Writings {New Jerusalem Messenger, Ixii, 
page 75). 

II. Baltimore, in 1798, anticipated all sections of North 
and South America by witnessing the first ordination into the 
New-Church ministry, the candidates being John Hargrove and 
Ralph Mather. * Hargrove (1750-1839) brought with him 
at nineteen from Ireland the zeal of his race, and it is not 
strange that the fervor of the Methodist Church at Baltimore 
was congenial to him. After years of membership he was 
ordained into the ministry in 1795. Was some of Wesley's 
tenacity of purpose and moral courage infused into him? 
For it must be remembered that Wesley, always a member of 
the Church of England, had the nerve to cut Methodism loose 
in America, and to create Thomas Coke the first Methodist 
bishop in the world. Bishop Coke ordained Francis Asbury, 
and Bishop Asbury ordained John Hargrove, who preached 
until he began to read Swedenborg's Writings in order to 
refute them, but became convinced of their truth, and fully ac- 
cepted their message. Who ordained Mr. Hargrove into the 
New-Church ministry? We read in The Precursor, vol. ii, 
No. 42, page 290: 

"Mr. Hargrove was solemnly inducted into the sacred 
office of the New-Church ministry by persons duly appointed 
by the Society in their presence by the laying on of hands. 
To this origin all the ordinations into the New-Church Minis- 
try in the United States are to be traced." 

A second Methodist clergyman, the Rev. Adam Fonerden, 
discovered our faith in 1795. He brought a knowledge of 
Swedenborg to Daniel Lammot and his son. Adam Foner- 
den's son John (1804-1869), left fatherless at seventeen, 
gathered up the Swedenborg inheritance left him, and soon 

* For the first New-Church ordination in the world in 1788 in London, that 
of James Hindmarsh, father of Robert, see latter 's Rise and Progress, pp. 70, 71. 


began his half -century of devotion to the New Church. An 
early graduate of the Maryland University, and an earnest 
medical student, he became superintendent of the Maryland 
Hospital for the Insane, where his gentleness of spirit, ex- 
traordinary power of self-control, and quick intuition in 
emergencies made him ideal in service to disordered minds. 
We knew him in his palmy days, crowned with success in his 
well-equipped buildings, and happy in a field of service 
thickly strewn with thorns. 

Dr. Fonerden became physician to Mr. Johns Hopkins 
(1795-1873) who looked up to his scholarship, and admired 
his idealism; and the Doctor, in return, heartily appreciated 
the merchant's business ability. Both men were Union 
soldiers in the Civil War. Fonerden was an inspirer in the 
founding of the Johns Hopkins University with its Hospital, 
which I have heard Oxford professors speak of as the su- 
preme educational institution in America, their ideal being 
post-graduate training in science (see Rev. Willard G. Day 
on Fonerden and Hopkins in New-Church Messenger, March 
2, 1910, pp. 135, 136). 

Hargrove solidified the Baltimore Society, and gave forty- 
two devoted years to the Church. Judge Young came over 
the Alleghanies in 1803 to receive baptism from him, and 
made his own vocation a noble exponent of his religion for 
thirty-one years. Hargrove writes in very interesting detail 
of his own missionary journey of five hundred miles in 1806, 
of his stage-coach perils when crossing the mountains, of the 
warm hospitality of his friends including Judge Young, and 
adds: "I baptized seventy-eight souls" (Hindmarsh's Rise 
and Progress, page 187) . At the first meeting of the General 
Convention of the New Jerusalem at Philadelphia in 1817, he 
preached the sermon; he was appointed president of that body, 
and served ten years, although not continuously. 

III. The first New-Church Liturgy issued in America 
came forth from a Bahimore press under Samuel and John 
Adams in 1792. It contained a Calendar for daily Scriptural 
reading. Prayers, a Creed, Catechism, Forms for the Adminis- 
tration of the Sacraments, and Hymns by the Rev. Joseph 
Proud. Except that the prayers were for an American Presi- 


dent in place of King George III, the book was a reprint of 
the English Liturgy. The Massachusetts New-Church Union 
owns an American copy, with an autograph inscription by 
Rev. Willard Hinkley stating the cost of the edition as 
1600.00. And we read elsewhere that Counsellor Robert 
Carter of Nomany Hall, Lancaster County, Virginia, after 
emancipating nearly four thousand slaves, prepared to have 
one thousand copies of the Liturgy printed at his own expense 
for the use of the members of the New Church {New-church- 
man, voL i, page 400). 

IV. The first American New-Church periodical began 
its existence in Baltimore. It was a duodecimo of sixteen 
pages issued fortnightly, edited by John Hargrove, and 
printed by Warner and Hanna. Starting on August 1, 1801, 
it closed its career on October 31 of the same year. I have 
studied the copy in the library of the Massachusetts New- 
Church Union which bears at the head the autograph " Jno. 
Hargrove" in clear, bold chirography. It is entitled The 
Temple of Truth, and is described as " A Vindication of 
various passages and doctrines of the Holy Scriptures, lately 
impeached in a Deistical publication of Philadelphia entitled. 
The Temple of Reason."' 

The latter attempted by destructive criticism the disintegra- 
tion of the letter of Scripture, after the manner of Voltaire 
and Tom Paine, denying miracles, and searching for dis- 
crepancies. Mr. Hargrove, in righteous indignation, sent 
for publication in The Temple of Reason one defensive reply 
after another, which Mr. Driscoll declined to insert, while 
commenting upon them editorially in misleading fashion; 
whereupon Mr. Hargrove published the entire debate in his 
own periodical, which sprang into existence in defence of the 
Bible. Both men stood with controversial lance in hand: 
Mr. Hargrove, warm and self- restrained ; Mr. Driscoll, warm 
and sarcastic, calling his adversary " our reverend and Jeru- 
salem Rabbi." Finally, Mr. Hargrove, for financial reasons, 
discontinued his little periodical after devoting the last two 
numbers to the spiritual exposition of remarkable Scripture 
passages. Other matter had appeared in minor degree — 
foreign news, occasional poetry, and a bit of science. When 


the hostile Philadelphia editor said in his Temple of Reason: 
" From the politics of The Temple of Truth no man can learn 
whether the Editor be a Republican or a Tory," Hargrove 
replied in his own periodical, page 147: 

" 1st. The Temple of Truth was never intended to be a po- 
litical vehicle; but chiefly to oppose mere deism. 

" 2d. The Editors conceive that religion and politics are 
two distinct things, at least they are so in the United States, 
and may they long continue so ; and hence they conclude and 
know by experience, that men may be good Republicans and 
good Christians at the same time." 

The periodical closes with a valedictory, in which the 
editor says: 

'' The serious truths that have occupied the chief depart- 
ment of The Temple are too rational for the mere fanatic, 
and too spiritual for the mere deist; and hence these formid- 
able opponents, though naturally at variance one with the 
other, have cordially harmonized like Herod and Pontius 
Pilate of old, to condemn Jesus (or genuine truth), and 
rather argue that Barabbas, that robber and murderer (or 
the adulterated reason of mere deism) should be released 
unto them." 

Mr. Hargrove was now fifty-one years of age with eight 
children. Hannah England, whom he had married in 1776, 
had recently been called to the other world. She had stood 
nobly by him and by the Church when his espousal of our 
faith in 1797 had cost him many pulpits, and had otherwise 
injured him financially. His disinterestedness is shown by 
the fact that he preached from 1798 to 1835 without compen- 
sation, and that he published The Temple of Truth at a loss. 
Hargrove's picture which lies before me reveals an expan- 
sive forehead suggesting high intelligence, and lips express- 
ing firmness tempered with benevolence. He was happy in 
doing good, and was gratified that among subscribers to his 
periodical were about one hundred and eighty of the most 
enlightened members of other denominations in Baltimore, 
who, he says, " have nobly conquered the infernal spirits of 
bigotry and sectarian prejudice." 

The Roman Catholic Bishop, John Carroll, was among 


these enlightened subscribers, and remained Hargrove's warm 
friend to the end, their Irish ancestry giving them racial 
sympathy. The Rev. Willard Hinkley told me that his 
grandfather (John Hargrove) received from the Bishop his 
portrait as a mark of esteem. The American-born John 
Carroll was educated at the Jesuit college of Liege, Belgium, 
became in 1769 its professor of theology and philosophy, 
traveled extensively abroad, warmly espoused the Colonial 
cause, and was on his return appointed, in 1776, member 
of a government mission to secure aid or neutrality from 
Canada. Benjamin Franklin was a co-member, and a cordial 
friendship sprang up between the Jesuitically-trained bishop 
and our theologically latitudinarian philosopher. Franklin's 
large influence abroad was used to aid in effectively bringing 
about a cessation of the dependence on London of the Roman 
Catholics here, and to bring them into direct connection with 
Rome. This Carroll-Franklin friendship between men in 
many respects the antipodes of each other is a credit to both. 
And the Carroll-Hargrove friendship is equally pleasant to 
contemplate. There were two Johns: John Carroll, who rose 
to be the first Roman Catholic bishop and archbishop in 
America ; John Hargrove, who rose to be the first New-Church 
clergyman here; and each kind of office was a power in its 

Thomas Jefferson, after his inauguration as President of 
the United States on March 4, 1801, received at once a com- 
munication in which, " with singular pleasure and profound 
respect," the Minister and the acting Committee of the New 
Jerusalem Church in Baltimore, beg leave to congratulate 
him on his accession to the Chief Magistracy of their beloved 
country — "a country hitherto eminently favored by the 
Divine Providence with a peculiar degree of civil and re- 
ligious liberty." 

President Jefferson within a week addressed the Rev. John 
Hargrove in reply to the Baltimore letter, expressing thanks 
for its congratulations, recognizing the turbulence in the East- 
em world, seconding the hope for peace, progress, and the 
promotion of brotherly kindness toward those who differ 
from us in opinion, and ending with the words: 


" The philanthropy which breathes through the several ex- 
pressions of your letter is a pledge that you will endeavour 
to diffuse the sentiments of benevolence among our fellow- 
men, and to inculcate the important truth that they promote 
their own happiness by nourishing kind and friendly dis- 
positions toward others. 

Commending your endeavours to the being in whose hands 
we are, I beg you to accept assurancies of my perfect con- 
sideration and respect. Thomas Jefferson." 

President Thomas Jefferson, together with one hundred 
members of Congress, in the Capitol on Monday, December 
26, 1802, heard a sermon on "The Leading Doctrines of 
the New Jerusalem Church" delivered by Rev. John Har- 
grove, who was visiting Washington for the first time. He 
liad come at the invitation of the New-Church people, who 
failed to obtain the promised use of the Treasury building; 
whereupon, the Chaplain of the Senate, whom Hargrove had 
gone to hear, secured for him the use of the Capitol rotunda. 
Jefferson came, being a man greatly given to Bible study, 
as his much annotated copy of the Gospels in the Natibnal 
Museum will testify. On December 25, 1804, Hargrove 
delivered a sermon on "The Second Coming of Christ" be- 
fore both Houses of Congress (see Hindmarsh's Rise and 
Progress, pp. 180,181, with footnote). 

V. At Baltimore was erected the first House of Worship 
on our continent to be consecrated to the worship of the Lord 
Jesus Christ in His Glorified Humanity as the One Only 
God of Heaven and Earth. The building was of brick, about 
thirty-two by forty feet, and stood on the south-west comer of 
Baltimore and Exeter Streets. Its facade was pierced by a 
door flanked by large windows, each having a smaller one 
above, all capped by round arches. There were three rect- 
angular windows on each side. The picture of it before me 
was composed from existing records, and from the personal 
memory of contemporaries. 

On Sunday, January 2, 1800, the Temple dedication took 
place. A hundred years later, we enjoyed the centennial 
celebration, seeing the very Bible, printed in 1792, out of 
which Mr. Hargrove read, and the old mahogany chair on 


which he sat. The social life brought together dear early 
friends and their descendants — the Reeses, Ahrenses, Foner- 
dens, Brickmans, Scotts, and Robbs. 

This Baltimore Church Centennial of 1900 was enriched 
by addresses from Rev. James Reed, Rev. Frank Sewall, and 
others. The Rev. Willard Hall Hinkley (1831-1909), 
grandson of Rev. John Hargrove, fittingly contributed family 
reminiscences, historical data, and religious material. He 
himself served the Church thirty-six years, including valu- 
able missionary work. 

I knew Mr. Hinkley for long years beginning in the happy 
old days of the Maryland Association; witnessing in 1865 
his ordination into the New-Church ministry by Rev. Abiel 
Silver; observing his brotherliness at the Philadelphia Scott- 
Robb Silver Wedding in February, 1866; renewing the pleas- 
ant Hinkley acquaintance in Brookline, and especially re- 
calling the happy celebration in 1892 of his decade of pulpit 
service there; continuing the social intercourse with him and 
his valued wife — Rebecca Robb Hinkley — at Savin Hill — 
both steadfast in regard, never forgetting their friends. Five 
of their six little olive plants grew up and were transplanted 
to the better world; but the parents' religious faith was with- 
out bitterness. The father has gladly welcomed his daughter 
Meta in the other life. While almost on the border land, she 
wrote in 1918 a little brochure which is in print, The Birth of a 
World, revealing her recognition of new spiritual forces, her 
clear insight into their value, and her fervent desire for their 
working success in the hearts of men. Meta will tell her 
father of his wife, and their descendants, who care so warmly 
for the spiritual matters dear to him. I append a list of six 
New-Church generations in lineal descent: 

i. Rev. John Hargrove married Hannah England, 
ii. Hannah Hargrove married Edward Hinkley. 

iii. Rev. Willard Hall Hinkley married Rebecca Robb. 

iv. Frank Hinkley married Mabel Ford. 
V. Willard H. Hinkley, Jr., married Ann Ledegar. 

vi. The little child of Willard and Ann at St. Paul, 
Minnesota, is the latest descendant of Rev. John Hargrove, 
who was born in 1750. 



I think that I shall never see 
A poem lovely as a tree. 

A tree that looks to God all day, 
And lifts her lofty arms to pray. 

— Joyce Kilmer on Trees. 

The surname of Jonathan Chapman (177^1847) has 
faded into insignificance. In vain did his progenitors hand 
it down as his inheritance; the patronymic became replaced. 
Even the baptismal name changed to a familiar abbreviation 
and he became affectionately known by the descriptive 
appellation " Johnny Appleseed." He was a hardy pioneer, a 
zealous orchardist, a lover of children, an altruistic citizen, a 
peripatetic New-Church library, and a live Evangelist. 

Had he been reared under pagan skies he would assuredly 
have erected an altar to the goddess Pomona as his pro- 
tecting deity, so strongly is his lifestory associated with the 
fragrance of early apple blossoms, and the blushing beauty 
of ripening fruit; with the gracious promise of spring, and the 
glad fruition of autumn. Had he dwelt in India, the Brah- 
mins and Jainists would have commended his vegetarianism 
and his sensitive regard for animal life in refusing even in 
self-defence to kill the wasp which had cunningly ensconced 
itself under his coat in ambush for attack. Had organized 
Animal Rescue Leagues existed -in his day they would have 
honored him for his devotion to abandoned horses, worn out 
by the long hard trek of settlers pushing westward; these he 
pastured, protected, and pensioned. One writer compares him 
to St. Francis of Assissi, because of his comradeship with 


animal creatures, declaring also that both were wedded to 
Lady Poverty. Appleseed, however, was not consciously an 

St. Francis gloried in rags for his attire and Johnny Apple- 
seed reduced the life of the body to its simplest terms. This 
modern hermit of the wilderness is described as a small, wiry 
man of restless activity, long-haired, unshaven, with " keen 
black eyes that sparkled with peculiar brightness." He was 
often barefooted, wore a tin pot for a hat, and his chief 
garment in later years was a coffeesack having three apertures 
through which his head and arms emerged. Because of his 
fidelity to duty and his generally unkempt condition he has 
been compared to St. Anthony of Africa ; but I see no kinship 
between disheveled hair and neglected garb on the one hand 
and saintliness on the other. We could wish that this al- 
truistic disciple of Pomona had, in boyhood, received train- 
ing in nicety of raiment from some orderly Puritan dame or 
neat Quakeress; and that, in adult life, he had indulged in 
occasional fits of self-consciousness whereby he could have 
detached himself from himself and could have seen himself 
in a mirror as others saw him; and could have cultivated an 
attire which would have given pleasure to the beholder. Per- 
petual self-oblivion is not well. 

The picturesqueness and idiosyncrasies of Johnny Apple- 
seed attracted the attention of secular periodicals. Mr. W. 
D. Haley, in Harpers New Monthly Magazine, November, 
1871, gives a circumstantial narrative of the orchardist 
which carries conviction of its authenticity. He was born in 
Boston in 1775, and, with no antecedant history available, 
springs into notice in 1801 when he is first traced in central 
Ohio, east of Columbus. He was near Licking Creek with a 
horseload of apple seeds which he planted in various regions, 
furnishing the first orchard for a man named Isaac Stodden. 
In 1806, with two canoes lashed together, he went up the Ohio 
river to Marietta, along the Muskingham river to Coshocton, 
next following the Mohican and Black Fork rivers, planting 
nurseries as he voyaged. Sometimes he carried his leathern 
bags of seeds on his shoulders. His exercise of pomological 
zeal covered more than forty years' time and extended over 


thousands of square miles of territory stretching from the 
Ohio River to the Great Lakes and westward to Indiana. He 
obtained seeds from the cider presses of Dutch farmers. 

Picture to yourself the frontier streams bordered with rank 
and tangled grass, made beautiful with the morning glory 
and sweet pea, and made terrifying with venomous reptiles. 
The heavily wooded hills invite the wanderer to the refreshing 
coolness of their shade, but are coverts for the growling bear, 
the ravenous wolf, and the ferocious wild hog. The under- 
growth presents an abattis bristling with thorns to check 
the pioneer's passage. The Redmen, wrought up to fierce 
hostility against the intrusive whites, are ready to torture and 
kill. This is Mr. Haley's background of the picture on which 
is projected the figure of the intrepid, kindly horticulturist 
who escapes the wild beasts, forgives the rattlesnakes, and 
awes the Indians by his fortitude in bearing pain. When, 
at the surrender of Gen. William Hull at Detroit in 1812, the 
exultant Indians were ready to renew their murderous raids 
even upon defenceless women and children, Johnny Apple- 
seed came to the rescue. This "wild-looking herald of 
danger" rushed across the land day and night, denied him- 
self food and rest, and with piercing voice warned the settlers 
to rush to their blockhouses for defence. At every cabin 
door he gave this message: 

" The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, and he hath anointed 
me to blow the trumpet in the wilderness, and sound an alarm 
in the forest; for, behold, the tribes of the heathen are round 
about your doors, and a devouring flame followeth after 
them" {Harpers, p. 833). 

The most valuable documentary evidence obtainable re- 
garding the orchardist is a contemporaneous descriptive 
narrative which depicts him as holding his tree-planting 
eff"orts quite secondary, and as primarily a sower of spiritual 
seed. In 1822, at the fifth meeting of the General Convention 
of the New Jerusalem held at Philadelphia under the presi- 
dency of Rev. John Hargrove, a report was read of Apple- 
seed's present career. He was in the full tide of activity, 
with twenty-five years of zealous propaganda before him. He 
was an itinerant lay missionary, announcing the glories of the 


New Jerusalem with burning earnestness, and distributing 
pages out of Swedenborg's works. Unable to carry many- 
heavy volumes at once, he scattered portions as leaflets, 
circulating them in rotation and collecting them for redistri- 
bution to be read backward if necessary. He declared that 
his avowed purpose in planting nurseries was to give him the 
opportunity to spread New-Church doctrines throughout the 
western country. 

" On entering a log cabin he would throw himself down on 
the floor, open his precious package of books, ask the people 
if they would have some ' news right fresh from Heaven,' 
and then proceed to read aloud the strange Gospel to the 
astonished family around the hearthstone . . ." (Odhner's 
Annals of the New Church, pp. 533, 534). 

In 1847 this sower of twofold seed completed his good 
work in this life. He was now seventy-two. He entered a 
cabin near Fort Wayne in northern Indiana, and was soon 
found facing the western sun, his face irradiated with a glory 
not of this world, and thus he passed on to the other life. 

Our New-Church clergyman, Rev. J. R. Hibbard (1815- 
1894) knew personally Illinois residents who in 1835 became 
converts to our faith through Johnny Appleseed, and who 
retained their early fervor {New Jerusalem Messenger, 1835, 
page 108). I have been under two New-Church roofs where 
the picturesque pioneer was often a guest. The first was that 
of Mrs. Israel D. Wagar, a lady in the beautiful autumn of 
life with a long perspective in the past rich in reminiscences. 
She was the mother of Mrs. Myron G. Browne, and the 
grandmother of Mrs. Clyde W. Broomell. Mrs. Wagar, at 
Cleveland, Ohio, in 1908, told me of Johnny Appleseed and 
his noble work. Further testimony from living lips that had 
talked with him was gleaned in 1914 at the Kinmont-Eckstein 
home in Glendale, Ohio. Dwellers in both houses testified 
to his easy acceptance of untoward physical conditions, to his 
triumph of spirit over matter, to his unworldly faith that 
heaven would take care of him, to the Master's burning 
message on his lips. In recalling the radiance of his spirit, 
these ladies had lost all remembrance of his uncouth appear- 
ance. They heard from him irregularly in his absence, 


and his coming was often unexpected. Their exclamation of 
surprise that he was still alive was answered by a merry 

In a Chicago daily of 1891 appeared a poem dedicated to 
the American Horticultural Society. After describing this 
seed-planter as a prophet of the wilderness, and a sceptre of 
the solitudes, it continues: 

A druid of the valley, but as worldless as the wave, 

Scorning comfort, seeking nothing for the good things that he gave — 

A poor old plodding pilgrim of a brave unselfish breed, 

God showed the way and shod the feet of Johnny Appleseed. 

A song for Johnny Appleseed, who left a living trail 

Of beauty everywhere he went, in mountain and in vale; 

Thro' many a vanished summer sang the birds and hummed the bees 

Amid the bending blossoms of his broad old apple trees. 

A health to Johnny Appleseed! and may his glory be 

Regrafted in the years to come on Life's eternal tree. 


Major Joseph Hiller was bom in 1748 in Salem, Mass. 
His great-grandfather of the same name came from Watford, 
near London, and settled in Boston in 1677. The younger 
Joseph served in the War of Independence, and in 1789 was 
appointed by President Washington the first collector of 
revenues at Salem under the new Federal Constitution — a 
position which he held through Adams's administration. You 
may see today in the Essex Institute at Salem the impression 
in wax of his official seal; on one side the head of Washington 
in profile; on the reverse side Hiller's monogram in graceful 
script with a floating knot of ribbon above, and below the 
words: "Major, Revolutionary officer (1748-1814), first 
collector under new government for twelve years." On the 
Custom House wall hangs his portrait. 

The atmosphere at Salem had been permeated with 
Puritanism for nearly two centuries, since the Rev. Francis 
Higginson, a nonconformist, had established an Orthodox 
Congregational church in 1629. How did young Hiller dis- 
cover our faith? According to the testimony of Thomas 
Worcester, who knew Hiller's daughter and whose own life 
for nineteen years was contemporaneous with that of Hiller, 
the latter learned of and accepted the teachings of the New 
Church through James Glen's Boston visit and lectures in 
1784. William A. Wellman (1805-1878), who entered the 
Salem Custom House four years after Hiller's departure from 
this life and who married his granddaughter, says of him : 

" Major Hiller was unquestionably one of the very earliest 
readers of the doctrines in this country, and he did much 


for the spread of a knowledge of them within the circle of his 
acquaintance. He was widely known and greatly respected; 
he was in the highest sense a Christian gentleman; a person 
of culture; and of some considerable scientific attainment. 
... I have now in my possession some of the volumes 
Major Hiller imported from London, long before any were 
imported in this country." * All this testimony of the pri- 
ority of Hiller's claim to New-Church knowledge in New 
England is strong. Hiller had previously married a Salem 
damsel, Margaret Cleveland, whose religious nature was 
congenial to that of her husband, and who shared his doubts. 
Together they read Heaven and Hell, and before half complet- 
ing it they were satisfied that it contained the truth. This 
was the beginning of a complete acceptance of its message. 

Major Hiller's third child, Margaret, was born in 1775. 
She was a noble woman, spiritual-minded and devotional, 
inheriting her father's intelligence and religious courage. 
Her kinsmen gave characteristic glimpses of her youth. She 
would make an oratory of the attic for private meditations, 
or rise early to kneel by the fire with the large family Bible 
before her. Her father's quiet home services strengthened 
her; his imported New-Church books gave her aid. "Her 
habitual study of the Scriptures, and her longing to know their 
meaning, rendered the new explanations delightful; a new 
life-study opened to her." 

As another English strand is interwoven with that of Hiller, 
we will turn to John Prescott who migrated about 1640 from 
Lancashire and finally established himself at Lancaster, 
Massachusetts, then on the frontier of civilization. It was 
subject to incursions from the redskins with their tomahawk 
and scalping knife. But this white man knew how to produce 
a psychological effect. 

" John was a sturdy, strong man with a stern countenance, 
and, whenever he had a difficulty with the Indians, clothed 
himself with his coat of armor, helmet, cuirass and gorget, 
which gave him a fierce and frightful appearance." He died 
in 1683. 

John's descendant, Oliver Prescott (1731-1804), a grad- 

* Semi-Centennial Celebration of the Boston Society of the New Jerusalem, 
Boston, 1869. See pp. 10, 42, 43, 


uate of Harvard in ] 750, became an eminent physician with 
a medical degree, honoris causa, from his Ahna Mater. He 
rose to the position of third major general of militia in 1778, 
and subsequently served as county judge of probate for fifteen 
years. He was brother of Col. William Prescott of Bunker 
Hill, and uncle of Prescott, the historian. 

Margaret Hiller married Judge Oliver Prescott's son Sam- 
uel in 1804. The embargo and the war of 1812 ruined them 
financially, but they preserved in their Boston home the riches 
of their religious faith. She wrote an able book in elucidation 
of the New Church published in Boston in 1816, entitled 
Religion and Philosophy United. It sets forth at the opening 
the great limitations of the inductive method in reaching 
toward spiritual truth, and the need of Revelation to furnish 
first principles. And it grasps quite a wide range of thought. 
I have had access to the reprint, London and Boston, 1856, 
to be found in the Harvard University Library, together with 
a memoir of her by her son. (See also New Jerusalem Maga- 
zine, vol. xxxi, page iii). 

The son of Samuel and Margaret Prescott shall take prece- 
dence of the older, brilliantly endowed daughter. He was 
named Oliver, and he added by legal enactment his mother's 
good old family name, and became known as Rev. 0. Pres- 
cott Hiller. She passed to the other life in 1841, the year 
of his ordination, and it would have delighted his mother's 
heart could she have foreseen his twenty-nine years of conse- 
crated service {Precursor, vol. iii, page 16; New Jerusalem 
Messenger, vol. Iv, page 155). 

Mr. Hiller's love of travel and fondness for social life 
found expression in his church work abroad after his Cin- 
cinnati pulpit ministrations in 1843-1848 and his remarkable 
missionary labors including the baptism of one hundred and 
twenty-one persons within a year {Western Convention Re- 
ports for 1843, page 57). He served his co-religionists in 
Scotland, sojourned in Ireland, and toured extensively on the 
continent. We hear of him at the home of Le Boys des 
Guays at St. Amand, France, among a congenial little group 
of men; as a warmly welcomed guest at Florence, Italy, of 
Hiram Powers, the sculptor; at Tiibingen, Germany, under 


the roof of Dr. Immanuel Tafel, who was maintaining a 
perfect network of communication by letter with New-Church- 
men over the world {New Jerusalem Magazine, vol. xxi, page 
198; vol. xxii, page 29). 

In 1868, eleven American New-Church people named Cut- 
ler, Dunbar, Carter, Parsons and Silver secured a furnished 
house for the month of May at 29 Upper Berkeley Street near 
Hyde Park, London. At the Cross Street Church we heard 
Rev. 0. Prescott Hiller in a highly interesting extemporaneous 
address, and the Rev. David G. Goyder in a strongly de- 
votional sermon. The latter, ordained in 1822, was ripe in 
years after long and varied service. We visited Islington 
Chapel, a stone edifice with stained glass, mosaic floor, and 
rich pews, used as a New-Church Theological School. We 
twice heard Dr. Jonathan Bayley at Argyle Square, where he 
gathered large numbers. I should describe him as the 
Chauncey Giles of England. The service preceding his ser- 
mon covered seventy minutes, comprising three prayers, four 
chants, earnest congregational singing of hymns, and much 
classical music including the magnificent Gloria from Mo- 
zart's Twelfth Mass, sung by a choir of twenty voices. Dr. 
Bayley, who had been ordained thirty-two years earlier, now 
preached extemporaneously with clearness, ease, and effective 
force. He warmly welcomed us, called upon us, gave us 
names of New-Church officials at the Kensington Museum and 
the National Gallery, and otherwise extended courteous aid 
in our sightseeing. 

Rev. 0. Prescott Hiller had married in 1864 Miss Emma 
Anne Stokes of London. Those who knew her pronounce 
her clever, bright, and possessing much personal charm. She 
was a graduate of Queen's College, London, founded in 1848. 
It was the first institution of that kind for women in the 
world, our Mount Holyoke not attaining the rank of college 
until later. The co-educational Oberlin became a college in 
1850. Queen's College was named in recognition of Queen 
Victoria's part in its birth. Frederick D. Maurice had much 
to do with its founding, and Rev. Charles Kingsley was one 
of its professors — "a thoroughly stimulating teacher . . . 
his influence on men rather consisting in inducing them to 


think for themselves than in leading them to adopt his 
own views." Both were Cambridge men (see Encyclopaedia 
Britannica) . 

In 1866 the Rev. 0. Prescott Hiller brought his English 
wife to see his American kinsmen; and in the second year of 
the World War their two children, Mr. Addison Prescott 
Hiller and Miss Margaret Prescott Hiller, sailed for this 
country on the White Star steamship, Arabic, which was 
torpedoed by a German submarine on August 19, 1915. The 
Hillers, after severe exposure, thrilling danger and much 
hardship, were rescued, and returned to England, but 
heroically ventured a second time. They settled in Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, contributing scholarship and social 
charm; the son was ordained into the New-Church ministry 
in 1918. 

We now return to the Rev. 0. Prescott Hiller' s mother. 
Surely one of the most potent of her missionary efforts was 
her loan of Swedenborg's books to a highly prepossessing 
young man of twenty named William A. Wellman. Her 
gifted daughter Susan was then sixteen. Eight years later 
he was baptized into our faith, soon after which, in 1833, 
followed the marriage of the two young people. 

Mr. Francis Phelps has written of Susan Prescott Wellman's 
musical aid vocally and instrumentally at the Swedenborg- 
study-class he called together in 1836. Mrs. Nathanael C. 
Towle of Washington has told me of her exceedingly brilliant 
letters received during a long correspondence. Mrs. 
Catherine Worcester Thacher gratefully remembered Mrs. 
Wellman's comrade-like recognition of little folk. 

At the close of fifteen years of happy married life, Mrs. 
Wellman was called by the Good Father to His home, leaving 
six children. The illness was sudden and unexpected. Mar- 
garet Gary, in an unpublished letter lying before me dated 
April 12, 1848, writes feelingly of this recent loss. She tells 
how the Chandlers, Philbricks, and Wilkinses spontaneously 
opened their hearts and their homes to the motherless Well- 
man children during the readjustment of the bereaved house- 
hold; and how they witnessed the result of Mrs. Welhnan's 
beautiful motherhood. The boy of eleven tried to drown his 


sorrow by helpfulness to others ; the boy of nine insisted on ob- 
serving the bed-time hour which his mother had prescribed, 
and of saying his little prayer alone. The boy of seven, when 
warned against getting ill from dampness, said, "I would like 
to be sick if it would have taken mother's pains from her." 
The little one of five, overhearing the sad news suddenly, had 
bravely refrained from "crying right out." The only daugh- 
ter among five sons, Ellen Margaret, was the most versatile 
and brilliantly endowed person with whom I ever came into 
personal association, inheriting evidently her mother's gifts 
in conversation and epistolary ability. 

It is pleasant at this point to give a direct genealogical line 
of six New-Church generations: 

i. Major Joseph Hiller married Margaret Cleveland. 

ii. Margaret Hiller married Samuel Jackson Prescott. 

iii. Susan Prescott married William A. Wellman. 

iv. Joseph Hiller Wellman married Ellen Crowell. 

V. Hiller Wellman married Emily Whiston. 

vi. Their son Bertram, of Springfield, Massachusetts, is 
the great-great-great-grandson of Major Joseph Hiller, who 
was bom in 1748. 



Margaret Graves Gary discovered the Writings of Sw*>- 
denborg at twenty-one, and she served our faith thereafter for 
seventy-two years. Born on the island of St. Kitts, now Saint 
Christopher, the year before the Declaration of Independence 
in the Golonies, this little West Indian maiden was a British 
subject, but grew up to live under the Stars and Stripes, and 
to be a pioneer and a chronicler for the New Church. Here 
is her picture of her home life of luxury and ease: 

" Every evening after tea the negroes assembled in the open 
space before the west gallery, each bringing a bundle of 
sticks for fuel for the kitchen, the men on one side, the 
women on the other, and an elderly man as a leader in prayer 
between them, and answered to their names as the list was 
called. Then they knelt reverently and joined in prayer, 
kissed the ground, and, rising, sang a hymn and departed." 

Margaret's grandfather, — Samuel Gary (1713-1769) — 
a Harvard graduate, rose to the position of ship owner and 
captain. He married in 1741 Margaret, aged twenty-two, 
the daughter of Thomas Graves of Gharlestown, who brought 
an inheritance of three hundred and sixty-five acres in 

Let us peruse a little of this grandmother's diary, and ask 
if she transmitted any qualities to the Margaret of our sketch. 
She writes at Ghelsea in the absence of her sea-faring hus- 

" May 24, 1742. This day I am taking the care of a 
family upon me. Lord, grant that I may not be so taken up 
with the world as to neglect my great concern. 

June 21, 1742. This day I gave myself up to the Lord in 


an everlasting covenant never to be forgotten. Lord, give 
me grace to live up to the profession that I have now made. 

September 20, 1742. This day God was pleased to appear 
for me in a wonderful manner, in a time of great difficulty and 
distress, and make me the living mother of a living and 
perfect child. 

What shall I render to thee for all thy goodness and mercy 
vouchsafed to me? 

Jan. 2, 1743. This day I was in great danger of being con- 
sumed by fire, but the Lord was pleased to appear for me, and 
wonderfully to put a stop to it. 

June 3, 1744. This day we had a dreadful shock of an 
earthquake. Lord, grant that the surprise I was in may make 
me careful to prepare to meet my Judge." 

This diarist was brave and decisive in spirit; and when a 
robber entered her house one night, she was aroused, threw 
on a wrapper, and faced him in the entry; " he was so alarmed 
at her sudden appearance and resolute manner that he hastily 

Margaret's other grandmother, Sarah Tyler Gray, was 
early deprived by death of her husband, Ellis Gray, of 
Boston; and she is thus described in Mr. Webster's church 
in North Square after the bells had done chiming one Sunday 
morning in 1753: 

"A widow indeed carrying up a sweet little baby, in the 
usual white robe, but unusually ornamented with little black 
bows all up and down its dress. The Rev. Mr. Welstead 
takes it in his arms, and giving ' the outward sign of an inward 
and spiritual gift,' with the name of Sally and the blessing, 
restores her to her mother's arms, while the audience, deeply 
interested, silently join their prayers and blessings." 

Thus is set forth the infant christening of our Margaret 
Gary's mother. When Margaret's father, Samuel Gary, first 
saw, at a ball, this Sally Gray, now grown to a fair maiden of 
eighteen, he was instantly and vitally interested in her. He 
is thus described, being now twenty-nine, on his visit to 

" He had a black man with him, who frequently drove a 
chaise in which he took his rides; dressed elegantly; was per- 


fectly easy in his circumstances; and had that perfect ease 
and knowledge of the world, which, with good manners, 
betokens a gentleman." 

Young Gary was a Harvard graduate, and had received 
from his father one thousand pounds with which he sailed 
for the West Indies and began sugar raising at St. Kitts, 
Grenada, with eighty slaves. He and Sally Gray were soon 
betrothed, the marriage being consummated in 1772. Their 
home for eighteen or nineteen years was Grenada in the 
West Indies, and here the Margaret of our sketch was bom 
in 1775. She has left a ground-plan of their home showing 
spacious rooms of generous variety and abundant galleries 
or verandas. 

Little Margaret Gary in 1779, was sent to England for 
ten years' absence at boarding school. The sailing master, 
Gaptain Gox, was a personal friend, and the child had an 
immediate lady attendant. Soon after her arrival, although 
only live years old, she opened the dancing master's ball in 
a minuet with a small boy. She learned various cotillion 
steps — " contre-temps, glissade, rigadoon," In addition to 
the utilitarian branches, she studied music, drawing, poetry, 
astronomy, history, flowers and filigree. Lessons in embroid- 
ery enabled her after many tears to complete a sampler in 
minute stitches containing rows of letters and ten lines of 
Rowe's poetry on the True End of Education. It was framed 
and sent home. 

We get pictures of Margaret and her brother in Alice 
Morse Earle's Child-Life in Colonial Days. When eight years 
old, Charles Gary's London portrait showed the abandonment 
of the cocked hat, and the adoption of a simpler form of 
head covering, with a broad white flowing collar, and buttoned 
waistcoat. In Margaret's portrait in 1781 at six years of age, 
" the eyes and half-smile are charmingly engaging." At 
fourteen, her half-figure portrait is painted. Her broad- 
brimmed hat trimmed with feathers is seen above her abun- 
dant and very dark flowing hair. She has large expressive 
black eyes, and an exceedingly erect figure. 

We cannot estimate the depth and tenacity of Margaret's 
religious nature unless we take into consideration the allur- 


ing attractions of the eighteenth-century life which she was 
to see on so many sides. She describes years later, another 
brother, Samuel, who had followed her to England for edu- 
cational training, as he appeared at the time of their return 

" My brother, though only sixteen, was a man in dress and 
manners. There was less simplicity in dress in those days, 
1789. He had his gold watch; hair dressed, frizzled and 
curled at the sides with powder; small-clothes, with knee- 
buckles (pantaloons had not made their appearance) ; silk 
stockings, and shoes with buckles, — a tall and handsome 
person. He was perfect in my eyes; sometimes finding fault 
with me, but I never found anything amiss with him." * 

Margaret's return at fourteen with her brothers to her West 
Indian home was in 1789, her eager father early sighting her 
ship through a spy-glass and her mother's heart yearning for 
her arrival. During her ten years' absence the American 
Revolution had ended. Although Mr. Gary was a British 
subject, he sympathized with the colonists, and at one time 
harbored some American sea-captains, " so that the governor 
threatened to send him to London and have him put in the 
Tower and punished as a rebel." And at Cornwallis's sur- 
render, a friendly monitor warned Mr. Gary to conceal his 
pleasure by seclusion and silence. 

Nothing of great moment occurred in Margaret's life in 
the next two years. She fell into quiet useful ways in the 
household, and at the end of that time — in 1791 — they all 
moved to the precious Gary homestead with its three hundred 
and sixty acres at Chelsea. The distance to Boston was six 
miles by Maiden bridge, or by sailboat. Snow once cut off 
visitors for six weeks, their horses combating the roads in 
vain. In 1792 occurred an insurrection at Grenada, W. I., 
resulting in business losses which made Mr. Gary permanently 
a poor man. 

Retrenchments in the Gary household resulted from the 
financial losses. The children increased in an inverse ratio 

* All quotations heretofore given, together with much else, are derived from 
a privately printed little volume issued in 1891 by the Riverside Press entitled 
The Cary Letters by C. G. C. A copy is accessible in the Boston New Church 
Book Rooms. 


until there were fifteen, whose plain, old-fashioned names lie 
before me. Margaret was the second ; she knew boys, for she 
had nine brothers, to several of whom she served as instruct- 
ress and governess. Her London-bred brother fitted two for 
Harvard. Her niece, Elizabeth Cabot Gary, married in 1850 
Professor Louis Agassiz, the great Swiss scientist who proved 
precious beyond value to Harvard. She won the heart of her 
stepson, Alexander Agassiz, a lad of fifteen, and she fostered 
higher educational advantages for girls at large. 

Miss Gary's kaleidoscopic life shifts from gravity to 
gaiety. During a visit in 1815 at Mrs. Hill's, she is present 
at the great Peace Ball in recognition of the termination of 
our second war with Great Britian. Urged to attend this 
Terpsichorean jubilee, her only record is this: 

" All very splendid. Laid a weary head on a soft pillow 
a little before three in the morning." 

A very different social experience also came to Miss Gary. 
She was a member of a bridal party in Boston where she was 
presented to the future father of Queen Victoria ; and she was 
accorded the same princely salute from the Duke of Kent as 
that given to the bride. 

And now came into Margaret Gary's life an element of 
transcendent importance. After browsing in her father's 
library on miscellaneous religious literature from Orthodox 
to liberal, she came into a questioning frame of mind. And 
she records that on the first Sabbath in June, 1796, she had 
her first perception of the doctrine of the Lord during her 
Bible reading. Swedenborg says: 

"The Lord does not openly teach truths to any one, but 
through good leads him to think what is true, and also, un- 
known to man, inspires the new perception and thence the 
choice that this is true because the Word declares, and be- 
cause the latter squares with it" {Arcana Coelestia, No. 

In June, 1796, the day after that on which the flash-like 
conviction of the Deity of Jesus Christ entered Margaret's 
soul, the works of Swedenborg were introduced to her 
attention. Seventy years later she was to receive the Holy 
Supper with six hundred other communicants at the Boston 


Church of the New Jerusalem; and in her old age she con- 
trasted these two occasions. " I was myself present at this 
meeting of the General Convention in 1866, and can testify- 
to the feeling of devotion consequent upon the presence of so 
many participating together in the holiest act of worship." 

Away back in 1819 Miss Gary writes to her sister: 

"I come to you, my beloved Ann, refreshed by reading 
a few chapters in my little Bible, and a few pages of exposition 
by Swedenborg. Let none rest satisfied with only the re- 
sources of their own minds, however faithful memory may 
be, and its use is of the utmost importance. We want fresh 
supplies to carry us forward in the path we have chosen. It 
is the daily bread which nourishes," 

Miss Gary met in 1796 the Rev. William Hill, a clergyman 
of the Church of England, but a very earnest New Church- 
man, two years after he took up his residence in or near 
Boston; and through him she received the doctrines. The 
Gary family letters show that a warm friendship sprang up 
between Margaret and Mrs. Hill, which continued forty 

The story of Margaret Gary was indeed rainbow-hued. 
Light, in falling upon her life, came somehow through a 
prism, which gave color and variety to everything. Up to 
seventeen she was a child of luxury at home, but her training 
at the hearthstone stimulated her heart for good. She might 
be proud of the Copley portraits of her parents, painted in 
their honeymoon days in 1772. I have seen small repro- 
ductions of them, in which the painter has brought out the 
fine sensibility and earnest character of the sitters. Her 
father's letters are marked by tenderness and assured trust; 
and her mother's correspondence with the various beloved 
absentees reveals a great heart of measureless capacity. Their 
fifteen children were worthy, and proved a comfort. Their 
married life of forty years was made happy by the deep 
mutual esteem upon which affection may safely build. Mar- 
garet Gary's rich character-material is intimately interwoven 
with the fabric of the Boston Society of the New Jerusalem; 
and Gary threads, a bit soberer in hue, will occasionally 
appear hereafter. 



" He gave gifts unto men. • . . 

And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and 
some, pastors and teachers; 

For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edify- 
ing of the body of Christ." 

— Ephesians, iv, 8-12. 

If the story of Thomas Worcester were written in the 
starry heavens he would be found in a constellation of 
ecclesiastics: clergy to right of him, clergy to left of him, 
clergy in the perspective, near and distant. These Worcester 
ministers were largely Congregational, with here a gleam of 
Episcopalianism, there a gleam of Unitarianism, and a group 
of eight New-Church preachers in the foreground, seven of 
whom I knew. 

Let us now trace the lineal path of Thomas Worcester's 
descent, illumined by a kinsman. Miss Sarah Alice Worcester, 
who spent five years in labyrinthine Worcester windings. The 
English were generous to aid Sarah Alice's quest. The 
British Museum recommended a competent genealogist, Mr. 
F. A. Lumbye. She herself went abroad in 1910, and 
together they studied parish records, monument inscriptions, 
" State Papers Domestic," and Bishops' Certificates. She 
concludes from strong testimony that her great-great-great- 
great-great-grandfather was William Worcester, who "com- 
pounded for the first fruits of the vicarage of Olney in 26 
July 22 James I, 1624." She recognizes strong points in 
this vicar found also in the leading representatives of the 
family in America, and as confirmatory of her own descent 
from him. 


I. Rev. William Worcester left his Olney Parish Church, 
the picture of which lies before me, with its low arched 
chancel, its carved reredos, its slender octagonal spire and its 
rural surroundings, and came to Salisbury, Massachusetts, 
some time between the years 1638 and 1640. He had been 
dismissed from his office as vicar for refusing to read from 
the King's book those portions which allowed sports and 
recreation on the Lord's Day. He found the Puritan Sabbath 
congenial, and the Orthodox pulpit at Salisbury a home for 
more than twenty years. He was called to the other life in 
1662, and his spiritual labors called out commendation: 

Cotton Mather in his Magnalia calls him one of the 
"reverend, learned and holy divines, arriving such from 
Europe to America, by whose evangelical ministry the 
churches in America have been illuminated." Johnson, in 
iiis JVonder Working Providence, describes him as " reverend 
and graciously godly." And the General Court of Massachu- 
setts, considering an Order for his support, quaintly says: 

"They of New Town (now Amesbury) should forbear to 
content themselves with private help, whilst the Lord pleases 
to continue so bright a star in their candlestick." 

We have a final entertaining glimpse of him in his last 
will and testament: after ten shillings to his servant Hannah, 
and " some good English authors out of my library " to his 
friends, he distributes his property to his beloved wife and 
nine descendants. To his sons, Samuel and William, certain 
" higletee pigletee " lots of salt marsh; to others his cattle, 
named "barbar, golding, cherry, mad-fit, and ghost"; and, 

"I doe give unto my daughter Rebecka: Bylie: my brass 
chafendish: and also I give unto her a book of mr. Anthony 
Burgases concerning the tryalls of grace, as a small token of 
my specyall loue unto hir" {Genealogy, pp. 237-240). 

H. Samuel Worcester, English born, came over with his 
father, married a Rowley maiden in 1659, and became owner 
of hundreds of acres of upland and meadow land. The wind- 
ing and industrious Merrimack river turned the wheels for 
his saw-mills just as it impells the machinery for Lowell and 
Lawrence today. In those good old days of the town meeting 
the rural citizens looked after the government, and gladly 


sent Samuel to the General Court (State legislature) as their 

Leaving his home in Bradford on foot to attend an ad- 
journed meeting of that body in Boston, and failing to find 
accommodation at an inn on the way, he was found lifeless on 
the road in the attitude of kneeling on the morning of Febru- 
ary 21, 1681. He was public-spirited, and a man of dis- 
tinguished piety, bequeathing land " to be improved in general 
for the use of the ministry, or bestowed upon some able, faith- 
ful minister for his encouragement to settle amongst them." 

III. Francis Worcester was third among the eleven chil- 
dren of Samuel. "He was an innholder and yeoman in 
Bradford, Mass., and is represented by his son Francis as a 
man of amiable and retiring disposition, and of ardent piety." 

IV. Francis Worcester, Jr. (1698-1783), fourth among 
the ten children of Francis, was ordained at thirty-seven 
over a Congregational Church. He served during his last 
twenty-four years as evangelical preacher in destitute parts 
of New England. 

He had great success in arresting the attention of the young. 
They were naturally attracted and affected by his personal 
appearance. In height and breadth of frame he presented 
the proportions of a commanding and majestic figure, which, 
with the intellectual and benignant cast of his eye and counte- 
nance, added much to his power of address. * 

Francis is an important factor as the founder in 1750 of 
the Worcester family home in HoUis, New Hampshire, 
sheltering five successive generations, and open, later, to the 
reader of this narrative. 

V. Noah, (1735-1817) youngest of Francis's group of 
five, succeeded in possession of the Hollis homestead. He 
served the country as Captain under Washington; he served 
the state by helping to frame the New Hampshire Constitution ; 
he served religion by sixty years' activity in the Congrega- 
tional Church. His silhouette shows a strong nose and de- 
cisive chin, 

* The Descendants of Rev. William Worcester. First edition published by J. 
Fox Worcester. Revised by Sarah Alice Worcester, 270 pp., Boston, Hudson 
Printing Co., 1914. 


VI. Noah Worcester, Jr., (1758-1837) was the eldest 
of the quartet of children born to Noah. " Always of a 
thoughtful and serious turn of mind, at the age of twelve he 
led in family worship under the Hollis roof when his father 
was absent from home." Enlisting at sixteen, he was drum 
major at the battle of Bunker Hill, and fife major at the 
battle of Bennington. Nine years a school-teacher, and filling 
later various town and state activities, he settled over the 
church at Thornton, New Hampshire, as Congregational minis- 
ter at twenty-eight, with a salary of $200.00 yearly. In 
1791 he received an A.M. from Dartmouth, and in 1818 a 
D.D. from Harvard. He married (i) in 1779, Hannah 
Brown of Newburyport, and (ii) in 1798, Hannah Hunting- 
ton of Norwich, Connecticut. His published work. Thoughts 
on the Origin of Evil, suggests his seriousness; his Solemn 
Review of the Custom of War and his Friend of Peace suggest 
a possible rebuke to the god Mars ; his family record suggests 
a love of the ministry: himself of the clerical profession, he 
had among his immediate descendants eight New-Church 
clergymen. His book, Bible News of the Father, Son, and 
Holy Ghost suggests a questioning of the Calvinistic doctrine 
of the Trinity; indeed, he had broken away from the reigning 
Puritan faith and entered the Unitarian ministry, "exerting 
an influence upon religious thought in New England by his 
liberal views." He took very high ground in regard to the 
Lord Jesus Christ. "Although with the light he then had he 
could not understand how He was One with the Father, he 
believed him to be, really and truly, the Only Begotten Son of 

The portrait of Noah Worcester hangs in the house in 
Cambridge of his great-grandson, Rev. William L. Worcester. 
It radiates a kind of sunshine, and I can quite picture him as 
he is described, placing his hand over his heart which had 
been beating for seventy years or more, and invoking the 
divine blessing at his table with the opening words, " Indul- 
gent Parent." The Orthodox divine. Dr. Blagden of Brighton, 
differing in theology, but socially cordial, further depicts 
him as a patriarch, tall and of large frame with his long 
hair surmounted by a broad brimmed hat, wearing a surtout 


or gown, and bearing a staff (pp. 11, 12 of Sampson Reed's 
Biography of Thomas Worcester). 

VII. Thomas Worcester ( 1795-1878) , the subject of this 
narrative, was the ninth child of Noah and Hannah Brown 
Worcester. He first saw the light of day in Thornton, New 
Hampshire, where, until he was eighteen, he could look out 
on the noble Lower Kearsarge mountain. In 1814 he entered 
Harvard. Josiah Quincy, fourth of that name, came three 
years later, and gives pen-pictures of contemporary methods 
and characteristics.* 

Of transportation, light, fuel and amusements, he writes: 

" We knew but a morning and evening stage between Cam- 
bridge and Boston. At nine and two o'clock, Morse, the 
stage driver, drew up in the college yard, and performed 
upon a tin horn to notify us of his arrival. . . . 

" The difficulty of getting a light with numb fingers, on a 
cold night, was a petty misery. In vain were the flint and 
steel clashed together; too often it happened that no available 
spark was the result. The tinder would absorb dampness in 
spite of all precautions to keep it dry. Our light came from 
dipped candles, with very broad bases and gradually narrow- 
ing at the top. These required the constant use of snuffers. 
Indeed, the dual brain with which mankind are furnished 
seemed to us to show intelligent design. One brain was 
clearly required to do the studying, while it was the business 
of the other to watch the candles and look after the snuffers. 
. . . Our fuel was wood, which was furnished by the col- 
lege; it being cut from some lands in Maine. . . . My 
classmate, Otis, had ornamented his mantelpiece with two 
curious black stones, which excited great interest in his 
visitors. He had made a journey to Washington, and had 
brought these rarities home. He had a strange tale to tell 
concerning them. It seemed that the people in Bakimore 
actually burned just such stones as these. . . . They will be 
now recognized under the name of anthracite coal." 

One amusement indulged in by the students was the privi- 
lege of turkey shooting at long range for a fee — the bird to 
belong to the Harvard student who hit it; and Quincy adds: 

* Figures of the Past by Josiah Quincy. 


"The usual end of a Harvard turkey-shooting was the 
departure of the proprietor of the turkeys with all his birds, 
and all our sixpences. ... In the days when there were no 
public libraries, no travelling operas, no theatre trains, — 
when, in fact, the one distraction of the week was going to 
meeting, — who can wonder that the flowery paths leading 
to the domestic circle were more frequented than at present? " 
Mr. Quincy describes the University officers: President 
John T. Kirkland, a Congregational clergyman, was able to 
rule lightly but effectually, had extraordinary intellectual 
force, manners of unassuming simplicity, and much kindli- 
ness of heart; Dr. Popkin, professor of Greek, whose "an- 
tique simplicity, dry humour, and hatred of all shams were 
just the qualities to win the regard of young men"; Pro- 
fessor Frisbie in the chair of moral philosophy, who had 
"clearness and condensation" of thought and who "could 
never bear to hear treated with levity those vices which a lax 
public opinion has considered venial"; Professor John Far- 
rar, whom the students like, though " in general they hate his 
branch (mathematics)." 

As to religion, John Adams had hoped that his son might 
become a clergyman; "but the nature of the doctrines which 
were then taught repelled him." 

As Thomas Worcester studied theology in the Harvard 
Divinity School, the history of that school is a matter of 
present interest. Regarding the college, Josiah Quincy, being 
in 1840 its president, writes: 

"We expect to find it, with certainty, anchored head and 
stem, secure against wind, tide and current, moored firmly 
on all the points which, in that day, were deemed fixed and 
immutable. . . . Yet, surprising as is the fact, there is not, 
in any one of the charters that form the Constitution of this 
College, one expression, on which a merely sectarian spirit 
can seize to wrest it into a shackle for the human soul. 
The idea never seems to have entered the minds of its early 
founders, of laying conscience under bonds for good be- 
haviour" (vol. i. pp. 45, 46).* 

* History of Harvard University, by Josiah Quincy. 2 vols. 1340 pp. Cam- 
bridge, published by John Owen, 1840. 


The financial foundation of the Theological School was 
laid by Thomas Hollis, a London merchant, in 1720, whose 
gift ensured forty pounds a year for a professor, and scholar- 
ships of ten pounds each yearly "to assist one pious young 
man in the judgment of charity religiously inclined, in his 
studies for the ministry of the Gospel of Jesus Christ . . . 
and that none be refused on account of his belief and practice 
of adult baptism (italics his) if he be sober and religiously 
inclined . . . the whole design thereof being for the glory of 
God and the good of precious souls" (vol. i. pp. 530, 531). 

In an attempt — long, patient, and finally successful — to 
fill the vacant chair of the Hollis professorship nearly a 
century later, in 1805, the question of the " soundness and 
orthodoxy" of the candidate, Rev. Henry Ware, Sr., was 
brought up. The defense declared: 

" That this attempt to introduce a categorical examination 
into the creed of a candidate was a barbarous relic of In- 
quisitorial power, alien alike from the genius of our govern- 
ment and the spirit of the people ; — that the College had been 
dedicated to Christ and not to Calvin ; — to Christianity and 
not to sectarianism . . ." (Quincy, vol. ii, pp. 284, 285). 

In 1813, just before the entrance of Thomas Worcester 
as student at Harvard, William Ellery Channing had com- 
pleted his brief period as instructor in the Chair of Biblical 
Criticism. He is thus described in the American Cyclopaedia^ 
edition of 1863 : 

" Irreconcilably opposed to the Calvinistic scheme and the 
doctrine of the Trinity, he was even more at variance with 
the Unitarianism of Priestley; and occupying a middle 
ground in theology, he was unrivalled in his enthusiasm for 
moral and progressive ideas." 

As may be seen, it was a transitional period when Mr. 
Worcester came to study on the Charles. He knew, through 
his brother Samuel, of the " Treasure-Trove of Harvard " — 
the gift from Rev. Wm. Hill of a set of Swedenborg's Arcana; 
and on his return to the institution after the vacation of 1816, 
he began a diligent search for the volumes. The library 
seemed a reasonable place, and he visited the West End 
of Harvard Hall. Learning through the catalogue the alcove 


and shelf where they should be, he found only their absence, 
significant of indifference. Other efforts failed. As a last 
resort he visited a small, insignificant room flatteringly called 
the " Museum," filled with rubbish, discarded curiosities, and 
obsolete philosophical apparatus. He was searching for the 
Writings which treat the letter of the Holy Word as a casket 
which encloses precious spiritual treasures compared to 
pearls and diadems. He finally found the Arcana volumes 
in a remote, dark corner on the lowest shelf, sleeping the 
sleep of oblivion and covered with the dust of neglect. The 
discoverer further tells us: 

" Of the fifty or sixty thousand volumes then belonging to 
the library, these were the only ones treated in this manner. 
The fact seems to represent the state of the New Church at 
that time" {Biography of Thomas Worcester by Sampson 
Reed, pp. 17, 18). 

Mr. Worcester found kindred spirits under the college 
roof — men open to conviction and, later, his coworkers in 
the New Church. Among his classmates were John H. Wil- 
kins, Warren Goddard, William Parsons and Sampson Reed. 
In classes ranging between 1815 and 1823 were Theophilus 
Parsons, Caleb Reed, T. B. Hayward, John Angier, Nathanail 
Hobart, and T. G. Worcester. In the King's Chapel Addresses 
of 1917, Mr. Worcester's grandson William writes on pp. 
328, 329: 

" It is perhaps impossible for us in this day of freedom 
and tolerance to realize fully the difficulties within and with- 
out which beset these pioneers of the New Church a hundred 
years ago. In part their hardships were the same that were 
experienced by the early Universalists and Unitarians, who 
rebelled against the standing order, and were at that time 
waging war with the Calvinism so strongly intrenched in New 
England. Equally with these liberals, the New Church was 
at war with the old-fashioned Calvinism and its doctrines of 
predestination, vicarious atonement, and salvation by faith 
alone. But, on the other hand, it varied almost as much 
with the liberal bodies. Its position was lonely in the ex- 
treme, — a mere handful of people, commonly regarded with 
suspicion, misunderstood, treated with contempt and ridi- 


cule, in not a few cases cut off from association with rela- 
tives and former friends. Thomas Worcester once told me 
that in the early days of his ministry in Boston there was 
hardly a respectable minister in the city who dared to be 
civil to him. And when a school was opened for the children 
of the church, it was in part to protect the children from the 
treatment which they received in other schools. 

"Members of the church were ostracised from good 
society, and their children ridiculed on the street. They 
early learned to suffer for their religion, and gained at once 
a spiritual strength, and a reluctance to spread broadcast the 
things which were to them most sacred. These traits John 
Worcester, son of Thomas, shared with nearly all the early 
New Churchmen of New England." * 

In 1818 Thomas Worcester was graduated from Harvard. 
The institution could then boast of at least five buildings: 
Harvard Hall, which held the Arcana "treasure-trove"; Hol- 
lis, Stoughton, Holworthy, and the newest, University Hall, 
dignified and simple, as might be expected from its architect, 
Charles Bulfinch. 

Even before Thomas Worcester's graduation, little gather- 
ings had begun of those interested in our faith. Ten devotees, 
called together by Samuel Worcester, met at the home of 
Mrs. Margaret Hiller Prescott. Mr. Joseph Roby was the 
Nestor of the assembly at seventy-eight, standing on the 
verge of another life. Miss Cary tells us that, 

"When the question arose who should address the Throne 
of Mercy, Mr. Roby observed that every one ought to know 
how to pray, and proposed that it be taken in turn. Of 
course, he, being so much older, was requested to make the 
prayer; which the good old gentleman did" (New Jerusalem 
Magazine, vol. xxx, page 394). 

Rev. T. B. Hayward describes the scene at the institution 
of the Boston Society, August 15, 1818 (Semi-Centennial 
Celebration pamphlet) : 

" The ceremony was very simple. We stood in a circle 

* From Memorial of John Worcester by his son, William Worcester, as preface 
to the former's work. The Promise of Peace, 196 pp., Boston, Massachusetts 
New-Church Union, 1900. 


around the room; Mr. Carll read some suitable forms, in- 
cluding some passages from the Word; we kneeled, and united 
in repeating the Lord's Prayer; the proper questions were 
asked and answered. Mr. Carll then declared us to be a duly 
instituted church; and we all signed our names to a Creed 
which had been previously agreed upon. 

"This is but a feeble representation of the importance 
and greatness of the occasion to us. This consisted in the 
intensity of feeling and the spiritual state in which we did 
this. We felt that we were taking a step that was all-impor- 
tant to the world around us, all-important in every point of 
view. We felt that we were inaugurating the Lord's New 
Church upon the earth.'' 

The names of the twelve signers are the following: 

Joseph Roby Abigail Cowell 

Fames Mann Margaret H. Prescott 

Nathaniel Balch Eliza Cowell 

David A. Dayies Thomazine E. Minot 

Samuel Worcester Thomas Worcester 

Margaret G. Cary T. B. Hayward 

Thomas Worcester historically was the central figure among 
the twelve charter members of the Boston Society — not only 
for that society, but for the New Church in New England. At 
the close of his full academic course in Cambridge he entered 
the Harvard Unitarian Divinity School and pursued a three 
years' course there. Mr. Hayward, also in the theological 
school for three years, says: 

"Our position was well miderstood by the professors; 
and we expressed our views with the utmost freedom. We 
were active in bringing the doctrine to the attention of all 
who were ready to listen to them, and in corresponding with 
our friends at a distance on the subject. We were treated 
with great kindness by the government of the college, receiv- 
ing as much as others from funds which could be applied to 
the payment of our expenses" (Reed, pp. 38, 39). Harvard 
atoned for permitting the Arcana to be buried in dust and 
oblivion; long after Thomas Worcester became a New-Church 
clergyman, his Alma Mater made him a Doctor of Divinity in 


1856 — the first time that that degree had been bestowed on 
a New Churchman by any college. In 1854 he had been 
appointed by the Massachusetts legislature an overseer of 
Harvard, a position which he held for six years. Public 
opprobrium of New-Church persons was wearing off. 

The world at large in 1821 was less tolerant than Harvard. 
Mr. Worcester is quoted in Reed's biography of him, pp. 43, 
125, as writing in 1871: 

" The New Church is in all respects regarded very differ- 
ently from what it was fifty years ago. This some of us 
know by experience, for some of us were then quite depend- 
ent, and in want of employment. We had been struggling 
to get our education, and had exhausted, and more than 
exhausted, our means. We had expected to become ministers, 
but now all prospect of this was cut off. 

" Those who made any efforts to impart the truths they had 
received were in general soon led to relinquish the attempt 
by the incredulity or disdain with which they were repelled. 
They were acknowledged by the condescending liberality of 
their contemporaries, to be good people, though weak to a 
degree little short of fatuity." And the vivacious Mrs. Sam- 
uel Worcester, referring to those days, still further enlightens 

"Of course a great cry was raised against us, — we were 
deceived, — we were visionary, — were fanatics; and when in 
1817 I was married to Samuel Worcester, I believe our 
friends and relatives generally would have felt quite willing 
to have had us locked up in some insane asylum " [Semi- 
centennial, p. 18). 

A line of wooers on their way to a certain attractive home 
in Waltham, Massachusetts, will furnish a cheerful diversion 
for the readers of this book after breathing the atmosphere 
dismal with misunderstanding, or hostile with detraction, or 
bitter with contumely, or depressing with ridicule, or dull 
with indifference, with which the early New-Church people 
were treated by the public. 

The genial Waltham hearthstone which welcomed in those 
days Harvard students of Swedenborgian bias belonged to 
John Clark (1767-1850), captain of the state militia. On 


May 14, 1793, he had married Lydia Sanderson, a Wahham 
lassie aged twenty-four. Both could remember the battle of 
Lexington, which linked them with the Revolution, and both 
ultimately linked their fortunes with the New Church. Seven 
children were born to them during their fifty-seven years of 
married life. It may be said here that Captain and Mrs. 
John Clark when more than sexagenarians joined the Boston 
Society on July 5, 1835, and that five of their children had 
preceded them in membership. 

Thomas Worcester was one of the Harvard students of 
Swedenborgian bias whose heart drew him to Waltham be- 
cause of the fair Alice Clark. Captain Clark then lived on 
the site nearly opposite the present Waltham School for Girls. 
The region is known as " Piety Corner," and it is a mile from 
the present city of Waltham. The Clark house, of which 
only a picture remains, was sufficiently spacious to hold 
the seven children and all the lovers. It was in a pretty 
valley sheltered by wooded hills. Thomas Worcester, at 
twenty-six years of age, married the fair Alice Clark, and his 
testimony regarding her is the most direct that I can find. He 
said in later years (Reed, pp. 45, 46) : 

" Her mind was full of religious sentiment, and of a desire 
to live a good life, and she needed only the truth to direct her. 
So, when I became convinced that she would receive the 
doctrines of the New Church, I proposed that we should 
unite in our efforts to live according to them. The proposal 
was favorably received, but not accepted till after long, care- 
ful consideration, and consultation with her parents. The 
engagement lasted four years, before the time came for 
marriage. During this time I received a great deal of spirit- 
ual support from her, doubtless more than I know, and cer- 
tainly more than I can describe. She was much interested in 
the doctrines, and in all that I was doing in the church; and 
in all things she was a most valuable aid. As to my reception 
of the doctrines, she was a constant aid. It was only a few 
months after I began to receive them that she began. Our 
modes of receiving were, of course, different. The faith 
of a man is different from that of a woman, and neither is 
complete without the other. I know that when I had been 


studying anything of the church, I was always benefited by 
conversing with her upon it, and perceiving how she felt and 
thought about it. So, when we were married, and I entered 
upon my duties as a minister of the Boston society, she was of 
great use. My natural tendencies were such as to lead me to 
be very intimate with a very few, and to make it difficult for 
me to be open and communicative with many. But my wife 
was naturally very sociable, and when she came into the 
church she was full of both natural and spiritual kindness 
towards all. By her influence, and by the information she 
was continually giving me, I was drawn out somewhat, and 
made to do better than I should otherwise have done. 

"She was a very good wife and mother; and being very 
open-hearted and kind, she came into intimate relations with 
all, or nearly all, the wives and mothers in our society. Al- 
most daily did they come to her for advice and encourage- 
ment. This would lead us to study the subjects (they pre- 
sented) together. The studies were very useful to us, and I 
think they were the means of enabling her to be very useful 
to others." 

In 1821 Alice Clark Worcester is described as a beauti- 
ful bride. In 1845 my father and mother came on from 
Michigan for the Boston Church dedication; and their host- 
ess, Mrs. John H. Wilkins, said, " Mrs. Silver, have you seen 
our minister's wife? She is the cream of our society." My 
mother was enraptured upon meeting her. Mr. Worcester 
was licensed to officiate in 1821, and receive ordination in 

Mr. Worcester was a man of strong and commanding per- 
sonality. I hold no brief for him, but I truly think that he 
could not help being influential however hard he might try 
to the contrary. He was a born leader, and a multitude of 
persons whom I have known insisted that he should be such. 
WTien, from his towering height and with his massive frame, 
he bent over to take the hand of us small folk, we felt the 
power of a strong will, like granite. The touch of the hand 
was soft, the manner patriarchal, the voice low, the words 
few, the spirit kindly; but you felt yourself in the presence 
of a master of men, before whom irresolute wills would bend. 


and to whom teachable persons would listen. He was an 
enormous influence in New England and beyond it. I often 
recall the comment by Mrs. Horace P. Noyes, who often heard 
his sermons; she was a discriminating observer, and she said 
that if she began to listen, she continued to the end; for the 
discourse was so connected that there was never a loophole 
where she could slip out. 

The early meetings of the New Church for worship were 
held in private houses; then the little company changed from 
Hall to Hall, with no fixed abiding place. The gathering for 
the institution of the Society itself was under the roof of an 
earnest disciple, Dr. James Mann; and King's Chapel (Uni- 
tarian) showed Christian fellowship by the loan, on that 
occasion, of their Holy Communion Service for our use. 
The migratory Society, subject to the vicissitudes of all new 
movements, found in 1845 a seventh place of worship which 
proved beautiful and permanent. Mr. and Mrs. Worcester 
lived for fourteen years in friendly proximity to the Phillips 
Place Hall, and opened their own home for varied hospitality. 
They also, finally, established a permanent residence of Mr. 
Worcester's own erecting, in Louisburg Square in 1845. If 
you will stand facing the east side of the square you will see 
a brick block in which one house is distinguished by a bay 
window in the fourth story, marking Mr. Worcester's study. 

The Rev. John Worcester tells us that, even in 1828, music 
was in a transition state, and current hymnology was unsatis- 
factory. The Rev. T. B. Hayward, then a young layman, and 
apparently the best equipped musically among the worshipers, 
had attempted the introduction of old English anthems for 
morning service, and choruses from Handel's " Messiah " 
for evening. Then came " The Book of Publick Worship, 
prepared for the Use of the Boston Society of the New Jerusa- 
lem, in 1829. Boston, Hilliard, Gray, Little and Wilkins, and 
Adonis Howard." 

The above is a small book of one hundred and seventy 
pages, w^ith a dissertation on chanting filling thirteen pages. 
It contains twenty-nine chants and twenty-six choruses, of 
which nine are from Handel's Oratorio of the Messiah, in- 
cluding the difficult and impressive "Hallelujah Chorus," 


"Behold the Lamb of God," the "Glory to God in the 
Highest," and "Worthy is the Lamb that was Slain!" Their 
selection shows religious aspiration and musical ambition. 

Professor George James Webb of Wiltshire, England, was 
educated in voice, piano, violin, organ, harmony, and musical 
theory. Two events of value occurred shortly after his arrival 
in Boston in 1830. He met at a musical club T. B. Hayward; 
and he soon discovered his possession of a strange and attrac- 
tive book, The True Christian Religion, asked for the loan of 
it, and became deeply interested. In the meantime he had 
secured a position as organist at the Old South Meeting House, 
a building dating back to 1730, and a strong entrenchment for 

On a site called Phillips Place, now occupied by Houghton 
and Button's store. Beacon Street, near Tremont, the Boston 
Society worshiped, from 1831 to 1845, in a building gener- 
ously erected at the expense of Timothy Harrington Carter. 
The worshipers, entering a broad door, and ascending a flight 
of stairs, found themselves in a " domed Hall," as Rev. John 
Worcester has described it; and, with windows on a level, and 
ten windows in the dome, the room must have been attractive. 
To this cheerfully lighted Hall, Professor Webb went each 
Sunday morning from his organ at the Old South Meeting 
House after the opening service, to hear Rev. Thomas Worces- 
ter, returning before the closing musical services. But the 
Old South Church authorities objected. Professor Webb 

" I told them I was hired to play the organ, and as there 
was no music required after the sermon commenced, I then 
felt at perfect liberty to go and hear the doctrines preached 
in which I believed." 

The objectors continued, he acquiesced, but at the close of 
the year he resigned. After a few weeks they invited him 
to take the organ on his own terms, which he did temporarily; 
but the New Church soon engaged him permanently, and " his 
love for appropriate singing qualified him at once to give 
voice to the desires of the Society which received a new and 
delightful means of expression." * 

* See New Jerusalem Magazine, March, 1888, pp. 143-145. 

The Domed Hall in Phillips Place, where the 

Boston Society of the New Jerusalem 

worshiped for many years 

Professor Theophilus Pars 
of the Boston Society 

Interior of the Boston Church of tho \<'n Jiriisalem 


The completion of the Boston Society House of Worship 
on Bowdoin Street was a very marked event, historicaUy, 
religiously, and musically. A spacious interior lot was for 
sale, and in connection with its purchase they obtained a 
contiguous strip of land, about fifteen by forty feet, extend- 
ing to Bowdoin Street, on which the vestibule could be built. 
For public uses, the state has torn away the houses opposite 
this land, so that the entrance to the Church now faces the 
extension of the State House, thereby much enhancing its 
value. On this lot a worthy building for worship was erected, 
having a beautiful interior, the timbered roof giving a sense 
of spaciousness and exaltation, and the spire-like wood-carved 
repository for the Word in the centre of the chancel empha- 
sizing a fitting sense of reverence for the Lord's Holy Scrip- 
tures. On this repository, the large golden western window 
opposite threw a flood of rich light in the afternoon, sug- 
gesting to the beholder the radiance of heaven. 

The church dedication took place in connection with the 
twenty-seventh meeting of the General Convention of the 
New Jerusalem held in June, 1845. Clergymen and dele- 
gates over a wide area from Maine to Michigan were present, 
assembling on Wednesday the eleventh at Phillips Place, 
there being from two hundred and fifty to three hundred 
members and receivers other than those of Boston. At 2.30 
P.M. all adjourned to the Church building, the Rev. Benjamin 
F. Barrett preaching the sermon from Matthew viii, 18-20, 
including the statement that " the Son of man hath not where 
to lay His head." On Thursday, the Rev. George Field gave 
the discourse from Malachi, iii: 6, " I am the Lord, I change 
not." On Friday, the pulpit message was by Rev. Thomas 
P. Rodman from John, xiv: 1-3, of the many mansions in 
the Father's house. 

The business sessions are worth studying, since they show 
the wide range of religious activities already gaining atten- 
tion more than seven decades ago. 

At the Sunday services for the dedication thirteen hundred 
persons were present, the Rev. Thomas Worcester, pastor 
of the Boston Society, and president of the General Con- 
vention, delivering the sermon from a verse in King Solo- 


mon's prayer at the Temple dedication (I Kings, viii, 27) : 
"But will God indeed dwell on the earth? Behold, the 
heaven of heavens cannot contain Thee; how much less this 
house that I have builded? " 

After the sermon, Mr. Worcester very fittingly led in the 
Dedicatory Service, which consecrated the building to the 
worship of the Lord Jesus Christ as the one only God of 
heaven and earth. The music was of extraordinary power 
in its spiritual impressiveness according to the verbal testi- 
mony given by my parents who were present. The organ 
was at the left of the chancel, sustaining Professor Webb's 
carefully trained semi-choruses of fifty mixed voices, each 
placed at the two ends of the gallery near the instrument. 
The antiphonal effect by the answering bodies was fine, and 
the united choruses, emphasizing such portions of the psalms 
as expressed the Divine majesty and power, were full of 
grandeur {New Jerusalem Magazine, July, 1845). At this 
point it is interesting to turn to the Book of Publick Worship, 
six by four inches, prepared in 1829 for the Boston Society. 
I am pleasantly indebted to Rev. John Wright, an Episcopal 
clergyman of St. Paul, Minnesota, for his compendium of 
American liturgies at large, including our own. He was 
assisted by his warm friend, Rev. Frank Sewall. 

At the twenty-five gatherings of the Convention which I 
have attended, I have remembered most fervently those in 
which it was practicable to close the series of meetings on 
Sunday, after the administration of the Holy Supper, by 
Psalm 121. Words cannot describe the spiritual power of 
that psalm on those occasions. I contrast it with the best 
music I have heard elsewhere; with that of the Jewish syna- 
gogues here and abroad, rich in their Hebrew Scripture 
music, and their fine compositions, including chant-anthems; 
with the Russian choir of the Greek Chapel in Paris, where 
the quality of voice, the accurate intonation, the exquisite 
rendering were beyond words; with the mixed voices in the 
Royal Chapel at Munich under the Bavarian King Ludwig 
n which reached the highest point in religious expression 
which I have ever heard in the Roman Catholic Church. I 
would further add the Coptic Church music at Cairo, en- 


hanced by the ministrations of Ava Kirollos, Patriarch of 
Alexandria and of the visiting Bishop of Abyssinia; also 
the music at St. Peter's in Rome at Candlemas and Easter, 
when Pope Pius the Ninth still retained his civil power, and 
the stately church ceremonials, with a vast vested choir and 
many instruments including silver trumpets, carried the 
hearer back to a powerful historic past. And yet, all these 
retire to the background before the impressive devotionalism, 
the serenity of soul, the interior quickening of the spirit, 
experienced on hearing at our Convention Communion Ser- 
vice, the singing, by all, of the Psalm beginning, " I will lift 
up mine eyes to the mountains." In 1866, at Boston, there 
were more than six hundred communicants; and I think 
that the power lay in the fact that the singers were worship- 
ing the Lord Jesus Christ in His Glorified Humanity. 

Returning to Mr. Webb, I would call attention to his beauti- 
ful spirit in cooperative work. Other and new musicians 
came in, and when he was asked to help revise the 1876 
Liturgy to which he had contributed much music, " he labored 
on it with cordial good-will and displayed in his work such 
patience, reverence, and modesty, as greatly deepened the 
affectionate respect of those who had the pleasure of work- 
ing with him." In studying voice and piano with him my- 
self, and singing in his choir, comprising then about sixty 
members, I recall his weekly evening meetings at the church 
to drill the congregation in chanting, beginning with " Blessed 
is the man that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly." 
He was very earnest for music from every pew. 

Mrs. Augusta Fernald Faxon of the Boston Society has 
given a paper on "The Old Choir" which she brings down 
to 1865, when a new organ in the west gallery opposite the 
chancel, and a new choir, ended the old regime. Knowing 
Mr. Webb many years, she testifies to his noble character, 
exceptional ability, and devotion to the Church. His choir 
work " gave great satisfaction to regular attendants, and 
attracted many visitors." His eldest daughter, Mary Webb, 
led the south choir, Mrs. Keene the north choir. 

" Thomas Worcester had a strong cabinet," was a frequent 
remark; and Sampson Reed was certainly his prime minister, 


whose personal loyalty during a lifetime was unabated and 
unwavering. He was a son of Rev. John Reed, D.D., who 
had adopted the current doctrines, which he was led to scru- 
tinize when his eldest son asked questions about the catechism 
which he could not satisfactorily answer. This led him to 
change his views, and dismiss the catechism, in place of which 
he heard his children read daily especially in the Gospels; 
he himself going directly to the Sacred Scriptures as to no 
other book. 

Sampson Reed's Bible-loving father strengthened the lad's 
religious nature. While sharing Thomas Worcester's Har- 
vard academic and theological training, Sampson became in- 
terested in Swedenborg. Remaining a layman, he lived to 
see his influential son, James Reed, represent the clergy, and 
hand down the New Church to five lines of grandchildren. 
Sampson Reed won the admiration of the Concord tran- 
scendentalist, Ralph Waldo Emerson, who, at twenty-three 
years of age, first became interested in Swedenborg and 
his writings through a New-Church book of standard excel- 
lence. He says under date of September 10, 1826, in his 
Journal : 

"Our American press does not often issue such produc- 
tions as Sampson Reed's Observations on the Growth of the 
Mind, a book of such a character as I am conscious betrays 
some pretension even to praise. It has to my mind the aspect 
of a revelation, such is the wealth and such is the novelty 
of the truth unfolded in it. It is remarkable for the unity 
into which it has resolved the various powers, feelings and 
vocations of men, suggesting to the mind that harmony, which 
it has always a propensity to seek of action and design m 
the order of Providence in the world." * 

At twenty-one Emerson had entered the Harvard Divinity 
School in search of new truth, and was already asking whether 
the ministry of the day had something to say worth the at- 
tention of men : 

" Has the spell of weary century dissolved, and the Deity 
disclosed himself to men? Has the Most High opened 
his sublime abodes and come down on his sorrowing 
children with healing in his wings? Speak! How came 
* Emersou's Journals, Cambridge, 1909, vol. ii, p. 116. 


he? What is he? What said he? and what is to come? " 
(p. 59). 

At twenty-two he is combating the philosophy of Germany, 
declaring that it would be vile and supine to sit and be 
astonished without exploring the strength of the enemy. He 
makes a plea eloquent in its warmth for historic and legendary 

". . . for the august Founder, the twelve self-denying 
heroes of a pious renown distancing in moral sublimity all 
those primeval benefactors whom ancient gratitude deified 
... for the antidote which Christianity has administered to 
remorse and despair; the Samaritan oil it has poured into 
wounded hearts; the costly sacrifices and unpurchasable de- 
votion to the cause of God and man it has now for eighteen 
centuries inspired" (pp. 83-85). 

In spite of this plea, Emerson had already revealed some 
" daring heterodoxy " which had stirred the heart and evoked 
the reproof of his aunt. Miss Ellen Emerson, who had nur- 
tured him from childhood. In a spirited letter to him, she 
speaks of Jesus Christ as " a descended being, the Companion 
of God before time," and she pleads for an alliance with the 
most powerful of spirits — the Holy Ghost: 

"Holy Ghost given to every man in Eden; it was lost 
in the great contest going on in the vast universe; it was 
lost, stifled; it was regiven, embodied in the assumed hu- 
manity of the Son of God. . . ." 
Emerson wrote his aunt as follows: 

" But what, in the name of all the fairies, is the reason you 
don't like Sampson Reed? What swart star has looked 
sparely on him? Can anything be more gently, more wisely 
writ? Has any modern hand touched the harp of great 
nature so rarely? Has any one looked so shrewdly into 
the subtle and concealed connexion of man and nature, of 
earth and heaven? Has any, in short, produced such curi- 
osity to see the farther progress, the remoter results, of the 
cast of intellect to which he belongs? " (p. 124). 

In 1833 Emerson visited and charmed Thomas Carlyle, 
whence ensued a lengthened epistolary correspondence, sub- 
sequently edited by Professor Charles Eliot Norton. Emer- 
son writes in 1834: 


" I am glad that you like Sampson Reed, and that he has 
inspired your curiosity regarding his church." 

"He is a faithful thinker, that Swedenborgian druggist 
of yours," responds Carlyle, "with really deep ideas, who 
makes me pause and think, were it only to consider what 
manner of man he must be, and what manner of thing after 
all, Swedenborgians must be." 

Mr. Reed analyzes transcendentalism with discrimination 
in his preface to the fifth edition in 1865 of his Growth of 
the Mind. Emerson, in his Representative Men, extols Swed- 
enborg in brilliant epigram, but comprehends him irregularly 
and fitfully. He is stimulating, idealistic, resourceful. Mr. 
Reed's book is quietly suggestive, and reaches the deep levels 
of thought. 

Sampson Reed was the second Harvard student of Sweden- 
borgian bias to go wooing in Waltham. Among Captain 
Clark's daughters, he chose Catharine, who was more self- 
contained and reserved than her sister, Alice. The Reed's 
stately brick house in Louisburg Square was erected adjoin- 
ing that of Thomas Worcester on the north; and little James 
Reed and little John Worcester grew up as cousins side by 
side. The Silver family can testify to Sampson Reed's 
friendly welcome, and to his wife's tranquilly administered 
hospitality, on many a day. 

Caleb Reed graduated at Harvard in 1817, having George 
Bancroft and Caleb Cushing among his distinguished class- 
mates. About 1819 he became interested in the New Church; 
and Sampson Reed says of it: 

"He commenced reading for the purpose of convincing 
me, who was his brother, and by three years his junior, of 
my errors; and that being a good object was duly rewarded. 
He found a treasure which he little expected; and when he 
found it, he did not lay it up in a napkin, but used it to the 
best of his ability." 

Mr. Caleb Reed's early study and practice of law cover- 
ing nine years aided him in an intelligent analysis of spiri- 
tual truth; and his easy financial circumstances enabled him 
to give valuable gratuitous service for more than twenty 
years as editor of the New Jerusalem Magazine. Conciliatory 


in his manner, which brought conflicting elements into har- 
mony, he was inflexible in adherence to principle {New- 
Church Messenger, vol. ii, pp. 286, 287, December, 1854). 

In 1835 he married Mary, eldest daughter of Mrs. Thoma- 
zine Minot, the latter one of the charter members of the 
Boston Society. The young wife, after six years, was called 
to the other life, leaving an infant child, Arthur, and a daugh- 
ter, Helen, aged two. In this extremity, the Rev. and Mrs. 
Thomas Worcester extended a great-hearted welcome to the 
family. The Reeds remained several years under the 
Worcester roof, and Benjamin Worcester became Helen's 
first drawing teacher. The little girl was under the immediate 
care of Miss Ruth Cobb, who in 1847 married her father. 

Encouraged by Preston, son of Hiram Powers, under whom 
she was instructed in Boston in clay modeling, Helen Reed 
went to Italy for study of art, remaining twenty-five years. 
She rejoiced in the Signor Scocia movement. 

In 1892, Mrs. Henry Nichols and myself saw Helen's home 
in Florence. From our rooms on the Arno we followed 
a street leading past the Pitti Palace through the Porto 
Romano Gate. Just within a paved archway was the door 
leading to her little suite of ground floor studio rooms abound- 
ing with artistic objects. Two flights above was her home 
suite: at the front, her dining room, at the back, her parlor, 
seemingly ten miles from city noises. It looked out on shrub- 
bery and trees where the nightingales should have sung for us, 
but did not. For sixteen years Helen shared this home with 
Miss Robinson, an English lady, with a low-toned, beauti- 
fully modulated voice, who was gracious to Helen's New- 
Church friends, familiar with the Italian language, closely 
observant of the native people, and possessed of a keen sense 
of fun. 

The tie between Helen Reed and her brother Arthur was 
exceptionally near; he visited her every year abroad. He 
was in the Harvard class of '62, and a member of the Phi 
Beta Kappa; an officer in the Civil War, one of the founders 
of the Apollo Club, and clerk of the Boston Society under 
his cousin. Rev. James Reed. Helen's spiritual anchorage, 
and her submission, when Arthur was called up higher in 


1915, astonished her friends. She followed in 1917. We 
love to look at her " Angel of the Resurrection " in low relief 
in one of the rooms of the Boston church. The face and 
upward gesture express aspiration; the flowing hair and 
drapery are full of motion. Helen herself is now hearing 
the ineff'able music of adoration by the angels, and is seeing 
the transcendent colors of heaven. 

Tilly B. Hayward (1797-1878) chose Harvard as his 
Alma Mater, entering a bit later than the Worcester group. 
He never married, but warmed his bachelor heart at Caleb 
Reed's hearthstone as a member of his household for several 
years. He occupied the fourth-story room recently known 
as Helen Reed's "den" or studio, with its portfolios of her 
exquisitely tinted pastels of Venetian scenes. There was 
genial coloring in Mr. Hayward's character also. Thomas 
Worcester, as a co-student at college, drew his attention one 
day in 1817 to the New Church. He commented on a lately 
deceased friend, expressed interest in his present condition, 
and wondered what he was doing in the other world. Young 
Hayward inquired concerning these singular thoughts, re- 
called the current unsatisfactory views regarding life here- 
after, borrowed and read Heaven and Hell, and asked him- 
self, " Is there really no test by which I shall certainly know 
whether it is true or false? " And Sampson Reed tells us 
that Mr. Hayward seemed to hear a voice saying: 

" There is such a test. If it has the tendency to make you 
a better man; to make you love the Scriptures; to bring you 
nearer to the Lord, it is true, not otherwise." 

Mr. Hayward was the youngest of the twelve charter mem- 
bers of the Boston Society, kept his heart green through his 
teaching of boys and young men, was more interested in 
bringing out their faculties than in filling their memories, 
became a critical translator of Swedenborg from the Latin, 
taught the Greek Testament in our Theological School, and 
was ordained a clergyman in 1850. 

Francis Phelps, when a Harvard senior in 1836, dropped 
into the office of his lawyer cousin, Theophilus Parsons, one 
day, found him too occupied to visit, and picked up a copy 
of the New Jerusalem Magazine. Here he found an article 


by Sampson Reed Concerning Marriages in Heaven. It con- 
tained wonderful things at which he grew more and more 
astonished every moment. On finishing its perusal he had 
a complete conviction that it was all true, and — to use his 
words — he became a thorough-going Swedenborgian with- 
out knowing then what it all meant. For the past six or seven 
years he had been visiting other churches to discover some- 
thing of life hereafter, only to be told that nothing could 
be known. On that very visit he borrowed the New Jerusalem 
Magazine numbers by the dozen — fifty or sixty of them — 
and as he crossed Harvard Bridge with his huge bundle he 
felt that he had discovered a great treasure. He devoted to 
it every moment spared from college studies, joined the 
Church in 1837, and his sixty years' devotion to it only 
ended for this world with his death. 

Francis Phelps also warmed his bachelor heart under 
Caleb Reed's hospitable Pinckney Street rooftree, visiting 
it often for the sake of his dear bachelor friend, Tilly Hay- 
ward. Mr. Phelps not only read Swedenborg, but he carried 
a great quantity of accurate paragraph numbers in his ca- 
pacious head. At a temporary club with Mr. Peleg Chandler 
as president which met at one time in the Tremont Street 
Theological School rooms, I was there. And when some dis- 
puted point of doctrine arose, Francis Phelps, who came, 
I think, as a watchman upon the walls and a protector of 
truth, would go to the library, find the fitting passage in the 
Arcana, and read it. 

Frank 0. Whitney was another bachelor-for-life New 
Churchman. He was as true a friend of Rev. James Reed 
as Damon ever was to Pythias, and he protected him from 
the perils of the sea when they crossed the Atlantic in 1910 
for the great New-Church Centennial in London. He was 
also a warm friend of George Ropes, who became a benedict 
by marrying Mary Minot Clark, a lady of very superior 
character, and a granddaughter of the good Waltham sea 
captain Clark. I saw Mr. Whitney last at the home of the 
Ropes daughters, Alice and Charlotte, and was surprised 
to hear him say that he liked Thackeray better than Dickens. 
I fancied that the satirist's caustic pen would offend the 


serene-spirited man, but sometimes we may like to have other 
people say what we only think in silence. It is a kind of 
vicarious outlet. 

Francis Phelps was delighted when his brother Arthur — 
ten years his junior — became an ardent New Churchman. 
Arthur, at thirty-five, while still a bachelor, made an extended 
European trip. His autograph lecture on the subject lies 
before me, and furnishes material to the reader for character 
study. In 1853, few Americans made leisurely recreative 
journeys abroad, although Arthur's pastor, the Rev. Thomas 
Worcester, had preceded him. Mr. Phelps sailed the eighth 
of December from Boston, a bracing Nor'Wester giving life 
to the "graceful inanimate craft." But, in spite of the 
barque's spirited name. Race Horse, and its 3500 yards of 
canvas, the boat zigzagged over 4700 miles of water from Bos- 
ton to Marseilles, and consumed thirty-four days. She bore 
up against prolonged headwinds, lost her bowsprit, her run- 
ner, and part of her bulwarks, and treated the passengers to 
a terrific Christmas storm, with yawning water caverns, steep 
mountain waves, vivid lightning, and reverberating thunder 
— magnificent and terrible phenomena which Mr. Phelps wit- 
nessed with "mingled emotions of awe, surprise, and ad- 
miration." With returning sunshine, he felt a deep and 
abiding delight in the exquisite coloring of sunset and sun- 
rise. He was quickly responsive to the beautiful, or to mili- 
tary strength as at Gibraltar, or to the tragic, as at Chateau 
d' If, or to the historic, as at Elba. 

He traveled without haste, spending three months in Rome, 
under Pope Pius IX. as civil ruler. Here he conscientiously 
visited the ancient, mediaeval, and modern city, from the 
earliest aqueduct to the latest studio, of which I will give no 
guidebook catalogue. He was impressed by the Roman ritual, 
saw the stately pomp of Candlemas and Easter in St. Peter's, 
and witnessed the lengthy ceremonial by Cardinal Ferrati 
of receiving the Countess Barcaroli as a nun, and he adds, 
" Immediately afterwards we received from her own hands, 
in another part of the Church, cakes and candies as the 
closing entertainment of the day — this being her farewell to 
the world and its sins." He continues: 


"It was fine to see Old Rome where the frequent cele- 
brations and festivals were held, the interest in them in- 
creased by the presence of Pope, cardinal, and monk, with 
all the glittering pomp and quaint apparel, and to witness 
with subdued delight the most gorgeous ceremonials of that 
powerful Church." 

Mr. Phelps received much kind hospitality from Crawford, 
the sculptor, and met, at his dinner table, Lockhart, the son- 
in-law of Walter Scott. Phelps traveled for five months 
with Dr. L. S. Burridge, who was a great source of pleasure 
and instruction. The latter was, I infer, the brother-in-law 
of Cephas G. Thompson, the New-Church artist, who is also 
mentioned. Among the great art centres, the fine minor cities 
of Italy were not neglected. The traveler returned by Switzer- 
land, France and England. To twentieth century eyes, the 
striking feature of the sojourn abroad in 1853-4 was the 
small travel by rail. In looking back over his journey, he 

" I distinctly call to mind the old-fashioned and unsightly 
vehicles used in the common work of life, and the clumsy 
coaches ^ — diligence and vettura — which transported travel- 
ers at five miles an hour from one end of Italy to another. 
It was my privilege, — and it gratified a curiosity — to be 
carried from place to place in those rustic and heavy convey- 
ances, drawn by poor horses which were harnessed by a 
mingled combination of rope, leather and chains." 

Mr. Phelps saw the advantage of a non-conducted tour, 
since he could quietly and tranquilly visit galleries and noble 
architectural structures, often alone; he was thereby per- 
mitted greater individuality of action, more careful judg- 
ment, the enlargement of his powers of observation, better 
student work, and increased usefulness as a critic. He quotes 
a writer who compares mammoth excursions "to a parcel- 
delivery business, where tourists are passive instruments, 
marked, numbered, and warehoused according to terms of 
invoice." The following shows the practical side of the 
Phelps character: 

" I was absent a little more than nine months, and traveled 
a distance of over 11,000 miles. The total expenses — in- 


eluding $50.00 for clothing, and $50.00 for souvenirs for 
friends — amounted to $732.83." 

Mr. Phelps's diary is prefaced with the verse from Isaiah, 
xl, 31, beginning, "But they that wait upon the Lord shall 
renew their strength." He was entertained by the New 
Churchman abroad, Hiram Powers, the Florence sculptor, 
and gladly renewed his religious affiliations there. He was 
of a sunny, pliable nature. His mother, Sarah, was a sister 
of Chief Justice Parsons, and Arthur had much of the catho- 
licity of taste and interest shown in his cousin. Professor 
Theophilus Parsons. He happily forsook his bachelorhood, 
and married Miss Harriet Pratt, who joined the Boston So- 
ciety in 1866. They were our valued Roxbury neighbors 
for many years. 

I was present at the last communion service of Arthur 
Phelps in his chamber, administered with most impressive 
solemnity by Rev. James Reed. Mr. Phelps was on the very 
verge of the other world, and it was as if the gates were a 
bit ajar, and the heavenly radiance shone on or through his 
face. The unselfish Ellen Andrews was present, having fur- 
nished a carriage to bring over his beloved brother Francis, 
who followed him to the happy land of reunions in the same 
year, 1897. The devoted wife still survives. 

Thomas Doliber formed an indissoluble triumvirate of 
warm friends with George Ropes and Frank Whitney. He 
married Miss Ada Heath, and with his ardent temperament 
and enthusiasm for good church music, happy was the Society 
that counted him among its members. His wife was exceed- 
ingly well endowed mentally, and solved the problem of 
juvenile books which were both elevating and interesting by 
testing them on the six children of her household. The Doli- 
ber musical parties in Brookline were a delight, with their 
high order of English glees, madrigals, and carols for boys' 
voices under a trained leader. 

John P. Perry (1819-1886), a Dartmouth alumnus, re- 
ceived authority to preach in the Orthodox Congregational 
Church. But his devout study of Scripture led him to be- 
lieve in the Unity of God in One Person, and of man's early 
resurrection from the body. Swedenborg confirmed his Bible 


deductions, and he entered our ministry in 1852. I knew 
his treasure of a Danish wife, Emma Rusch Perry. They 
still live in their New-Church sons, Chauncey of Waltham, 
and John of California, and in their artistic daughter Emilie, 
whom we all recall when we see the significant design of our 
League pin. 

Nathanail Hobart (1794-1840) was the third Harvard 
student of Swedenborgian bias to go wooing among Captain 
Clark's flock of daughters at Waltham. He was in Caleb 
Cushing's class of 1813, but did not graduate. The Hobart 
family in this country dates back seven generations to Ed- 
mund of 1633. Nathanael's great-grandfather Isaac (1700- 
1775) of Abington was clever at civil engineering, and 
possessed a Puritan conscience. Through inadvertance in 
forgetting the day, he started his grist mill going one Sunday 
morning. Reminded at ten a.m. by a passing neighbor of 
this infraction of the Holy Day, he instantly stopped his 
mill, hastily dressed for church, and attended service. On 
the following Monday he kept himself and his family from 
all labor until ten a.m. to balance the previous day. 

The Waltham Clarks where young Hobart sought a wife 
were of similar ancestry, and Waltham had known them for 
four or five generations. Benjamin Worcester says of them: 

" Their honesty and piety were of the simple, practical 
sort by which, when they had sold wood at a price, and the 
market price fell before its delivery, they would take but 
the reduced price; and if beans were wanted for the Sun- 
day's dinner, they must be gathered and shelled before Sat- 
urday's sun went down." They were sturdy, rugged men. 
Congregational deacons, holding state offices of trust because 
of their probity. Captain Clark's son Calvin brought home 
strange Swedenborgian news from Cambridge. Doubt and 
fear were in the old folks' mind, but their hearts told them 
that what they heard from the lips of the serious-minded, 
plain-speaking young collegians, who came on marriage in- 
tent, must be true. They studied its eff'ect on character, and, 
twenty years later, followed their children into the Boston 

Nathanael Hobart chose Lydia, the most decisive of the 


Clark daughters. She assisted at home in farm, garden, 
dairy and kitchen. After thirteen happy years of married 
life, her husband was lost in the tragedy of the Long Island 
Sound boat, Lexington, being, like his great-girandfather 
Aaron in 1705, "drowned in sailing toward Boston." Na- 
thanael was wise in choosing a strong-spirited, firm-willed, 
heroic-hearted maiden for his wife. She was now left with 
four fatherless children, and slender financial resources; 
but she trusted in God, and opened a school. Her son, 
Nathan, a lad of eleven, grew sturdily, was a comfort to her, 
married at twenty-eight, and furnished children to the Wal- 
tham New-Church school. Mrs. Lydia Hobart's little two- 
year-old soon followed his father to the summer land. The 
two daughters, Sarah and Cornelia, were transplanted to the 
other life at nineteen and twenty-one years of age (Benja- 
min Hobart's Abington, pp. 275, 276, 392, 393) . Benjamin 
Worcester says: 

" The loveliness, the affection, the brilliancy of soul were 
never more manifest than with these two noble girls in their 
last days; and in this way the distinction between the living 
soul and the wasting body became strikingly clear. The elder, 
who was taken first, was so far withdrawn in soul from the 
suffering body that she would speak in pity of the sick girl 
as of another person, so gently was the separation and re- 
moval made. A little later, the soul of the other daughter, 
radiant with the love of heaven, stole away on the last gently 
expiring breath. Her mother, prepared by a wonderful 
dream, had not a tear to shed, only saying, 'How beautiful! ' 
Her strong natural feelings were gently loosed and chastened, 
and made to give place to the self-denying spiritual love 
which rejoiced more in their gain than the natural suffers 
from their loss" (copied with slight transposition from New- 
Church Messenger of May 26, 1886). Mr. Worcester fur- 
ther says of his Aunt Lydia that scholars sought her out for 
love and sympathy. To her came ministers and doctors, 
lawyers and teachers, their wives and their children, for 
counsel and encouragement. 

In 1879 I spent a half day with Mrs. Lydia Hobart, after 
a Sunday sermon by Mr. Benjamin Worcester. She was in 


pleasant rooms in her son's Waltham home. We discussed 
old friends, old days, old manners, old ways. I asked her 
concerning two persons whom we knew who went abroad, 
and left the New-Church fold for the Church of Rome. Her 
solution of the problem was gentle. She said that our simple 
service seemed inadequate, and they sought for a richer 
ritual to give expression to their devotional natures. As she 
herself required nothing of the kind, it showed a certain 
largeness of horizon that she could put herself in their place. 
She was a septuagenarian, but her mental and physical powers 
seemed intact. I asked if she did not sometimes take a little 
siesta on a suhry afternoon; but she replied, "Never," and 
she sat for six hours as erect as a pine tree, and insisted on 
my remaining until dusk lest I get a sunstroke. Her clear-cut 
outline of character was already mellowing under a certain 
haze which diffuses over great natures in the autumn of life. 
But her love of self-reliance and her vigorous will — quick- 
ened under her burden of widowhood — yielded only after 
a struggle. She succeeded ; and many a person came to light 
their little taper of courage at her great torch of heroism. 

Timothy Harrington Carter went also to Captain Clark's 
for a wife. He chose Martha, the most affectionate of the 
three sisters whom I knew. She was winning in personality, 
and demonstrative in manner; over her comely face expres- 
sion came and went like shimmering sunlight through foliage 
on the grass. I saw her last in 1868, when she planned a 
week for me at her house. It never materialized to my great 
loss. The more Clarks the better, in this world. Mr. Thomas 
Worcester's daughter, Mrs. Thomas Thacher, told me that 
Mrs. Carter most resembled her own mother, Alice Clark 
Worcester. The short-lived daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Carter 
— Mary — married Edwin Hale Abbott, Harvard tutor, then 
lawyer, always the staunch friend of Rev. James Reed. At 
the New-Church Convention of 1855 in Boston, my attention 
was called to a beautiful group of girls — five cousins. I 
can recall four: Mary Carter, Cornelia Hobart, Lizzie Reed, 
and Helen Reed. The first three were granddaughters of 
Capt. John Clark of Waltham. 

The procession of New-Church brides from the old sea- 


captain's roof is closed. Alice Clark Worcester in 1821; 
Lydia Clark Hobart in 1827; Catharine Clark Reed in 1832 
on Christmas Day; Martha Clark Carter in 1833. The last 
three joined the Boston Society in 1827; Alice much earlier. 
The parents followed the footsteps of their daughters and 
of their son Calvin; and with their youngest son, Luther, 
they joined the Boston Society in 1835, aged sixty-eight and 
sixty-six respectively. 

Harrington Carter's maternal great-grandfather is worth 
knowing. The Rev. Timothy Harrington was settled as an 
Orthodox Congregational clergyman in Lancaster, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1748, on an annual salary of $213.33. The 
salary rose to $300.00, but fell back in 1788, "because 
the currency was fluctuating, it being determined by the 
price of rye, Indian corn, beef and pork." In 1792, owing 
to Mr. Harrington's advanced age, his parishioners consulted 
him "touching his inclinations concerning a colleague, and 
a highly respectable committee was raised for this delicate 
business." Finally, one of the deacons thought that enough 
candidates had been heard, but those with " itching ears " de- 
sired to hear more. 

Mr. Harrington's pastorate of forty-seven years closed in 
the year 1795; and Rev. Nathanael Thayer was made his 
successor. The new incumbent, born in 1769, a descendant 
of Rev. John Cotton, was a strictly Orthodox believer who 
drifted consciously or unconsciously into conservative Uni- 
tarianism. Mr. Harrington was too feeble to witness his 
induction into office, but was carried to the front of his 
house, where, with tears in his eyes, and white locks stream- 
ing, he gave his benediction to his young colleague as he 
passed by. 

The Carters were conspicuous in the annals of the town in 
the eighteenth century, were moderators, selectmen, and dele- 
gates to the General Court or State Legislature (History of 
Lancaster, pp. 335, 462). Deacon Horatio Carter resigned 
office because, in 1830, he had embraced the doctrines of the 
New Jerusalem. The pastor furnished him with a certificate 
of his regular standing in his church. 

Timothy Harrington Carter (1798-1894), descendant of 


the good old Orthodox divine, Timothy Harrington, came to 
Boston from Lancaster in 1819, with an early love of books 
and with aptitude for their production; he now added suc- 
cessful experience. After study abroad in 1827, he formed 
the partnership of Carter, Hendee & Co., secured a lease of 
the land on Washington and School Streets, and brought the 
first literary associations to the spot known later as The Old 
Corner Book Store. The land extending up School Street nearly 
to the present City Hall was granted about 1630 under King 
Charles I to William Hutchinson, but he lost it in 1638 
through the radicalism of his wife Anne, who received ec- 
clesiastical trial for "traducing the ministers" and was ex- 
communicated. The present Old Corner building was erected 
in 1712. More than a century later Carter enlarged it, and 
we know the quaint building with its gambrel roof rich in 
windows. Up School Street Carter ran a continuous block, 
behind which were his seven printing presses run by a team 
of Canadian horses. He brought up his business from $1,400 
to $4,000 a year. Unable to renew his lease of land, he sold 
out to Messrs. John Allen and William D. Ticknor, serving 
as silent partner and adviser."^ 

Mr. Carter joined the Boston Society in 1821, published 
volumes of Swedenborg at his own expense, and was a 
Father Bountiful, erecting at his own cost in 1832 the Phillips 
Place building for the Boston Society's place of worship. 
Unworldliness in finance and generous giving were charac- 
teristics of early Boston New Churchmen. The ladies raised 
fifty dollars to send abroad for a set of the Arcana as a gift 
to their pastor; and Mr. Worcester was one of many to pay 
tithes to the Church treasury. 

Mrs. Emeline Staniford Holt Ticknor added much de- 
votional and social value to the Boston Society. Her father 
was Master of the old Mayhew School of Boston, and her 
grandfather. Rev. Thomas Baldwin, was a Baptist clergyman 
of influence. On the hallowed Christmas day in 1832, Eme- 
line married William D. Ticknor, both the bride and the 
bridegroom being only twenty years of age. A miniature of 

* See pp. 15-17, 22, in Hawthorne and His Publisher, by Caroline Ticknor, 339 
pp., Boston and New York, Houghton MitHin Company, 1913. 


him at thirty discloses a high forehead framed in curling 
hair, brilliant blue eyes, fine features, high coat collar, and 
the white waistcoat and voluminous white neckcloth of the 
period. I knew her in later years, and recognized her per- 
sonal charm and sweetness, together with a heroic calm born 
of self-conquest when seeing three of her seven children 
successively pass to the other life before her. The sweet- 
spirited Alice grew up to maidenhood; and her last little 
social outing away from home — because of enfeebled health 
— was at our Roxbury home. At the early sunset of Alice's 
life she loved to watch serenely the beautiful tints of the 
earthly sunset sky. Her sister Emeline shared to the end her 
devoted love of the New Church. 

John H. Wilkins (1794-1861) early showed his bent by 
laboring assiduously for a college education, entering Har- 
vard in 1814 as a beneficiary student. He received several 
Boylston prizes as a writer, and his range extended from the 
realm of science to that of the imagination. His elementary 
treatise on Astronomy helped young people to love the stars; 
and he said of the bard of Avon: 

" Shakespeare may sometimes nod like Homer. But to 
this we will not object if he will tell us his dreams." 

The son of a deacon, and the grandson of a clergyman of 
Amherst, New Hampshire, young Wilkins's religious nature 
was aroused by a church revival, but his inquiring mind 
failed of satisfaction in the current tenets of theology {New- 
Church Messenger, July 29, 1903). Learning of the New 
Church through his classmate, Thomas Worcester, he wrote 
from Taunton just after his graduation: 

" I have been attending to Heaven and Hell. I cannot tell 
where I shall come to. I can only pray that I may be guided 
right and to the truth; but can say nothing against the work, 
for I find nothing in it but what I think I should act the 
better for fully believing. I have read some of it to the 
people with whom I board. But it is too high for their 
adoption. Heaven and hell are not visible, and consequently 
must be a great ways off." Again in 1819: 

" I have been reading with considerable rapidity the 
'Divine Providence.' ... I want very much to hear from 


brother Goddard ; to hear how he digests this new food. . . . 
We have set out on a very important and difficult journey; 
and it becomes us to take heed to our ways, and to keep a 
conscience pure and unspotted. . . . Our prospect in this 
world is certainly not most encouraging. Popular prejudice 
will meet us at every corner" {Fiftieth Anniversary of Bos- 
ton Society, pp. 26, 27). 

Mr. Wilkins re-entered Harvard, and joined its Theological 
School with Sampson Reed and Thomas Worcester; but upon 
the latter being appointed leader of the New-Church move- 
ment in Boston, the two others promptly recognized his su- 
periority, and willingly remained laymen. Wilkins was 
book publisher for thirty years, and successively bank presi- 
dent, state senator, and varied office holder in the Church. 
In 1822, with an income of only $300.00, he approved the 
Boston Society's decision to adopt paying Church tithes. He 
was proportionately generous in his subsequent prosperity. 
You may see, in the vestry of the Boston Society, a fine por- 
trait of him by Cephas G. Thompson. 

In 1826 Mr. Wilkins married the widow, Mrs. Thomazine 
Minot, who, through her first husband, furnished her daugh- 
ters as brides to Caleb Reed, Dr. Luther Clark, and Joseph 

Mrs. Wilkins wrote excellent religious juvenile books in- 
culating New-Church principles. Many of us have had our 
little souls profitably fed by her Early Lessons; and one 
work was translated into German by the wife of Prof. Im- 
manuel Tafel of Tiibingen under the title, Unterricht vom 
Evigen Leben fiir Kinder. 

To study, business, and religion, Mr. Wilkins added travel, 
going abroad in 1833, visiting profitably in London, and 
procuring rare original editions of the Writings {New Jeru- 
salem Magazine, vol. vii, p. 59). 

The Silver family were once guests under Mr. Wilkins's 
roof. Before me lies his gift to myself; The Music of Nature 
by William Gardiner, 1841 — a curious and learned work, 
analyzing composers from Purcell to Cherubini, vocalists 
from Garcia to Malibran, also musical instruments, bird 
songs, animal noises; and giving myriad sounds in musical 


notation — from the false ring of a counterfeit shiUing, to the 
roar of a storm. 

William J. Cutler was another layman who strengthened 
the foundations of the Boston Society. His geniality was like 
the cement that unites, and his steadfastness like the stone that 
makes firm. He was true even to the very last day of his life, 
serving his dear Church on Sunday morning, in distributing 
the Holy Communion elements, and falling into the last sweet 
brief sleep while in his arm chair in the afternoon. 

He married in 1857 the widow of Richard B. Carter. Her 
maiden name was Lucy Lazelle Hobart, daughter of the 
veteran Benjamin of Abington. She possessed great per- 
sonal beauty and much grace of manner. She brought four 
Carter sons into her second home, three of whom died sud- 
denly by accident; but her spiritual poise exceeded that of 
anyone I ever knew. Persons who will meet tragedy with 
Christian fortitude as she did manifest grave perturbation 
of spirit from petty annoyances. I have seen Mrs. Cutler 
tested in foreign travel. We go to a small Italian station 
for a steam train. The scheduled time passes. We await; 
not in an H. H. Richardson station as in the Newtons, with 
its artistic curved roof, and vines clambering charmingly 
over the window panes; but in a prosaic building with hard 
benches and poor ventilation. The train, in true dolce far 
niente fashion, and without visible excuse, arrives an hour 
late; but Mrs. Cutler is as tranquil as an Indian summer day. 
She has learned how to meet life at all angles. 

Amelia is another daughter of Benjamin Hobart. Observe 
his steel engraving portrait lying before me. Every feature 
is decisive. He is of firm moral fibre. Amelia was less 
pliable than her sister Lucy; she had much of her father's 
sturdiness of will, combined with a warm emotional nature. 
Her only love story was her husband, William H. Dunbar, 
whom she had known from childhood — a fine man, and 
admirably fitted for her. He was sixth in descent from Robert 
Dunbar of Hingham of the early seventeenth century. Will- 
iam and Amelia were married in 1840; and they handed 
the New Church on to the fifth generation from Benjamin, 
through their daughter Lucy, who became the wife of Edward 


Cutler, of St. Paul, Minnesota, and whose grandchild was 
rocked in a New-Church cradle. 

It was a delight to see Mrs. Amelia Hobart Dunbar's very 
strong will gradually bending to the Divine will; to see her 
vision gradually directing itself more and more exclusively 
to the things of the spirit. In the last week of her fatal ill- 
ness in April, 1910, the nurse gave me a brief interview. 
We were alone. Shining through her marble face was the 
radiant spirit. She had said at the end of my ten weeks' 
visit in 1894, " Miss Silver, I shall always love you." Now, 
her little refrain was, " Miss Silver, I love you, I love you." 
It reminded me of the aged apostle John, carried up the 
aisle in his chair, and repeating his message, " Little children, 
love one another." 

Waldo Cutler was another of the four brothers who rep- 
resented religion in commercial life, and thereby fortified 
the Church. His wife was steadfast in friendship, fair of 
face, and winning in personality. How well I recall her 
sense of riches as she and her husband stood proudly at 
their Silver Wedding among their seven children. Her old- 
fashioned piety stirred her to keep alive the custom of reading 
her Bible through every year — three chapters each week 
day, and five chapters for Sunday. It was a privilege to 
her to serve the church, especially in its devotional duties; 
and never could the Rev. Thomas Worcester, the Rev. James 
Reed, and the Rev. H. Clinton Hay have had a parishioner 
of more unswerving loyalty. 

Abram Cutler, brother of William and Waldo, and quite 
as much of a sustaining power, married Marcia, a sister of 
the Rev. Frank Sewall of fragrant memory. After serving 
Boston, they became pillars of strength in the Brookline 
Society. She lived as a young maiden under Mr. Worcester's 
roof, and has given me many reminiscences of old days. 
She was a warm friend of Mrs. James Edgerly, who, as 
little Sophronia Wilder, attended a school kept by Lyman 
Abbott's brother Charles, at the corner of Temple Place and 
Tremont Street. She was then a Unitarian child, and strayed 
one day into a New-Church wedding in Phillips Place. She 
grew up to learn of our faith, married Mr. Edgerly, and had 


a capacious pocket for the benefit of our church fairs. Her 
religion was tested when her husband and nine of her ten 
children preceded her to the other world, but she conquered, 
and her life became serene. 

David L. Webster was one of those men of affairs who 
consecrated his profits by enriching the Boston Society's 
exchequer, and whose well-filled hand reached to the border- 
lands of missionary work. He was generous in time, as chair- 
man of the church committee for many years. He handed 
down the spirit of hospitality to his son Andrew, who, in 
1878, played host at the White Mountains to Mr. George 
Broadfield of England — a New Churchman and man of 
leisure who, in Mr. John Worcester's little forest that sum- 
mer, as he sat on the grass surrounded by a group of acquaint- 
ances, drew from his pocket Daisy Miller, and regaled us with 
Henry James's genial and observant satire. Mr. Broadfield 
sang himself into the hearts of the Americans; and, at an 
earlier period, the Prince of Wales, afterwards King Ed- 
ward VH, had enjoyed his stirring and pathetic English 
ballads. As I may not return to the Broadfields, I might 
say, in passing, that I met the elder brother, Mr. Edward 
John Broadfield, at a social gathering of the General Con- 
vention at the house of Mr. James Baxter of Portland in 
1880. The incidental introduction on this occasion of Mr. 
Broadfield to the Rev. Edwin Gould of Montreal was most 
interesting. They discussed two contrasting types of public 
men: the first was a champion of Gladstone, the second a 
champion of Disraeli, each well equipped, and able to wield 
arguments for his favorite. Mr. Broadfield, leader of the 
London New-Church Centennial of 1910, has been called 
to the higher life. The Rev. Frank Sewall says: 

"The public press of Manchester [England] has overflowed 
with tributes to Mr. Edward John Broadfield, including that 
of the Dean of the Cathedral, recognizing his great service as 
an educator and teacher in everything that elevates and re- 
fines society." 

Mr. David Webster at his own Boston hearthstone was 
generous in a lordly manner to his acquaintances; the house 
was spacious, a hundred members of the New-Church Club 


including friends being easily entertained of an evening. 
The menage had an easy margin every day, and the adding 
at any time of an unexpected guest at dinner was but the 
drawing up of an extra chair, the adding of another plate. 
His Church interest continued to the last of his eighty-nine 
years. My last interview was characteristic: he, when near 
his end, inquired eagerly and minutely regarding the recent 
session of the Massachusetts Association; he had had several 
versions; he wished still another point of view. He handed 
down good blood to his grandsons who serve Dr. Grenfell 
in Labrador, or make the supreme sacrifice in the World 
War, with equal devotion. David Webster was a consistent 
conservative, conscientious in his well-defined convictions, 
and firm of will. 

John Webster, brother of David, was more pliable, less 
granite-like in will, and equally loyal to the New Church. 
I only knew him after his second marriage to Mary Moulton 
of Bangor, who warmly embraced the religious faith of her 
husband. She was very proud of him, a man of kindly spirit, 
attractive face, and erect figure, adorned through all the years 
with the ruffled shirt-front at dinner. He was bravely patri- 
otic, giving the life of an only son in the Civil War. 

The Boston Webster home diffused much hospitality. In 
1893 you might meet there Miss Laura Hughes of the Train- 
ing School at Cambridge, England, who would tell us of 
Newnham and Girton. Or, again, a native of Finland, leader 
of a woman orchestra, who would sing and translate charac- 
teristic folk songs of her own land. Or, on April 2, 1880, 
guests would hear the musical version of Cox and Box with 
the versatile Mr. George Broadfield in a prominent role. 
Or, on December, 1895, you might hear Mrs. Ballington 
Booth in Mrs. Webster's drawing-room. Here were opulent 
persons ready to sign large bank checks in furtherance of her 
good prison-reform work. Here were clergymen, wearing a 
badge — a five-dollar annual pledge to say a good word for 
the cause — among them Rev. Edward Everett Hale, and 
Rev. Julian K. Smyth; also Rev. Charles F. Beale, who rep- 
resented Congregationalism, and who said to me: 

"Miss Silver, I often look at you Swedenborgians, and 


wonder if you ever lose heart; for your growth is slow and 
your numbers are small. But let me tell you, that you never 
would be discouraged if you look at yourselves as I look at 
you; for you exercise an influence out of all proportion to 
your numbers." 

Samuel Worcester (1793-1844) preceded his brother 
Thomas into this world, and was his forerunner in the dis- 
covery of the New Church. The boys' birthplace was Thorn- 
ton, New Hampshire. Their eyes were gladdened and their 
roaming feet tempted by a certain mountain in Merrimack 
County. Their little lips could not pronounce its old Indian 
name, Cowissewaschook, but it improved in time and was 
called Kyar-Sarga; now its name is Kearsarge. Samuel 
did not live long enough to hear how white oak was cut from 
it, how a ship was fashioned and named for it, and how 
Admiral Winslow was assigned to the Kearsarge, which 
gained victory in a big sea fight in the Bay of Biscay during 
the Civil War. 

The Worcesters moved to Massachusetts, and Samuel, when 
twenty-one, made the acquaintance of Edward Dowse, who 
had learned of Swedenborg's writings through the Rev. Will- 
iam Hill in 1794, and who presented young Worcester sev- 
eral volumes of the early London edition in English, "printed 
and sold by R. Hindmarsh, Printer to His Royal Highness, 
the Prince of Wales [afterwards King George IV.] Old 
Bailey, 1795." Samuel was profoundly grateful for books 
that enlightened his intellect, gratified his love of theology, 
and touched his heart, 

"although for a time, when the Sabbath came round, he 
would put them carefully by, fearing there was a possibility 
of their being a temptation that might lead him to desecrate 
the holy day." 

The shadow of doubt soon passed away, and in 1817 he 
began gathering together those interested in the Writings for 
study and worship, and thus laid the earliest foundation of 
the Boston Society organization. There was a group of young 
people who loved to consider Samuel Worcester as one. 

Whose single eye with glance sublime, 
Looked to Eternity through time, 


and among them was the lively-spirited maiden to whom 
he lent his wonderful books, and who became his wife, and 
to whose vivacious pen we are indebted for much material. 
Her name was Sarah Sargent, she was the daughter of a 
wealthy Gloucester merchant, and was educated in a life of 
ease. Samuel and Sarah, born the same year, were married 
January 2, 1817, aged twenty-three, and were called fanatics 
and visionaries in religious faith by the outside, unappreci- 
ative world; but nothing could move his indomitable will, 
or curb her elastic spirit. She tells us of introducing Thomas 
Worcester to Margaret Gary, and of the tumbling of her 
pretty white dress: 

"My husband found pleasure and profit from his inter- 
views with Miss Gary, and also from corresponding with 
her. In the spring or early summer, we had a holiday, and 
accepted an invitation from Miss Gary, to pass it with her at 
her mother's house (The Retreat) in Ghelsea. We made 
our arrangements to go early, procuring a conveyance from 
a neighboring farmer — a high canvas-topped chaise, with 
a nice, fat, sleek, grey horse. This was hardly as aristo- 
cratic a turn-out as I had been accustomed to, but it was 
the best we could get, and satisfactory enough, particularly 
when we called to mind we were to pass the day with Miss 
Gary; and we jogged along quite comfortably. I had made 
but few set visits from the time of my marriage: so I dressed 
in white, and felt quite glad that I had room enough to 
keep my dress smooth and nice till we should present our- 
selves at Miss Gary's door; when suddenly, as we were passing 
through Cambridge, the chaise was stopped, and my husband 
called 'Jump in, jump in! we are going to see Miss Gary, 
and can take you along as well as not.' The invitation was 
accepted, and his brother Thomas added a third to our num- 
ber. I certainly did not enjoy the addition at the time, but 
in after years I had many a merry thought over that ride, 
and so had Miss Gary, who was watching for us as we drove 
up. This was certainly Mr. Thomas Worcester's first visit 
to Miss Gary. Indeed, I believe it was his first introduction 
to her. We were cordially welcomed by all the family, and 
passed a delightful day, returning home at nightfall in the 


same style. Those were primitive times in the Church com- 
pared with the present" (see Semi-Centennial, pp. 16-21). 
Mrs. Sarah Sargent Worcester lived to be a nonogenarian. 
Her picture shown me by her granddaughter, Mrs. Willis , 
Gilpatrick, reveals brilliant eyes and handsome features 
framed by vivacious curls. She was, according to tradition, 
as vivacious as the curls themselves. I knew three interesting 
lines of her descendants, among them New-Church clergy- 
men, although sometimes ^sculapius was found very near 
the pulpit. Among Sarah's nine children I will mention (i) 
Sarah Parsons Worcester (1821-1884), who became Mrs. 
Charles John Doughty of Brooklyn, and endeavored to make 
us into good little boys and girls through her excellent stories 
in the Children s New-Church Magazine, (ii) Rev. Samuel 
Howard Worcester (1824-1891), a Brown alumnus, a phy- 
sician, a pastor, and a scholarly translator of Swedenborg's 
writings. He married twice, and among his fourteen children 
was Samuel, born in 1847, a New-Church clergyman and 
noted homeopathic alienist, who served at the Guiteau trial 
at Washington. Another son of Rev. Samuel Howard Worces- 
ter is Dr. John Fonerden Worcester (named for the beloved 
Baltimore physician) who, with his wife (Anna Jackson 
Lowe) enriched the Roxbury New-Church Society until the 
alluring West drew them to Portland, Oregon, (iii) Dr. 
Edward Worcester (1830-1911), father of Mrs. Gilpatrick, 
was educated medically in New York, France and England, 
was for four years surgeon on the high seas, and contributed 
service to Johns Hopkins University, (iv) Emma married 
Dr. John Turner of Brooklyn, whose son, Dr. Maurice Worces- 
ter Turner, formerly with the Boston University and the 
Massachusetts Homeopathic Hospital, was appointed in 1911 
President of the International Hahnemannian Association. 
He is in the Brookline New-Church Society. 

Professor Theophilus Parsons came of good lineage for 
earnestness of conviction. Observe his grandfather: 

Moses Parsons (1716-1783) was an Orthodox clergyman 
of Byfield, Massachusetts. He was anti-Calvinist and pro- 
Arminian in faith. But he could sharpen his pen on occa- 
sion, and he preached trenchantly against King George HI 


from Proverbs xxi, 1, 2. This sermon was delivered in 1772, 
a critical and highly sensitive political period, and he faced 
the Tory Governor Hutchinson in the audience. 

Chief Justice Theophilus Parsons (1750-1813) reacted 
against his father's liberal theological views. He was one 
of the strongest and most influential supporters of Presby- 
terianism, regarding which Whittier wrote: 

The church-spires lift their vain defence, 

As if to scatter the bohs of God 

With the points of Calvin's thunder-rod. 

The Chief Justice had "a natural proclivity to the extreme 
of conservatism. His Sunday observances were exact and 
severe: no pleasure-riding, no light reading, no discussion 
of business on the Lord's Day." He once said of a friend 
who had left the Calvinistic faith, and whose belief was in- 
definite : 

"He is like a bird that has escaped from a cage, and is 
now afraid to alight upon the branch of a living tree lest 
it should prove another cage" (from Memoir by his son 
Theophilus, pp. 308, 310, 321). 

Professor Theophilus Parsons was not afraid, in his youth, 
lest the New Church should prove a dangerous cage, and 
fetter the wings of rational thought. He was one of ten 
Harvard alumni to join the Boston Society in 1823. Until 
his declining health as an octogenarian forbade him, he 
was constant in his pew under the Rev. Thomas Worcester, 
his senior, who was ripening with the years; and also con- 
stant under the Rev. James Reed, who was nearly forty years 
the professor's junior. It is said that for fifty consecutive 
years he never missed the recurring administration of the 
Holy Supper. His published Essays, three series, began in 
collected book form in 1845, and were rich in observation on 
life and in spiritual suggestions. (For his astonishing variety 
of topics, see, under Parsons, the Index of New Jerusalem 
Magazine, issued in June, 1872.) 

Peleg Whitman Chandler (1816-1889) was, according to 
Dr. Nathanael C. Towle, another " strong man in Thomas 
Worcester's cabinet." His intellect impressed me in two 


ways: by its markedly vigorous fibre, and by its stimulating 
quality in conversation. Intellectually and socially he had 
a wide horizon; he had come in contact through the law and 
elsewhere with many sorts and conditions of men which had 
enlarged his point of view. I saw him to advantage in a 
temporary club which met in the Tremont Street New-Church 
Bookrooms. His paper before that body was juicy and full 
of life, without a dull line in it. Professor Parsons was an 
appreciative listener, and Mr. Francis Phelps was uncon- 
sciously the conservative watchman on the tower to summon 
us back to the Swedenborg references which he knew so well. 
Education was one of the topics, and Bronson Alcott was 
there with his characteristic contribution. Another topic was 
Jesus Christ, and Mrs. A. D. T. Whitney was present. I re- 
member her simile: "The sun is in the bright sparkle in the 
dewdrop; but the sparkle is derived from something above 
and beyond the dewdrop itself. We, likewise, are images 
of Christ in this secondary sense." We already loved her for 
her books, and we were impressed that evening with a marked 
receptivity of spirit as if she wished to be taught of the Lord. 

Peleg Chandler was graduated from Bowdoin in 1834, 
in 1845 engaged in organizing the Sivedenborg Association 
for the Dissemination of a True Philosophy, and early joined 
the Boston Society. After his death, Mr. Charles Theodore 
Russell, a lawyer, gave a superb laudatory analysis of his 
mental processes, and concludes: 

" He was not overtolerant of what he regarded as visionary 
and impracticable, and was not overburdened with sentimen- 
tality. . . . I do not think he was much given to building air- 
castles, and as little to rearing air-dungeons. He took life 
practically, cheerfully, providently, and resolutely, to the 
last degree." 

Mr. Russell draws from intimate personal intercourse a 
phase of Mr. Chandler's home life — his family worship. 
I abbreviate a bit: 

"I do not think I shall intrude on the sanctities of do- 
mestic life if I close by reference to one scene there, at 
Brunswick, Maine, daily repeated, and which, as the ripened 
fruit of the mellowing autumn of life, has fixed itself in my 


memory as the dearest and sweetest remembrance of my 
long-honored friend. Each day, ere the day's duties and 
pleasures began, there gathered to his library the children, 
grandchildren, and inmates of his household, where the 
service was just that loving and attractive one which the 
long cherished and benevolent views of its conductor would 
lead us to expect. 

" Doubtless some of Mr. Chandler's views would have some- 
what disturbed the theology of the Calvinistic Covenanters 
of Scotland, yet I doubt not and I am sure I felt on these 
occasions, I was witnessing a devotion as pure, sincere, fer- 
vent and simple, as that which Burns has made immortal in 
The Cotter's Saturday Night. If I were compelled to select 
from all my intercourse with Mr. Chandler but one scene 
to be cherished and remembered, I would take that of the 
summer morning prayer in his library at Brunswick." 

George B. Davis will long be remembered for extraordi- 
narily extended and devoted service to the Boston Society; 
he knew it in the Phillips Place days; and his wife will long 
be loved as a home-maker for young girls. Friends will 
pleasantly recall his brother Horatio, and his nephew Roscoe. 

I have written an earlier chapter. The Rainbow-hued Story 
of Margaret Cary, which will be supplemented, chiefly be- 
cause of her relation to the Thomas Worcester family. On 
her entering it, she was fifty-seven, Mr. Worcester being 
twenty years her junior. She copied Mr. Worcester's sermons 
by the hundred, as a trunkful of them at our Boston Book 
Rooms will testify. She had accepted our faith more than 
thirty-five years before, and no clergyman ever had a more 
devoted disciple. She exercised a beautiful influence over 
the children, and loved their mother. 

In this year, 1832, we must picture the Worcesters living 
on Beacon Street at corner of Tremont. Now, those streets 
are threaded and interlaced with vehicles, from which the 
traffic policeman mercifully saves the lives of pedestrians. 
Then, the enclosed corner was, as Mrs. Catharine Worcester 
Thacher, the daughter, has described it to me, a spacious open 
ground surrounding their brick house painted white, with 
generous rooms each side of the front door. The Phillips 


Place Hall for worship was their neighbor until the Church 
migrated, in 1845, to Bowdoin Street, and the Worcesters 
migrated to Louisburg Square. 

Before me lie the original letters, covering nine years 
of the Worcester life, written by Miss Gary to her intimate 
friend, Mrs. Henry A. Worcester (Olive Gay). The angel 
of the resurrection is calling " dear little Anna Worcester," 
aged nine, daughter of Thomas Worcester. 

"April 26, 1841. She (Anna) is aware of her situation, 
occasionally speaks of the spiritual world, and has told her 
mother that it would not trouble her to know she was going 
. . . she has taken great pleasure in reading chiefly story 
books, besides her Bible, which she reads every day, and 
loves to hear her mother's voice in the Sermon on the Mount. 

"Alice (Mrs. Thomas Worcester) has been devoted to her 
day and night, but on the whole has had a quiet and profit- 
able winter. She has had her work table and book always at 
hand in the chamber, and except when Anna was in immediate 
pain, there has been a serenity and pleasant sphere that 
natural parents in the indulgence of anxiety, without a trust 
in Providence, could not conceive of." 

"Louisburg Square, July 6, 1841. Dear little Anna is out 
at grandfather's at Waltham, very feeble, very interesting. 
Miriam asked her if she would as lief go to the spiritual world 
from there as from Boston. She said yes, she would rather. 
She is quite resigned and willing to go. Her father and five 
of the children went out to see her today. 

"9 o'clock. Dear Alice just returned with her husband. 
The closing scene took place at 2. Anna's pains were very 
severe, but she was very gentle, and said, ' It seems to me, 
Mother, that there is nothing left for me to do, but to see the 
body die.' A few days before she went she called Jamie 
(who at less than two years old had preceded her to the other 
world), and she said that she saw him and Uncle Nathanael." 

Sunshine and shadow chase across Miss Gary's pages. In 
1846, Terpsichore, under a ban elsewhere, is admitted, and 
several dancing parties are given in the home, Elizabeth 
being nineteen. But life grows more serious as her mother 
drifts slowly toward the other world. " She who loved activ- 


ity was enforcedly idle, she who loved social intercourse was 
enforcedly silent." Miss Gary writes: "Alice is pursuing 
her course heavenward, all goes on tranquilly and cheerfully. 
She relies for the care of her spirit entirely on the Lord." 
Very close on to Christmas, 1848, " there was a bright smile 
on her still beautiful face, she looked at her husband, and, 
turning her eyes toward heaven, she closed them forever." 

Her boy John, who was fourteen, and her boy Joseph, who 
was twelve, loved their mother tenderly. Their Aunt Lydia 
Hobart was there to comfort them in their motherlessness. 
Their father, visiting their chamber, found them both awake. 
John said: 

" Father, an angel put a good thought into my head, and I 
got up and wrote it down; it is on the mantelpiece. It is 
very badly written, for I can hardly see, but you can read it." 
It was as follows: 

Everything is for the best, 

The Lord, He will provide. 

Then lay thee down and take thy rest, 

And in the Lord confide. 

Joseph said, " Isn't it good. Father," and it comforted him. 

Again the angel of the resurrection visited Mr. Worcester's 
home, coming on a Sunday in April, 1850, for his daughter 
Elizabeth, who was twenty-three. The tie was peculiarly 
near between her and her mother, and she gradually loosened 
her hold on this life. Miss Gary says: 

" I do not know that any part of her existence has been 
more beneficial to herself and others than during this decline, 
her example a living lesson. Mr. Worcester has been the 
most assiduous and kindest of parents in doing for her and 
in anticipating her wants." 

Miss Gary at the end of her Worcester sojourn, spent two 
years in Mrs. Dorr's motherly home at 83 Pinckney Street, 
and then was warmly welcomed for years at 101 Pinckney 
Street at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Caleb Reed, and Arthur 
and Helen Reed, and Mr. T. B. Hayward. She closed her 
long life at ninety-three at the Gary family home at Chelsea 
— in a spacious house whose roof was pierced with dormer 


windows near the foot of Powder Horn Hill. Here, much 
beloved, she was cared for by several of her fourteen brothers 
and sisters. I have met her several times, and she impressed 
me as a woman who appraised worldliness at its true value, 
who cherished right thinking with discernment, and espoused 
an unpopular cause without flinching. 

The Rev. Thomas Worcester in his funeral address for 
her, to be found in the New Jerusalem Magazine, vol. xli, p. 
739, says of her who had anticipated him nearly a score of 
years in the reception of our faith: 

" It was not for me to make known to Miss Gary the 
Heavenly Doctrines of the New Jerusalem, nor to bring her 
to the Lord as He is manifested in the internal sense of the 
Word. Nor have I ever had any occasion to remind her of 
her duty to study these things, and to endeavor to live accord- 
ing to them; for whenever I met her she seemed to have just 
come out of the Holy of Holies, and her face was still shining 
with the light that had been illuminating her mind. And 
whenever I undertook to explain a portion of the Word, or 
to unfold any of the Holy Doctrines, it seemed to me that I 
received from her more than I gave to her," 

We now return to the Rev. Thomas Worcester. In 1850, 
he entered upon a second marriage. The bride was Mrs. 
Lydia (Powell) Dean, who had identified herself with the 
Boston Society, and who brought unwavering loyalty to the 
Church's welfare. They went abroad for a year's absence, 
traveling chiefly in Italian cities. During their visit in 
Florence Mr. Worcester baptized Hiram Powers into the 
New Church. He returned gladly to Boston and delighted 
in the renewal of his beloved life's work. 

Mr. Worcester had seen his Society grow under his hands. 
His audiences were frequently a thousand. In 1818, the Bos- 
ton Society was founded with twelve members; in 1828 there 
were sixty-three; in 1838, one hundred and twenty-five; in 
1848, four hundred and eleven; by the year 1867, he had 
received eight hundred and seventy-six members into the So- 
ciety {Worcester Biography, p. 126). The Rev. James Reed 
was his exceedingly valuable ally, but, as he is living at this 
date, he comes only incidentally into this narrative, pre- 

Head of Christ by Hiram Pow( 

Bust of Rev. Thomas W ore ester by Powers 


cisely as the Rev. Julian K. Smyth comes only incidentally 
into the story of the RoxlDury Society. 

With a rich spiritual harvest, and with hosts of friends, 
Mr. Worcester resigned his pastorate of the Boston Society 
at seventy-two, and moved to Waltham. His newly erected 
house, whose broad piazza, fifty feet long was introductory 
to large hospitality, was, on May 8, 1871, flooded with sun- 
shine when very many guests presented him a beautiful coupe, 
with a speech by the Hon. Peleg W. Chandler. Mr. Worces- 
ter's own horse was attached to the vehicle, and the long-loved 
pastor and his wife were driven about the grounds. He gave 
simple but eloquent thanks for the surprise gift, and received 
very many individual expressions of esteem in return. There 
was a kind of culminating happiness in the air which made 
us all rejoice to be there. The guests represented the Massa- 
chusetts Association. 

Mr. Worcester lived seven years after this event, and his 
home was a place of pilgrimage for his multitudinous friends. 
As life declined, he used to say that the first thing he should 
ask for in the other world would be a good theological 
school. He felt his limitations with regard to the all-embrac- 
ing truths of God's Holy Word, and he looked forward 
eagerly to the larger opportunity hereafter. His last letter 
to the Boston Society concludes as follows: 

"There are many things which I should like to say in 
this, which is probably my farewell letter. There are many 
acknowledgments which I should be glad to make for 
favors received, and many apologies and explanations which 
I should like to make for my own faults and shortcomings: 
but I should be tedious. I should be speaking of things 
which for the present have passed away from their minds; 
but they are all written in my book of life, and in the book 
of the Boston Society. Our books are bound up together, 
a page of one facing a page of the other. Whenever it will 
be good for us, those books will be opened ; and perhaps that 
time will soon come. If then and thenceforth any of us can 
be useful to one another, I shall be happy and thankful." 

Readers may care for personal impressions made upon the 


present writer by the children of Rev. Thomas Worcester 
whom she knew. 

I. Miriam, the eldest, had, when I first saw her after her 
marriage, a wild-rose complexion, the clear blue eye which 
betokens intelligence and sincerity, much fragrance of spirit, 
and, to an exceptional degree, discerning spiritual insight. 
At twenty, she married Samuel F. Dike, a Brown University 
alumnus, who became pastor of the Bath, Maine, New-Church 
Society for half a century. He visited Palestine in 1880, 
having prepared himself by study for twenty-five years. 
When seventy-five, he circumnavigated the globe. He was 
a power in the public schools in his home town, was for three 
years president of our Theological School, and was appointed 
professor of Church history. We knew and enjoyed him. 
On my father's sudden departure from this life through 
drowning, Mrs. Dike, having lost in like manner one among 
her large flock of children, wrote us a sympathetic letter of 
singular power, from which I quote: 

"Try to avoid all thoughts about the closing scene here. 
It is past and over with him, and as you desire to go on with 
him, leave it behind as he has done. He had, without doubt, 
the support he needed, but as you are not called upon to go 
through it, the same support cannot be given to you. 

"And now, my friends, try to rejoice v/ith him. His two 
Ednahs, as he used to call you, must not desert him now." 

II. Benjamin Worcester (1824-1911) married, at twenty- 
three, Mary Clapp Ruggles, a maiden of twenty-one, having 
a strong artistic sense, and a great motherly heart. If my 
mother and I had become heir to a thousand brilliant honors, 
the unworldly Mrs. Dike and the unworldly Mrs. Worcester 
would not have been drawn to our house; but when sorrow 
entered it, they came for the first time, in spite of large 
families at home. 

My direct personal acquaintance with Mr. Benjamin 
Worcester is limited to one hour in a lifetime; but it is a 
notable hour. Mrs. Waldo Cutler, my Waltham hostess for a 
week, took me to his house on a Sunday evening. Lights in 
the parlor diffused their rays through the windows, illumi- 
nating the guests on the veranda, and on the grass under the 


trees. Sacred music floated out on the quiet air. Hymns 
were excluded from his Sunday services (although he 
voluntarily admitted them a little before his death) ; but 
the young people might sing these human stanzas in his house, 
— he, in the meantime, betaking himself to his study. 

In spite of my protest, Mrs. Cutler sent word to the 
invisible head of the house regarding my presence. He 
came — hence the hour's interview. He talked of Newman 
Smyth's new book which was stirring the religious world. He 
discoursed on the Children's Crusade in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. It has been thought "that traveling boy preachers 
under the orders of Pope Innocent HI stirred up this tre- 
mendous uprising which he vainly tried to control." 
Children — 20,000 perhaps — accompanied by fanatical 
adults, started from Flanders in the year 1212 to cross the 
Alps to the port of Marseilles. Half of them sailed for 
Jerusalem, where they declared Jesus was waiting for them 
and calling them. Tragedy engulfed them, and they died or 
were captured on the way — an instance of strange and 
wild emotion. 

Mr. Worcester unfolded this new story to my ignorant and 
wondering mind; and as he was quite as good a listener as 
talker, I unfolded to him the story of his two new teachers 
just arrived — the Misses Avis and Julia Tallman — who had 
educated themselves in art, music, and several modem 
languages during their five years abroad. In Germany they 
were coached in the Scandinavian languages by Hjalmer 
Hjorth Boyeson (afterwards professor in Columbia) whom 
they had known in the Urbana University. They were ladies 
of amenity in manner, and of rare gifts. Mr. Worcester 
asked with curious interest of the exact impression produced 
on my mind by the ritual and ceremonials of the Roman 
Catholic, Greek, Jewish, Lutheran, and Anglican Churches 
in Europe. 

In spite of great reserve, Benjamin Worcester knew how to 
touch the hearts of the schoolgirls with fatherly inspiration 
for good; and to one, who was slowly approaching "the 
valley of the shadow," he wrote a sustaining letter every day. 
In 1900, after we came out from the Church obsequies of 


his brother John, we saw him standing outside with his face 
toward an angle in the wall. Under God he must fight out 
his battles alone. 

Mr. Worcester enjoyed his kinsman, the Rev. Elwood 
Worcester, Rector of Emmanuel Church, and Founder of the 
so-called " Emmanuel Movement." Dean C. Worcester, 
formerly a United States Philippine Commissioner, was a 
kinsman a bit more remote. 

III. Catharine Worcester had a certain loveliness of 
spirit like her mother. On Christmas Eve, 1851, she married 
Thomas Thacher; and they, with a flock of precious children, 
became for some years parishioners in New York of the Rev. 
Abiel Silver. She called our house her second home. 

IV. John Worcester needs no introduction. The benefi- 
cent aspect of his life was shown in his gratuitous medical 
ministrations to humble folk near his Intervale summer home, 
he having had direct and careful training in anatomy and 
physiology. I discovered his gentleness of expression as a 
critic, when he used to "venture to suggest" changes in my 
Sunday School lesson notes 1881-83 under his supervision. 

In 1857 Mr. Worcester married Miss Elizabeth Callender 
Pomeroy of Cambridge. She had paid her public vows in 
New-Church membership just before her betrothal, he having 
waited, his aunt said, for that step, that she might not be 
unduly influenced by him ; he cared for a fine degree of har- 
mony in their religion. She had a mobile face lighted by 
large expressive dark eyes, quick intelligence, a highly re- 
sponsive nature, a keen sense of humor capable of genial 
satire, much vivacity, and a great capacity for devotion to 
home and Church. She was a blessing to the Newtonville So- 
ciety during the thirty-one years of married life permitted her 
in this world before her transition to another. Her husband 
had begun his active work in the ministry at twenty-one 
years of age, before his marriage, and Newtonville was his 
onlv pastorate. 

The summer home of Mr. and Mrs. Worcester was at 
Intervale, New Hampshire, with a charming meadow, dotted 
with trees in the foreground, and the noble Presidential 
ranffe of the White Mountains in the distance. In 1878 I 

Head from statue of 
'■ The Greek Slave " by 
Powers, in Corcoran Art Gallery, 
W ashinsrton. D.C. 

" Faith " 

hv Hiram Pollers 

Model by Powers 

of the hand of his little child 

Hiram Powers 
of Florence 


spent a month near them, and observed Mr. Worcester's 
method of training his children. Long college vacations were 
not to be squandered in mere personal pleasure and recre- 
ation. His two sons had already spent two summers in 
cutting, for the benefit of amateur pedestrians, an easy if 
circuitous footpath up Moat Mountain which lifts its head 
3,100 feet toward the sky. He himself had just extended an 
invitation to his fellow members of the Appalachian Club 
to meet in his Study; and his sons had just completed a foot- 
bridge directly across the Saco which shortened the climb up 
Moat by four miles. This, their devoted admirer, Rev. 
Theodore Wright, helped them to accomplish. None pro- 
fessed much knowledge of civil engineering, but the planks, 
resting on wooden horses as piers, and fastened to the shore 
— a grave problem — were efficacious for good. The sup- 
ports were reinforced by stones planted around them to resist 
the current; and a handrail was even added to reassure the 
timid. The whole structure was packed away each autumn 
for the ensuing spring. 

One day during the Club sessions, forty of us climbed the 
easy two-mile footpath up Mt. Willard from Crawford Notch. 
At the summit, Mr. Worcester characteristically seated him- 
self on a projecting ledge, and filled his time by sketching 
various peaks. In 1882 he and his elder son, William, 
ascended many and many a height in Palestine, gathering 
flowers and inspiration. His little book on this journey gives 
a glimpse of humor. Ten mules and horses, also two donkeys, 
were required for their tenting life from Beersheba to Damas- 
cus. He says (pp. 4 and 5) : 

" We did not get an early start, as it was the first time of 
packing the mules, and there was the usual struggle between 
the chief muleteer and the dragoman as to the number of 
mules required. The contest had the curious conclusion of 
paying for half a mule more than was needed, and not taking 
the half mule. The dragoman said that usually they had to 
pay for a whole mule and not take him, and he considered 
that our muleteer was very easy and good natured." His book 
shows his love of flowers and his surprise and delight at the 
unexpected beauty of the land for its own sake. He antici- 


pated much from its association with the Lord's life. Like 
most clergymen, he especially loved the Sea of Galilee region, 
the scene of much Divine teaching: 

" I shall never bring my journey into my sermons," he 
once said to me, "but they will be better for what I have 
seen." Seemingly, he did not care to see Europe, or to visit 
the British Conference; his interest was centered in the land 
his Lord had trodden; he wished to better his own service for 
His sake. I once said to him: 

" Mr. Worcester, one occasionally meets persons who deny 
the historic Christ; they are Bishop Berkeleian New-Church- 
men, who think that the Gospel story is wholly spiritual, and 
exists only in the mind. Now, when these persons go to the 
other world, will it be necessary to enlighten them? He had 
physical presence here, will they discover it? " 

" Why," he replied, after a brief silence, " all the angels 
know it." 

Soon after 1882, I witnessed the instructive nature of a 
Church tea party at his Newtonville home. He read a diary 
recently written by Nanny, the daughter of Gen. Charles 
Pomeroy Stone, an American officer serving at Alexandria 
during the period which included its bombardment by the 
British. A map of Egypt, with explanatory comments made 
a highly dramatic evening. How well I recall the diary: 
the General's daughter describes herself as in an atmosphere 
surcharged with danger, where the display of an easy care- 
less courage was necessary. The shades were drawn up in 
the windows of the brilliantly lighted drawing-room. Just 
without, spies were probably hidden in the trees; but fortu- 
nately the inmates commanded more than one language, and 
an answer was always given in a different tongue from the 
question, in order to throw the treacherous listeners off the 
track. That evening's enjoyment gave an impetus to our 
reading on the subject. Subsequently, we studied Roosevelt's 
point of view in his Alexandria address; the native point of 
view from the Nationalists ; the artistic point of view regard- 
ing the British occupation and regulation of the Nile through 
Pierre Loti's charming little plea for the submerged temples 
in his La Mort de Philae. 


Mr. John Worcester's Sunday services on his own grounds 
at Intervale, were extremely impressive: the open windows, 
the leafy landscape, the wood fire, the bright rug, the hush 
of the devotional atmosphere, and his abiding companion- 
ship with the Holy Scriptures. 

" If there is any good in me," he once said, " I owe it 
chiefly to hearing Bible stories from Miss Gary's lips every 
day when I was a child." 

Mr. Worcester, on his last Christmas day, wrote as follows: 

"The other night I dreamed I died. It was the most 
natural possible thing to do, and, when I waked up, there 

was L [his wife] watching me all these twelve years. 

It was a comforting little dream." * 

V. Joseph Worcester I first saw when the Silver family, 
after a thousand-mile carriage drive from Michigan to Boston, 
were guests of Rev. Thomas Worcester, who was very proud 
of his boys. "Listen, Mr. Silver," he said, drawing him from 
the study to the stair-balustrade, " John and Joseph are talk- 
ing Latin together down stairs." After Joseph's Harvard 
training in science, his California trip around Cape Horn, and 
his ordination, we saw him again when our family were guests 
of his father in a temporary home at the old Sanderson house 
in Worcester Lane, Waltham. This spacious residence, more 
than two hundred years old, is now occupied by the Rev. 
Thomas Worcester's great-granddaughter, Mrs. Barbara 
Worcester Porter, wife of Dr. Charles I. Porter. In 1793 
Captain John Clark successfully wooed and won the Sander- 
son maiden Lydia in this house, and they added a big flock 
of New-Church sons and daughters to the Boston Society 
during their fifty-seven years of married life. 

Joseph Worcester, during our Waltham visit in 1867, 
showed his early training: when his father said, " Joseph, shut 
that door," the young man of thirty-one obeyed with instant 
alacrity — no procrastinating, dilatory manner. Evidently, 
Thomas Worcester and Abiel Silver agreed with King David 
regarding children: "As soon as they hear, they shall be 
obedient to me." Joseph entertained us with the wonders of 

* From a memorial sketch added to the Rev. John Worcester's book A Promise 
of Peace, 196 pp., 1900. 


the Yosemite, and soon after returned to the Pacific Coast 
for a residence of nearly fifty years. 

Mr. John Worcester's summer home was on high ground 
overlooking the Intervale meadow majestically dominated by 
great hills; Mr. Benjamin Worcester's summer home looked 
down on Straitsmouth harbor and lighthouse; Mr. Joseph 
Worcester's home all the year round was on Russian Hill in 
San Francisco commanding an extraordinary view. I saw the 
latter person for the last time in 1901. The western journey 
stirs one to the depths, and I beg the reader's leave to describe 
one impression gained on the way, aroused by a tumultuous 
stream west of Banff, Alberta Territory, in Canada. 

This is the Wapta or Kicking Horse River, so named by the 
Indians which in its rapid descent over a terribly obstructing 
bed, prances, rears, foams, tumbles back over itself, plunges 
forward in cascades, presents no end of striking effects of 
spray, and is so irregular in its action that if you watch the 
water near the shore you cannot always tell its direction, for 
it lapses into back eddies, and circles around into bewildering 
whirlpools, leaving the observer in a wonderment. 

It is like a tumultuous human life, fretted by obstacles, 
forced back upon itself in seeming despair, driven to renewed 
energy by its temporary defeats, all its latent combativeness 
aroused by innumerable difficulties. Long ago, near the 
mountain source of its childhood's innocence, it passed the 
period of mere youthful gaiety, childish caprice, and merry 
playfulness; it is now in live earnest; the strain and stress 
of life are upon it. But the sunshine of heaven seems to 
exist only to bring out its occasional beauties in rainbow 
tint; a divine force vivified by the attracting power of the 
Lord's love is drawing it on. It makes progress, and is not 
hopelessly engulfed in the passions and tumults of life. 
Some day this human soul will reach the sea of eternity, 
humble in its self-mastery, strong from obstacles overcome, 
deep with the wisdom of experience, calm enough to image 
the beauties of the heavens above it, and to carry them in its 
very heart. 

Mr. Worcester in San Francisco reminds us of St. Chrys- 
ostom in Constantinople: his bachelor domestic economy 


was severely simple, but not verging on asceticism like that 
of the Greek Father; he touched all sorts and conditions of 
men quite equally with the Eastern saint; he labored for 
prison reform, making the welfare of discharged men a 
special object of his life; he won over orphan boys by his 
warm-hearted shepherding, establishing for them a perma- 
nent home, The Rock, on a high ledge overlooking the hills. 
The Rev. Charles R. Brown, now Dean of the Yale Divinity 
School, filled for many years a Congregational pulpit in San 
Francisco. He preached a sermon a few years since in the 
Old South Church, Boston, in which he emphasized the power 
of silent influence in character. He had known a noted 
example: "his name is the Rev. Joseph Worcester, a Sweden- 
borgian minister." In a casual interview later, Dean Brown 
emphasized the same to me. A lady, for ten years resident 
in San Francisco, tells me that the Chief Justice of the State 
Supreme Court — a later arrival than Mr. Worcester — was 
wont to consult him on the law; painters prized his dis- 
criminating valuation of their canvases; the University of 
California adopted his architectural suggestions in its designs; 
social exclusives appreciated his faultless manners. The 
Rev. Frank Sewall on a visit to San Francisco asked Mr. 
Worcester if he knew the street car conductor greeting him 
with lifted cap: 

" 0, yes! they all know me, and we are very good friends. 
It is surprising how many come to me to get married. And 
then, in due time, they bring their little ones to be baptized! " 
The Rev. Thomas French tells us that the Rev. Willis G. 
White, pastor of a large Presbyterian church in Santa Rosa, 
had his three children baptized by Mr. Worcester in the 
latter's church. The Rev. Frank Sewall comments on the 
comradeship between Mr. Worcester and his own brother, 
Arthur Sewall, "a man of practical affairs not especially 
interested in topics doctrinal or cultural," who would fall 
asleep at times before the Worcester fireplace with its "blaz- 
ing log or glowing bed of ashes," and w^ake to find his host sit- 
ting quite patiently, amused at the interruption, and ready to 
take up the arrested narrative where he left it. Another 
notable friendship was that between Mr. Worcester and Mr. 


Howard M. Ticknor, a man of the world, caustic critic, and 
sharp analyst, knowing dramatic literature as few men knew 
it, familiar with foreign human nature through ten years' 
residence abroad: the two men rich in artistic and other 
culture, but enjoying each other for the deeper things which 
each recognized, and for mutual exchange of that which each 

A California lady took us to Mr. Joseph Worcester's home, 
and we were ushered into a long low room, with large plate 
glass windows for the glorious outlook, hard wood floor 
with rugs, open book shelves, numerous pictures, often gifts 
from artists — William Keith, Mrs. Richardson, and others. 
We plunged, without preliminary skirmishing, into topics 
worth while. Professor Joseph LeConte had just died in the 
Yosemite Valley, his favorite oak in the University of Cali- 
fornia campus was hung with crape, the Faculty were pro- 
nouncing eulogies. I spoke of his Avorks on Evolution know- 
ing that the two men were excellent friends. 

"Yes," Mr. Worcester had said to him, "you start out 
with the self-evident axiom that no effect can be greater than 
its cause, and you violate it at every step of your reasoning 
when you constantly deduce higher forms from lower." 

" But," replied LeConte, " there are many causes, not one 
for each new form of life." 

"Yes," returned Mr. Worcester, " but does an aggregation 
of inferior causes equal the superior effect? " 

Mr. Worcester told me that on another occasion he opened 
up the subject again: 

"Professor LeConte, what do you believe to be the one 
great Cause back of all others? " 

"I believe that it is the love of God; but I cannot teach 
that to my scientific companions." 

" For that reason, Professor, your science is inadequate 
and inconclusive." 

Mr. Worcester further commented to me on the excellencies 
of Greek philosophy though he admitted some vital defects 
in Plato's Republic, and he pointed out the need of a clear 
knowledge of Discrete Degrees in Professor William James's 
psychology; we commented on the loyalty of Professor Louis 


Agassiz in clinging to higher truth at any cost, even if lower 
phenomena seemed to contradict it. Mr. Worcester said that 
LeConte accepted the philosophy of Swedenborg regarding 
matter rather than that of Bishop Berkeley. 

For New-Church visitors, the chief building in San Fran- 
cisco is the House of Worship about thirty by fifty feet 
on the corner of Lyon andWashington Streets erected in 1895 
under Mr. Worcester. Here, as we saw it, you will find no 
ushers, an invisible hospitality bidding you be seated; no 
offertory plate; but a little iron box in a shadowy comer 
enables you, if you find it, to deposit your offering unknown 
except to your recording angel; no sexton, since parishioners, 
opulent or otherwise, consider it a privilege to eliminate the 
intrusive dust; no finance committee, or church fairs, or 
sewing circles. Do the ravens come with offerings as at the 
brook Cherith? Even the building fund grew by spontaneity. 
We enjoyed the little low- roofed structure of alleged 
Italian design, but seemingly allied to Spanish Mission 
architecture, in its simplicity, restfulness, and quiet beauty. 
It is a building of perfect unworldiness set down in a modern, 
aggressive, virile city. It is not labeled with a sign, and has 
no advertising, except that the Easter Sunday newspaper — 
of which I have seen a copy — used to devote illustrated 
pages to flamboyant praise in a way to invade the domain 
of reserve in which its tranquil-spirited pastor loved to dwell. 
Nature gives a note of gladness to the spot. The concrete 
wall more than six feet high shuts off the Church from the 
street, and is decorated with gay pink blossoms and ivy 
geraniums which run riot and laugh in the sunshine. At 
the top of the steps from the street you are ushered into a 
shaded vestibule which opens into the church garden. Turn- 
ing sharply to the right, you follow the church wall to the 
entrance near the rear; but you pause to speak to Mr. 
Worcester who is standing under the clear sky on this Sunday 
morning, July 21, 1901. He draws your attention to the 
rare trees, curious shrubs, and circular shallow stone pool 
set in the velvety lawn which furnishes water to lively song- 
sters, and elicits their warbling thanks in return. The same 
lovely solicitude for birds is repeated within: 


"High up in the wall, over the chancel, is a gem of a 
window, small and round, set like a jewel out of reach. Its 
theme is a garden. Lavender iris grows at the base of a 
shallow stone bowl, filled to the brim with water. A branch 
of flowering apple tree is reflected in the sheet of silver, and, 
on the edge of the pool, balances a bird." 

The very laborers " worked overtime on the building from 
sheer love of the church; and when a swallow built a nest 
under the eaves, they took innumerable pains not to disturb 
her, and spread a feast of crumbs from their luncheon 
baskets." * 

Spanish tiles cover the roof; the walls are of concrete and 
hardburned brick, wainscoted inside with Oregon pine. At 
the rear, just as you enter, is a generous brick fireplace, and 
even in midsummer the bit of blaze and the fragrant odor 
are agreeable; but the crosses that surmount the andirons 
remind us that life has its Calvary. The shadow on our soul 
is lifted, however, as we see the little glowing picture in 
stained glass on our right — St. Christopher outlined against 
water and sky, bearing the Holy Child luminous with spirit- 
ual glory. Near by is a very narrow window brought from 
Westminster Abbey; once it transmitted light onto illustrious 
tombs; now it looks in on seventy-five living worshipers. The 
remaining windows are plain and leaded, but idealized by 
encircling roses which clamber up in worshipful fashion 
from the garden. 

Down the other side of the church, opposite the windows, 
" are four large mural landscapes, long and narrow and rich 
in tone, painted by William Keith, the dean of California 
landscape painters, and by far the most talented, and given 
by him out of love for this charming church. The themes 
are the seasons. . . . Instead of showing the conventional 
spring, summer, autumn and winter, they are devoted to the 
early and late rains, and to the two seasons of harvest. This 
story of the western seasons tells the gradual change of the 
hills from brown to green, to brown again, and describes 

* All quotations not otherwise credited are from "A Sermon in Church Build- 
ing " by Mabel Clare Craft in The House Beautiful for February, 1901, pub- 
lished in Chicago. 


vividly the luscious colors of the meadows, and the deep 
shadows of the oaks." 

If my eastern readers cannot see the Worcester church 
paintings they will be rewarded by a visit to the Public 
Library at Maiden, Mass., where may be enjoyed a charac- 
teristic picture by this William Keith (1839-1911) who was 
born in Aberdeen, but was early Americanized. He shows 
us an autumn sunrise with translucent clouds irradiated by 
the orb's rays; below are big bronze oaks dominating the 
landscape, and a pond with standing cattle; the whole per- 
vaded with the spirit of tranquillity. 

Returning to the Worcester Church, we find that the cus- 
tomary pews are supplanted by hand-wrought chairs of Mis- 
sion furniture design — " the frames of maple, and the seats 
of California tules, beautifully braided by hand." Beneath 
the worshipers' feet are Japanese woven grass-mats on a 
floor of native wood without polish. The open coffered roof 
is supported by six pair of madrona tree-trunks with the native 
bark still on, which extend from a point considerably below 
the eaves upward to the ridgepole. Mr. Worcester selected 
them in the Sierras and the young woodsman-owner became 
himself consecrated in the cutting, and declared "that no 
hands but his had touched them, that he could not bear to 
think of their being handled as freight, and he begged to 
deliver them in person." Down the long mountain road he 
came, his horses musical with sleigh-bells; the blacksmith 
who served them in a contingency declined remuneration 
when he learned the purpose of the trees. 

The rural decorations of the church were as unusual as 
everything else: sometimes stalks of Indian com stood 
grouped in comers, or glossy oak branches, or brown Eucalyp- 
tus surrounded the reading-desk, the latter adorned with an 
artichoke flower, or a curious fungus growth out of which 
living green was springing. Spanish moss sometimes de- 
pended from the roof. In 1901 a nature loving Club of 
non-New-Church persons spent their Saturdays in searching 
the woods for treasures, and begged to bring their Dryad 
offerings to the altar. 

The church-service was very simple. Mr. Worcester 


stepped down from his low platform to join the group of 
singers round the portable organ. The music was all chant- 
ing, the Lord's prayer was the only petition, as prescribed 
in the early Book of Worship issued for the Boston Society 
long before, and still in use by the conservative Mr. Worcester. 
He mourned the wear and tear of the books with no hope of 
replenishment; but I, on my return, forwarded to him as a 
gift from former owners fifty copies discovered here. In 
the pulpit, Mr. Worcester's voice was low, his eyes on his 
manuscript, his delivery without gesture; but his message 
was spiritual and full of an indefinable power. He declined 
during his lifetime the publication of a single one of his 
sermons, but permitted to appear his address of 1908 as 
Phi Beta Kappa member of the Leland Stanford University. 
His topic, The Dual Nature of All Things, touches on 
marriage. He says: 

" Of the movements of the day disturbing the sanctions of 
the past none affects us more profoundly than that which 
questions the relation to each other of man and woman. 

" With the age of authority of man over man, in w^hich one 
must command and the other obey, the relation was simple. 
Wliat we see now is almost equally simple — in woman's 
revolt against man's authority, and claim of absolute equality 
in all things. But, about the ideal relation or essential 
equality, we seem to know nothing except that it is not of 
authority, and certainly not of antagonism. The best in- 
tentioned men and women are painfully questioning in the 
matter; yet must there be principles to guide us, — to be 
found with patient application, and mutual conference and 
deference. . . . 

" We do not care to dwell upon the first and passing phases 
of the struggle, but will speak briefly of two only, upon which 
there will be no controversy. Both men and women deplore 
the advent of the woman self-assertive, all-claiming; we have, 
in kindness, shut our eyes to her, believing that it was only 
a passing phase, knowing that it was a travesty on true 
womanliness. It may have been attended by a poor sub- 
servient phase of manhood — willing to let its work be done, 
but it certainly has been followed by an exaggerated mascu- 


Unity which is quite as offensive as the travestied femininity, 
and equally wide of the mark. We have come pretty near 
learning that woman is not improved by taking on the clothes 
or manners of the man: man did not need the flattery, — he 
was conceited enough before. . . . 

" If only it might be understood that he — the man, not the 
brute — never quite comprehends why or how woman can 
love him; that his chivalry always has that modest wonder 
at the bottom of it! He sees these things dimly, and, in the 
same way, he knows that for his temptations — the conceit, 
the brutality which peculiarly are his — there is no human 
influence comparable with that of the womanly woman; and 
he regards with something of dismay her preference over this 
of that which seems to him so much poorer. He feels, though 
he cannot explain, that she makes a mistake well-nigh disas- 
trous in imagining that his reluctance to seeing her enter the 
new fields of activity is grudging selfishness. But he admits 
that she also may speak, or find some one to speak for her, 
and tell us how she is misunderstood. By such exchange 
of explanation, may we not arrive at the truth, or get on a 
step or two toward it? " 

Mr. Worcester further says that marriage becomes the 
most ensnaring means of self-love if the man loves the woman 
because of her love for him, and the woman loves the man be- 
cause of his love for her. He also says that the union becomes 
more perfect in proportion to the diff'erentiation between 
them — the woman growing more distinctly womanly, the 
man becoming more distinctively manly. They care for the 
same things, but they care for them diff"erently. And he ends 
by pointing our attention to the Archetypal Oneness of the 
Lord's Love and Wisdom as a prototype of human marriage. 

All I have to say of much of the above quotation is that 
it is a phase of Worcester spirituality distinctively unlike 
that of any one else in the whole New Church. The following 
incident is in the same line: 

Mr. Joseph Worcester told me that one of his personal 
friends, a railroad official, had begged to present him with 
a round-trip pass enabling him to visit his brothers in Massa- 
chusetts once more. 


" I thought the matter over for twenty-four hours," he 
said, " and I decided to decline the offer. It seemed to me 
entirely unnecessary that I should see my brothers. We love 
each other, we know that we love each other, and we are very 
near each other in spirit. I wrote Benjamin and John of my 
decision, and they wholly agreed with me." 

Swedenborg says: " Nor does their distance from each other 
on earth alter the case: though persons may live here many 
thousands of miles asunder, still they may be together. . . ." 
(A. C. 1277). 

At the obsequies for Mr. Worcester in 1913, Professor S. 
S. Seward "^ tells us that the chapel was " beautiful with 
branches of cone-bearing fir, pine, and juniper; there were 
boughs of oak and branches of flowering barberry, but no cut 
flowers" ; there was reading from a manuscript written by Mr. 
Worcester in anticipation of these simple services which were 
repeated to the overflow of people in the garden; and thither 
the " Rock " boys, after the prayer, bore their spiritual foster- 
father's house of clay. But it was no longer tenanted; he 
had gone in the company of attendant celestial angels of the 
resurrection to the spiritual home of his brothers Benjamin 
and John. 

We will now descend to earth in our narrative, and trace 
six New-Church generations in direct lineal descent: 

i. Capt. John Clark married in 1793 Lydia Sanderson. 

ii. Alice Clark married in 1821 Thomas Worcester. 

iii. Benjamin Worcester married in 1847 Mary C. Rug- 

iv. Alice Worcester married in 1870 Lewis Tafel Bum- 

v. Mary Burnham married in 1897 George Bumham 

vi. The offspring of George and Mary are great-great- 
great-grandchildren of Capt. John Clark who was born in 

Again we trace a line: 

* The Worcester and Sewall and Seward quotations are from the New-Church 
Messenger for September 24, 1913; that of Mr. French from the Messenger of 
January 7, 1914. 

Interior Second New Jerusalem Church, corner Lyons and 
Washington Streets, San Francisco. Rev. Joseph Worcester 

^yt^yir^^^^i^i^ >uo.v.^ Av^^-t^ 

^^-^--^ ^:r-X-^ .^^^T^.^"< 



i. Capt. John Clark married Lydia Sanderson, 
ii. Alice Clark married Thomas Worcester. 

iii. Miriam Worcester married in 1842 Samuel Fuller 

iv. Helen Dike married in 1874 Albert Edward Hooper. 
V. Catharine Reed Hooper married in 1905 Walter Bur- 
gess Warren. 

vi. The little Warrens of Portland, Oregon, are the sixth 
New-Church generation. 

Several other lines of at least five successive generations 
of our faith can be drawn through Thomas Worcester's 
children, Miriam, Catharine and John, all of which shows the 
strong Worcester loyalty to the Church of the New Jerusalem. 

Rev. William L. Worcester, General Pastor of the Massa- 
chusetts Association, and President of the Cambridge New 
Church Theological School, continues to hold the ministerial 
office represented by his father and grandfather, and he hands 
on the family torch of spiritual truth lighted by Rev. Thomas 
Worcester, Founder of the Boston Society of the New 



A HUNDRED old family letters stretching back nearly a 
century and recently rescued from an attic on the Mississippi; 
a faded sheaf of state documents bearing presidential and 
other public signatures; but above all, decades of sympa- 
thetic and hallowed companionship between my father and 
myself, together with the sharing of parochial privileges: 
these furnish the chief material for this chapter. 


I long 
To hear the story of your life, which must 
Take the ear strangely. 

— The Tempest, A.D. 1611. 

Abiel's father, John Silver, gained your favor out of hand 
by his winning personality. Broad in spirit and flexible of 
temperament, he had none of the Puritan rigidity of his day. 
Analytical of mind, he questioned the creeds, but was reverent 
toward God, and scrupulous toward the neighbor. Although 
living all his life in the country, a city adjective best describes 
his manners, which, characterized by ease, were essentially 
urbane. About 1770 he married Mary Buell, a sweet-spirited, 
gentle young girl who displayed none of the ambition for the 
ballot which characterized her distinguished contemporary, 
Mrs. John Adams, although, like her, she had a warm 
motherly heart. 

Both my grandparents in their old age migrated westward, 
and their aspect remains clearly defined in my childhood's 
memory: his ruddy face crowned with white hair, his attitude 
toward children most winning; and I can see her kindly face 
framed in the broad frill of her white cap. Their home with 
their youngest daughter overlooked a garden gay with Bounc- 
ing Bets, phlox, and Sweet Williams over which drooped the 
graceful plumes of the princess' feather. Not infrequently 


she would steal away from the family group, seclude herself 
in the " best room " near the vine-encircled window, and open 
the great family Bible, much of which she could repeat from 

After the manner of the olden times, my grandparents 
bestowed Scriptural names upon several of their children: 
that of the eldest son brings to mind the third Hebrew 
patriarch; that of the second son recalls the beloved disciple; 
that of the third son reminds one of the good king of Judah 
in whose reign the Book of the Law was recovered ; the name 
of the fourth son sends one's thoughts back to the prophet of 
lamentation; the fifth son bore the name of King Saul's 
grandfather; but the youngest son was named for the famous 
American kite-flying philosopher, whose widely equipped 
mind my grandfather greatly admired. The elder daughter 
in the Silver household bore the name of a certain saint sacred 
in legendary art whom Raphael has depicted with palm branch 
in hand, standing serenely upon the subjugated dragon; and 
upon grandfather's younger daughter was bestowed the name 
of the glorious martyr-maid of mediaeval France. 

Abiel, grandfather Silver's fifth son and the subject of this 
sketch, opened his grey eyes on the world April the third, 
1797, at Hopkinton, near Concord, New Hampshire. George 
Washington had not yet relinquished the helm of state after 
nearly eight highly successful years in the presidential chair. 
The lad Abiel grew up with a great hunger for knowledge, 
and a strong aptitude for quickly assimilating it, and making 
it a part of the texture of his mind. 


My great compensation-day which it was worth while being born for. 
— Robert Browning's comment on 
the day when he first met Elizabeth 

Romance was written large in my father's life. While still 
in infantile frocks he paid his first visit to the newly-arrived 
maiden, Ednah Hastings, to whom he was to prove a brave 
knight, tender and true to the last. Decanters, after the 
manner of the day, were on the sideboard ; and the two houses, 


in unconscious prophecy through their spirit of fun, bade him 
sip a little wine to the health of his little wife. The damsel 
had first opened her blue eyes on the world at Hopkinton 
on May the thirtieth, 1798; and her precocious lover might 
say in the words of the poem by Rev. Frederick Palmer of 
Cambridge over an event of similar import to him, that, on 
that night 

The half of myself was born. 

One of Ednah's early misdemeanors shall be recorded. 
When quite too young to pronounce her own name she was 
observed one day diligently pulling up tiny garden plants, 
and repeating over and over to herself: 

"Naughty, naughty, Nanna mustn't do that, No, No, 
naughty, naughty! " 

An eye-witness has described to me a pretty contrasting 
scene in the Hastings orchard when a group of little sisters 

Knit hands and beat the ground 
In a glad fantastic round. 

As they encircled a fragrant cherry tree I wonder if they 
knew that they were singing the glad-hearted words of Shakes- 
peare's Ariel: 

Merrily, merrily shall I live now 

Under the blossom.s that hang on the bough. 

The little Hastingses multiplied until there were eight tall 
and stately maidens, whose parents, Moses and Miriam Tyler 
Hastings, were brave of heart, firm of nerve, loyal to duty. 

Abiel and Ednah, as yet unpledged lovers, parsed together 
out of Young's Night Thoughts, admired the rhythmic prose 
of Rasselas, envied Addison his English, and analyzed Pope's 
Essay on Man. They wondered over the authorship of the 
charming new novel, Waverley, and laughed over Irving's 
Knickerbocker, Cowper's Diverting History of John Gilpin, 
and the current rhyme beginning: 

A wife should be like echo true, 

Nor speak but when she's spoken to; 

But not like echo e'er be heard 

Contending for the final word. . ' 


These young people frequented "spelling-down" parties 
where two lines of contestants faced each other and the 
dictionary was the umpire, each member forfeiting his place 
at his first misspelled word. Poor spellers went down like 
ninepins, but the early epistles of my parents were triumphs 
in orthography, and attest their success. Sleighing was a 
favorite diversion, and Poe has set the music of the bells to 
the rhythmic words of genius: 

How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle, 

In the icy air of night! 
While the stars, that oversprinkle 

All the heavens, seem to twinkle 
With a crystalline delight; 

Keeping time, time, time, 
In a sort of Runic rhyme, 
To the tintinnabulation that so musically wells 

From the bells, bells, bells, 
From the jingling and the tinkling of the bells. 

What gifts did the early nineteenth century lad give to his 
lassie? My only answer lies in a faded bit of paper which 
has been yellowing for a century, on which is written a mathe- 
matical problem "given by Abiel to Ednah to solve." It 
reads after this wise: 

" A gentleman was making his address in a lady's family 
who had live daughters; she told them their father had made 
a will which imported that the first four of the Girls' fortunes 
were together to make £65,000; the last four £66,000, the 
last three with the first £60,000, the first three with the last 
£56,000, and the first two with the last two £64,000; which 
if he could tell what each one was to have, as he appeared to 
have a partiality for Harriet, the third daughter, he should 
be welcome to her. Pray what was Miss Harriet's fortune? 

£10,000. Ans." 

Riding on horseback was a favorite pastime in the olden 
times, and my mother was a fearless and even daring eques- 
trienne, sometimes mounting an unwilling animal which had 
never had a woman on its back. One day she rode out on a 
gay young creature and stopped at a door to deliver a message. 


An old woman came out, her face framed in an immense cap 
frill which shook with agitation as the eyes, keen, kindly, but 
apprehensive, peered over the spectacles at the caller. She 
spoke slowly, punctuating each word: 

" Miss Hastings, don't you ride that wild horse; good folks 
are scarce, and bad ones ain't fit to die! " 

The New England Primer had turned the merry-hearted 
Abiel and Ednah, while little children, to the consideration 
of grave matters. They evidently studied the Boston edition 
of 1777, printed by Edward Draper in Newbury Street and 
sold by John Boyle in Marlborough Street, a copy of which 
lies before me. It is three by four and a half inches in size, 
bound in blue paper over stiff boards with a leather back. 
Its thickness is only a quarter of an inch, but its eighty pages 
include the Shorter Catechism, John Cotton's Spiritual Milk 
for Babes, and A Dialogue between Christ, Youth and the 
Devil. Its varied themes delighted the theologian, gave as- 
surance to the elect, terrified the impenitent, stirred the leth- 
argic, stiffened the wavering, and aroused awe in the devout. 
The Cradle Hymn by Watts sang its Avay through my mother's 
sweet voice into my heart. She needed to blue-pencil only one 
verse. But the following infantile rhymes made little children 
old before their time : 

I in the burying place may see 

Graves shorter there than I, 
From death's arrest no age is free, 

Young children too must die. 

My God, may such an awful sight 

Awakening be to me! 
Oh! that by early grace I might 

For death prepared be. 

Puritanism engraved its message deep on the memory; and 
Abiel and Ednah within my remembrance could recite the 
following from the New England Primer: 


Though I am young, a little one, 

H I can speak and go alone, 

Then I must learn to know the Lord, 


And learn to read his holy word. 

'Tis time to seek to God and pray 

For what I want for every day : 

I have a precious soul to save, 

And I a mortal body have, 

Tho' I am young yet I may die 

And hasten to eternity : 

There is a dreadful fiery hell, 

Where wicked ones must always dwell: 

There is a heaven full of joy, 

Where godly ones must always stay: 

To one of these my soul must fly, 

As in a moment when I die: 

When God that made me, calls me home, 

I must not stay, I must be gone. 

He gave me life, and gives me breath. 

And he can save my soul from death. 

He gives me bread and milk and meat 

And all I have that's good to eat. 

When I am sick, he, if he please. 

Can make me well and give me ease: 

He gives me sleep and quiet rest, 

Wliereby my body is refreshed. 

The Lord is good and kind to me, 

And very thankful I must be. 

I must obey and love and fear him. 

By faith in Christ I must draw near him. 

I must not sin as others do. 

Lest I lie down in sorrow too: 

For God is angry every day. 

With wicked ones who go astray, 

All sinful words I must restrain: 

I must not take God's name in vain. 

I must not work, I must not play, 

Upon God's holy sabbath day. 

And if my parents speak the word, 

I must obey them in the Lord. 

Nor steal, nor lie, nor spend my days 

In idle tales and foolish plays, 

I must obey the Lord's commands. 

Do something with my little hands: 

Remember my Creator now. 

In youth while time will it allow. 

In this Primer famous couplets are accompanied by crude, 
forceful dramatic woodcuts, two of which fill a square inch. 


The trunk of a fruit tree is encircled by the beguiling serpent 
to emphasize the dogma: 

In Adam's Fall 
We sinned all. 

A lad escaping from the Tempter, depicted with the tra- 
ditional terrible claws, forked tail and devouring jaws, tells 
us pictorially of moral triumph; and is accompanied by this 

couplet : 

Young Timothy 
Learnt sin to fly. 

The effigy of a king crowned and coffined recalls our in- 
evitable fate: 

Xerxes did die, 
And so must I. 

A skeleton steals suddenly upon a group of convivial 
youths around a table bringing judgment vnth him: 

While youth do chear 
Death may be near. 

Puritan illustrations deal with the issues of life and death 
for the soul, but grim humor sometimes creeps in surrepti- 
tiously and lights up the tragedy. 

A great educational promotion to Phillips Academy at 
Exeter, New Hampshire, came to Abiel Silver in 1811. Just 
one hundred years later, I visited the institution under the 
guidance of a courteous undergraduate proud of its trophies 
won in athletic contests, especially those snatched from the 
great rival, Phillips Andover. Why this absorbing devotion? 

The town of Exeter inhaled enthusiasm for outdoor sports 
with its first breath of life in 1683 through its founder, the 
Rev. John Wheelwright. His "athletic vigor and pluck" 
were shown in his contests at Cambridge, England, with his 
fellow collegian, the future famous Oliver Cromwell, who 
is recorded as saying, " That he was more afraid of meeting 
Wheelwright at football than he had been since of meeting 
an army in the field, for he was infallibly sure of being 
tripped up by him." 


At Exeter today, instead of quoit-pitching and other sim- 
ple games of a century ago, we see golf courses, baseball 
diamonds, football fields, straight-aways, modern boat houses, 
tennis courts, twelve in number, and still multiplying; and 
academy acres, grown from six or seven to three hundred 
and twenty. On the other hand, scholarship holds its own 
against athletics and physical comforts; its faculty of thirty 
or more has included distinguished men like Bradley L. 
Cilley in Greek; George L. Kittredge in English Literature, 
and George A. Wentworth in mathematics. 

But Benjamin Abbott, principal of the academy from 
1788 to 1838, still wears his diadem. He created the stim- 
ulating atmosphere, the high standards, the noble traditions, 
which others have perpetuated. Fire destroyed the dignified 
colonial Main Hall erected in 1794; and also destroyed its 
successor, " a product of darkest nineteenth-century archi- 
tecture." But Cram and Ferguson have reinstalled the fine 
early type. 

Those familiar with Charles Kingsley's life will recall 
that he walked from Cambridge to London, fifty-two miles, 
in a day. Also within the compass of a day, Mr. Silver, at 
the close of his Academy training, walked sixty miles from 
Exeter to Hopkinton. He was as vitally alive mentally as 
physically, and longed to make Dartmouth his Alma Mater. 
That institution beginning as a romantically public-spirited 
school for training Indians, had emerged under Wheelock 
and his son from its log-hut stage of equipment, and was 
arousing attention abroad. Young Silver would have en- 
riched Dartmouth with his stimulating and contagious love 
of study; but grandfather Silver's purse was in inverse ratio 
to his generosity. He could but give his six sons good pre- 
liminary school training, supplemented by affectionate home 
nurture in intelligence, piety, and integrity; with a bestowal 
of his blessing and one hundred dollars upon each in turn 
when about to leave the rooftree and enter the big untried 
world. Abiel's college aspirations therefore received a 

Judge John Harris of Hopkinton, who was the senior of 
my father by twenty-eight years, and greatly influenced his 


early life, deserves a paragraph. A graduate of Harvard 
in 1791, he served forty-one years as county probate judge, 
and as associate justice of the New Hampshire supreme 
court of judicature. Admiring the little lad Abiel Silver, 
he nurtured and led him socially and spiritually, free- 
masonry becoming one of the bonds of comradeship. Judge 
Harris became a Knight Templar, and his clear strong hand- 
writing is in evidence before me in a faded document which 
proved an open sesame when my father fared forth into 
the big world. It is dated April 13, 1819, and recommends 

" To the Fraternity of Free and accepted Masons." 

I will outrun the regular sequence of events for a moment 
to quote from a letter yellow with age lying before me dated 
December 15, 1826, which says: "Mr. Silver thinks of tak- 
ing a journey to Rutland, Vt., this winter to receive the degree 
of Knighthood which forms the climax of Masonry." 


Dear Kate, take a fellow of plain and uncoined constancy. 

— Henry V, A.D. 1623. 

The child lovers, Abiel and Ednah, having reached ma- 
turity, plighted their undying troth in 1818. They had lived 
in eventful times — the prodigious acquisition of the Louisi- 
ana Territory, the exciting conspiracy of Aaron Burr, the 
wonder of steam navigation up the Hudson, violent party 
controversies under Jefferson. Together they had watched 
in 1815 the dramatic ending of two important wars, in Gen- 
eral Jackson's brilliant victory at New Orleans, and the Corsi- 
can's surrender at Waterloo. 

In 1819 young Silver went forth high heartedly into the 
world in quest of a career. Treasured in his heart was the 
betrothal promise; enclosed in his pocket book, one hundred 
dollars; stowed in his trunk, valuable letters of introduction 
from the ardent Churchman, Judge Harris. Hospitable doors 
were to open to the young wanderer by Episcopalians and 
members of the Masonic Order. He visited several large 
towns; and subsequent to his stay in Albany time has proved 


that the world is small. Fifty-six years later, in the year 
1875, Rev. Albert H. Plumb and the Rev. Abiel Silver met 
in the Roxbury Bray-Burnham home wherein a marriage 
had recently been solemnized between a Congregational bride 
and a Swedenborgian bridegroom; and these two ecclesi- 
astical shepherds looking after their respective sheep, dis- 
covered that they had friends in common in Albany. 

Mr. Silver, the young wanderer, finally settled in 1820 in 
Ogdensburg, New York, on the St. Lawrence River, where, 
for five years, he maintained a private school of his own 
founding. The membership rose to one hundred, and he 
consumed much midnight oil in study that he might keep in 
advance of his bright, question-loving students. I have read 
the original rhymed letter indited by this fun-loving peda- 
gogue in which he entertainingly describes his pupils. 

During these years, except for Miss Hastings, Judge John 
Harris was his chief correspondent. From the Harris heirs, 
fifty years later, Mr. Silver obtained, after much persuasion, 
ninety-nine of his own letters, urging that after the death 
of the recipient the writer had the strongest claim. From 
these letters I learn that my father's intimate correspondence 
with the Judge was devoted largely to the claims of the Epis- 
copal Church. Before me lies the most important of the 
ninety-nine, dated from Ogdensburg on August 16, 1823, 
in which Mr. Silver says: 

" Bishop Hobart is expected here the 24th inst. when the 
rite of confirmation will probably be received by as many 
as 30 in this place. Under Mr. Carter's pious ministry 
we are meeting together at the Church three times a week, 
specially for the preparation and the reception of that holy 
rite. I am doubly anxious to receive it, I believe it will af- 
ford me great consolation." 

During six of their seven betrothal years, Mr. Silver and 
Miss Hastings were separated by unfeeling and insensate 
miles. While he was wrestling with theological and peda- 
gogical problems, she was attending the Pembroke Academy 
where the curriculum was undoubtedly meagre, but from 
whence she emerged clothed in good manners tinctured with 
deference, with the ability to express herself clearly, and 


to read aloud in a way to charm the cultured ear. Musical 
choral training in the Messiah came later. 

Ednah Hastings was now to have the first great travel 
adventure of her life. On March 5, 1821, she set out with 
her resourceful brother-in-law, Enoch Long, her sister, Mary- 
Hastings Long, and the little four-year-old niece, Lucia, for 
the banks of the Mississippi.* Transit was not rapid. Ameri- 
can travelers must wait eight years more for the first steam 
railway. This two months' journey was accomplished by 
driving southward from New Hampshire with increasingly 
difficult roads; sailing from Brownsville, Virginia, down the 
Monongahela and Ohio Rivers for a fortnight on a flat-boat 
fourteen feet by twenty-four purchased for the occasion ; with 
the family sheltered at one end, the horses at the other, and 
the covered vehicle on the roof; passing Cincinnati with its 
ten thousand inhabitants; selling the boat at Shawneetown, 
niinois, and resuming wheels across the state to Alton, the 
point of destination. 

The character of Miss Hastings was brought out by one 
experience. Yielding to urgent petition, she took in charge 
a neighborhood public district school which had hitherto 
proved a Waterloo, each teacher in turn having been floored 
metaphorically, and possibly literally, by the insubordinate 
element. The chief off"ender, on hearing of the new arrange- 
ment, flung out his challenge: " I would like to see the woman 
who could make me mind! " Miss Hastings had no physical 
force back of her, no head-master armed with birch as a court 
of final appeal. She began by capturing the good will of 
the ringleader, who became her devoted ally; he could not do 
enough for her. The other boys, having the gang spirit, held 
together; and, not sufficiently strong to lead in mutiny, but 
admiring power, turned their allegiance to the new force 
unexpectedly at the top. She achieved success because she 
saw a possible hero under every boy's jacket. She idealized 
men to the end of her life, and maintained toward them a 
touch of deference. 

The betrothal letters of Abiel Silver and Ednah Hastings 

* See remarkable life of Enoch Long filling vol. ii. of Chicago Historical Col- 
lection, Chicago, 1884. 


which had been passing each other, shuttle-like, between the 
St. Lawrence and the Mississippi demanded a postage of 
twenty-five cents each. Prepayment was not compulsory, 
and etiquette demanded that the gentleman cover the expense 
in both directions. Two of these epistles survive — careful 
in chirography, grave in spirit, strongly individual in opinion. 
Although warmed with an underglow of love, there is no rash 
impetuosity, no unrestrained vehemence, no careless rapture 
of expression. The God of the Pilgrims was watching them; 
they must write worthily of Him. There is a reverent atti- 
tude toward marriage, much discussion of the comparative 
claims of the Episcopal and Orthodox Churches, and an 
earnest desire for complete spiritual sympathy. Fifteen years 
later, these two persons would find accordant vision in a 
Church home. 


Behold, whiles she before the altar stands, 
Hearing the holy priest that to her speakes, 
And blesseth her with his two happy hands, 
How the red roses flush up in her cheekes. 

Ring ye the bels, ye yong men of the towne, 

And leave your wonted labors for this day: 

This day is holy ; doe ye write it downe, 

That ye forever it remember may. 

— Edmund Spenser's Epithalamion on his own 
marriage to Elizabeth, A.D. 1595. 

Ednah Hastings had been made fatherless ten years before, 
the hearthstone was deserted, and the family scattered. As 
a foil to this somber picture, the hospitable rooftree of her 
big-hearted Uncle Simeon Tyler furnished sunshine, ample 
space, and good cheer as a gift to her wedding. One of its 
four square rooms on the ground floor witnessed the marriage 
ceremony, and I have often seen its wainscoted walls, small 
panes, and high, narrow, hand-carved mantle-shelf. The 
whole building is now " restored " out of all recognition. The 
alliance was cordially approved by both houses: Mr. Silver 
was made royally welcome; and, in turn. Grandfather Silver 
often said in later years, " Ednah, if you do not deserve as 
much love as any child I have in the world, you get more 
than your share." 


The date of the afternoon marriage was May 16, 1825, 
with fifty guests present. Ednah's sister Laura served as 
bridesmaid,* and was proud of the groomsman, George W. 
Long, whom she had known from childhood, and who was 
now a manly West Point artillery officer of twenty-six. He 
was the brother of Enoch, the pioneer, and of Major Stephen 
H. Long, U. S. A., who had already explored 26,000 miles 
of wilderness, discovering and giving the name to Long's 
Peak in the Rocky Mountains. 

The officiating clergyman at the wedding was the village 
pastor. Rev. Roger Conant Hatch of Yale, 1815, who rep- 
resented Orthodox Puritanism, toned and sweetened in spirit. 
A parishioner writes, declaring his likeness to Goldsmith's 
" Village Preacher." 

Ednah, the bride, wore a lace cap wreathed with flowers, 
a gown of wrought Swiss muslin with two plain flounces, a 
lace rufl", and gauze sash. She writes of her wedding attire, 
that " all these pretty things are of little moment," and she 
speaks of the nuptial ceremony as " the important crisis." 
At the close of the festivities, the entire company went in 
chaises to the meeting-house, presumably for the signing of 
a marriage contract, after which the bridal pair, accompanied 
by six of their young friends, drove as far as Concord, New 
Hampshire, ten miles. The three-hundred-mile wedding jour- 
ney to the new home which should have consumed only five 
days, was extended to nine, because of irregularity in con- 
nection of stages and boats, via Hanover, New Hampshire; 
Montpelier and Burlington, Vermont; and Plattsburg, New 
York, to Waddington on the St. Lawrence, seventy miles from 
Lake Ontario. Mr. Silver in his quest for a career, after 
five years as a pedagogue at Ogdensburg, had moved down 
the St. Lawrence River to Waddington, and was now a mer- 

Although my mother's maiden family name was now sec- 
ondary, I will record that she was very proud of it. I think 
that she could really feel the superior Hastings blood coursing 
in her veins. Had she been a guest in some fortress-castle dur- 

* As the younger sister, Ednah, married first, it was said of Laura in old 
family letters that " she must dance in the brass kettle." 


ing mediaeval days, she would have taken her seat above the 
salt with assured and unconscious ease. Accepting the state- 
ment that "the family tree is not indigenous to our soil," I 
endeavored while in the British Museum to trace the trans- 
plantation of ours hither, but without success. Since my 
mother's death I have dropped the matter, out of fear that 
my ancestors might prove so superior that I could not live 
up to them. Imagine the discovery of more than one Lady 
Hastings in the ancestral line possessing an imperial presence, 
distinction of manner, courtly grace, and a high-bred air; 
and imagine a discerning critic wondering, in view of the 
present generation, whether these social graces were interred 
with their bones. Nevertheless I love to climb the genealogi- 
cal trees of other people, and to enjoy the fair fruit. Re- 
garding my darling old Papa, I only trace his lineage back 
to his paternal grandfather born in 1730, and bearing the 
Biblical name Samuel. If Abiel Silver's shield is permitted 
to bear any quarterings it will be for this reason: that he, 
during a life time, maintained a high degree of courtesy 
toward his wife and daughter. In this connection it is inter- 
esting to recall the na'ive remark of little Anatole France 
who tried to enact on his mother's kitchen table the role of 
the pillar saint, Simeon Stylites. Upon being called down, 
he exclaimed, " It is always very hard to be a saint in the 
midst of one's family." 

If you had been guests of Mr. and Mrs. Silver in their 
new home on the St. Lawrence, you would have seen an island 
three miles long, where lived the Ogdens who, after the 
fashion of the day, contributed to my mother's album, after 
this wise: 

They composed grave verses on Prayer, devotional verses 
on The Redemption, and gloomy verses on Dying. Bachelors 
indited their sentiments of playful irony. Mr. Atwater (who 
afterwards married) under the title of Misanthrope Hours, 
enters a list of life's illusions, ending with woman: 

" When eyes of fire their flashes sent, 
And rosy lips looked eloquent, 
Oh, I have turned and wept to find 
Beneath it all a trifling mind. " 


Mr. Silver, having exchanged his five-year role of peda- 
gogue in Ogdensburg for a five-year vocation of merchant 
at Waddington, felt that residence at the latter place was 
tentative. It was a sojourn, rather than a permanent abode; 
diversified by visits and little journeys, with happy hearth- 
stone experiences forming the warp and woof of life. His 
wife's declining health spurred him on in 1831 to wind up 
his affairs " in a trice," and to give her a two-hundred-mile 
carriage-drive by easy stages to Saratoga Springs for a stay 
of months. And then westward on a venture. 


For a better and higher gift than this there cannot be, when with accordant 
aims man and wife have a home. 

Odyssey VI, 181-185, B.C. 1000. 

Come live with me. . . . 
And I will make thee beds of roses. 
And a thousand fragrant posies; 
A cap of flowers, and a kirtle. 
Embroidered all with leaves of myrtle. 

— Christopher Marlowe, A.D. 1600. 

On November 3, 1831, Mr. and Mrs. Silver arrived at 
Edwardsburg, Cass County, Michigan Territory. The town 
was bounded on the west by Beardsley's Prairie three miles 
long, and so prodigally spangled with wild flowers as to 
be fit for a Moslem paradise; and here, for a score of years, 
roses in large variety were to blossom under Mrs. Silver's 
sympathetic hand. Picture her, as I remember her, wearing 
on her head a snood or calash made of wine-colored brocade 
shirred on to slender willow rods, rendering it, when in dis- 
use, collapsible like a jointed carriage top. 

The village, whose main street was lively with post coaches 
in transit, was situated on one of the roads radiating from 
Detroit. A hundred miles west of Edwardsburg lay Fort 
Dearborn, around which gathered a few inhabitants; the spot 
to be incorporated within two years as the town of Chicago. 

Mr. Silver entered promptly into mercantile arrangements, 
establishing one store at Edwardsburg and another at Casso- 
polis, the county seat; the two equidistant from Niles, the 
point of arrival by vessel for his commodities which came 
from New York via the Hudson River, Erie Canal, Lakes 


Huron and Michigan, and the St. Joseph River. Increasing 
his four thousand dollar purchases the first year to twenty 
thousand dollars the second, he had also gained a lesson in_ 
selection; his first cargo of coffee being sold out in three 
weeks, and his tea lasting three years. Here, in 1835, he 
secured a home, purchasing for twelve hundred dollars the 
old Edwards estate of twenty acres bounded on the north by 
Pleasant Lake. As years went on, Mr. Silver's mercantile 
ventures were subject to vicissitude. Later, he had thrown 
the business on his partners, and had become in a degree a 
silent member. 

His official life comes into view. Mrs. Silver writes from 
Edwardsburg under date of April 21, 1833: 

" Mr. Silver has just received an appointment from the 
Governor of the Territory as Judge of the Circuit Court of 
this County." The original official document in the form 
of an appointm.ent lies before me, and begins after this wise: 

" George B. Porter, 
Governor in and over the Territory of Michigan, 
To all to whom these presents may come — Greeting: 
Know ye, that, reposing special trust and confidence in the 
integrity and ability of Abiel Silver, I have nominated, and 
by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council 
of the said Territory have appointed him Associate Judge of 
the Circuit Court in and for the County of Cass for the term 
of three years." It was renewed in 1836. 

We have seen Mr. Silver as a fun-loving pedagogue, and 
as a state official; we see him now as a fun-loving federal 
official. In one of his wife's letters to old friends, he adds 
the following: 

" Do you know of a rhymster who writes to save pence 
In odd jingling rhymes, whether sense or nonsense? 
Then place to the credit of that poetaster 
One shilling and sixpence — 

A. Silver, Postmaster.'" 

A Washington letter lying before me from the Second 
Assistant Postmaster General under President Van Buren is 
dated February 20, 1838, and appoints Mr. Silver postmaster 


at Edwardsburg. The appointment was renewed on August 
17, 1843. 

It seems difficult to keep out of office in Michigan. Before 
me lies an appointment made by the head of the state and 
confirmed by the senate offering Mr. Silver the Commission- 
ership of the Land Office at Marshall for two years. It is 
dated February 16, 1846, and signed by Gov, Alpheus Felch. 
A reappointment for two years more is dated February 5, 
1848, and signed by Governor Epaphroditus Ransom. 

In March, 1848, Mr. Silver as Commissioner went on 
horseback through the mud from Marshall to Lansing, the 
new Capital of the state. The distance was fifty miles. He 
was eagerly interested in education, and by the laws of the 
state, the sixteenth section of every surveyed township was 
to be set apart for the support of public schools. He found 
that the school section at Lansing was an admirable site 
for the State Capitol, being fifty feet above the Grand River. 
The keen scent of land speculators had brought them there, 
and they presented their inferior site, with a remote, almost 
intangible hint of bribery. Mr. Silver dismissed them in 
six words: "Gentlemen, I am not for sale." He carried the 
day by devoted effort. After Mr. Silver's death in 1881, the 
Detroit Society of the New Jerusalem, through its clerk, Mr. 
James Wilkie, sent my mother and me a letter of sympathy 
embodying in its preamble these words: 

"And Whereas, Mr. Silver, as a citizen of Michigan for 
many years, and especially as Commissioner of the State 
Land Office, performed for our state important trusts and 
uses (among others projecting and by his efforts securing 
the location of our State Capitol on school lands, thereby 
largely swelling the State school funds), therefore. Resolved," 



Swing thee low in thy cradle soft, 

Deep in the dusky wood; 
Swing thee low and swing aloft — 

Sleep, as a papoose should. 
The coyote howls on tlie prairie wild. 

And the owlet howls in the tree; 
And tlie hig moon shines on the little child 

As it slumbers peacefully. 

Sleep as a papoose should; 
For, safe in your birchen nest, 
Quiet will come, and peace, and rest. 
If the little papoose is good. 

— From an Indian Cradle Song interpreted 
by the Chilocco Indian School Journal. 

Indian traditions supplied a background for the Edwards- 
burg life. Our oak tree, huge and ancient, standing between 
the house and Lake Pleasant, had been a peace-rendezvous 
for hostile red men where they had buried the hatchet and 
smoked together the pipe of peace. Real live aborigines 
added a touch of picturesqueness. Occasionally a young 
mother of the friendly Pottawatamie tribe appealed to Mrs. 
Silver for succor. Slipping from her forehead the strap by 
which she carried her papoose in its little woven cradle on 
her back, she leaned against the sunny side of the house the 
board to which all was fastened; and, leaving the grave 
little one outside, she entered, asking for quashgun (bread). 
Pokagon and other chiefs visited the Silvers, bringing their 
interpreters, and adding pantomime of their own. When 
urged to a final helping at the table, they expressed their 
sense of repletion by patting their stomach, and placing their 
hand under their chin — "full up to here." The hospitality 
was returned. Several white gentlemen sat in an Indian 
tent around a table on which the central dish was succotash, 
a mixture of corn and beans. After partaking for a while, 
the chief said, " Squaw, carry it off." Later he said, "Squaw, 
bring it back again." And it was repeatedly removed and 
returned, until it had been served as many times as the 
number of courses observed by the chief at the white man's 
table. Mr. Silver often related this incident: A white man 


and a red man were in a forest, and were conversing side 
by side sitting on the fallen trunk of a tree, when, almost im- 
perceptibly the Indian crowded his neighbor to the end of the 
log. When the latter protested, he received this retort: 

" That is the way that the paleface crowds the Indian off 
of his land." 

Mr. Silver often remarked upon the equity of the Indians 
in small matters. Upon killing a deer, they would hang a 
quarter on a tree, and other fellow-tribesmen did not steal the 
venison from this outdoor larder. It was by no means so 
safe among white men. 

Sculpture, Music, Fiction, and Ethnology are paying trib- 
ute. Mr. Cyrus E. Dallin's equestrian series embodies the 
attitude of the American aborigines toward the conquering 
race from Europe. The first, " The Signal of Peace," de- 
picts a Sioux chief in feathered bonnet, pointing upward with 
his spear as a recognized symbol of peace toward the white 
man. The sculptor, familiar with Indian life, witnessed this 
scene at the conclusion of a treaty of peace in Utah, the home 
of his boyhood. The second, "The Medicine Man," with 
hand raised in warning, sets forth the dawning suspicion of 
the tawny native toward the white invader. The third, " Pro- 
test," portrays the Indian with clenched fist and rearing 
horse, engaged in the warfare of tribesman against settler. 
The final one of the series, in front of the Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts, represents " The Appeal to the Great Spirit," the 
devout Indian in prayer looking upward for deliverance. 
Edward McDowell in his Indian Suite, Anton Dvorak in his 
Indian Symphony, and the Smithsonian in its illustrated vol- 
umes, keep the aborigines in remembrance. 

Skiushushu, Chief Red Fox of the Blackfoot Indians, is 
pictured in a bonnet of spreading feathers, with keen eyes 
and a strong face beneath. He is in the correspondence de- 
partment of our Theological School with a view of giving 
the principles of our faith to his people. He is founding 
an eighty-acre Home for Indian Boys and Girls, and a Chris- 
tian Tepee Mission Society for their home training in prepa- 
ration for the public schools. See Neiv-Church Messenger, 
October 22, also November 5, 1919, p. 302, where he writes: 


" It is a very interesting fact to me, that Black Hawk and 
I notice in very many of the studies of Christian Church min- 
isters that we find books of the New-Church teachings. . . ." 


The one well authorized, the other self appointed; the one put together by 
the hand of a Divine Artisan; the other, the voluntary fortuitous meeting to- 
gether of discordant material. 

— The Episcopal Church set forth by antithesis, 
by Bishop Chase. P. 268.* 

To be shepherded by a Bishop in Michigan from 1832 to 
1836 was a great event to Mr. and Mrs. Silver. For years, 
after the manner of truly zealous laymen, they had attended 
Church at Niles. The round trip by carriage was twenty-four 
miles. "How excellent," they would say in their happy- 
hearted way, '"the sun at our back when driving westward 
in the morning, and also behind us on our return in the 

Philander Chase, bom in New Hampshire in 1775, was 
the great-great-great-grandson of Aquila Chase of England. 
At thirty-six, Philander was rector of Christ Church at Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. Here he reached the very acme of ease 
in Zion; admirable parish, ample income, lovely wife, two 
noble boys in school, and an affirmative attitude toward him 
on the part of his co-workers: a picture pretty much all high 
lights. But the lure of the West was upon him, coupled with 
the conviction that he should extend his beloved Church 
toward the setting sun. He was consecrated as bishop Feb- 
ruary 11th, 1819. Eight years later, eight thousand acres 
of land in Knox County, Ohio, were advantageously pur- 
chased for Kenyon College. This institution was as truly 
a child of the Bishop as the Virginia University was a child 
of Thomas Jefferson. The land was fertile, well-watered, 
well-timbered, healthful, and with good well-sites; but the 
Bishop was told that to found his college " from the stump " 
was "madness." He and two others visited it. They found 

* The Life of Philander Chase, First Bishop of Ohio and Illinois, Founder of 
Kenyon and Jubilee Colleges. By his grand-daughter, Laura Chase Smith. 341 
pp. New York, E. P. Button and Co. 1903. 


a plain a mile long covered with fallen timber interlaced 
with midergrowth where it was impossible to move a rod 
without cutting a path; and they slept to "the howl of the 
wolf, the call of the fox, and the hoot of the owl," diversified 
by rattlesnakes in the daytime. The Bishop summoned work- 
men, and, in less than three years, eight hundred acres had 
been cleared for wheat and Indian corn. 

In 1828 Kenyon College Building was rising according to 
the draft made by our great American architect, Bulfinch of 
Washington. The Bishop's Life tells us that he was every- 
where, and did everything. He was his own forester, land- 
scape-gardener, architect, and builder, constructing his own 
saw-mill, flour-mill, and printing press. He was the educa- 
tional head of Kenyon, with great appointive privileges. He 
was the ecclesiastical head of vast spiritual powers. As time 
passed on, friction ensued; he resigned his offices; and he 
pointed significantly to a picture of King Lear on his walls, 
as he quitted forever the scene of eight years of Herculean 
labors (Lf/e, p. 238). 

Shortly after this, Mr. and Mrs. Silver knew him in Mich- 
igan. He had turned his back on his wrongs, and diffused 
sweetness. Under date of April 21, 1833, my mother writes 
from Edwardsburg: 

"To-morrow Bishop Chase and lady are coming to spend 
a week with us, and preach in this and surrounding villages. 
He is a father of the Church in every sense of the word, and 
a very interesting old gentleman in the private circle." He 
was original. Cincinnatus, his chief pet, a pony about the 
size of a Shetland, was as individual as a human child. Once, 
the Bishop apologized for coming in late to see a guest, be- 
cause he had " just been turning Cincinnatus into the Mediter- 
ranean" (out to pasture). He dated his letters from "Rob- 
ins' Nest" because his house "was built of sticks and mud, 
and filled with young ones." He and his family spent their 
last week in Michigan at my father's home on their way to 
a permanent home in Illinois, where he founded Jubilee 
College. The Bishop's little daughter writes to her brother 
(pp. 276, 277, in the Life) : 

" At length the day arrived when we should leave our once 


happy home. . . . The ox-team driven by a hired man, led 
the van; the old carriage with the family came next; then 
H. in the other wagon, and P. on old Cincinnatus brought up 
the rear. At Lima I mounted old Cincinnatus, as we had 
agreed to take turns riding him. The next morning we 
were up betimes, and rode ten miles before breakfast. We 
entered Edwardsburg about noon, and were received very 
kindly by Mr. and Mrs. S., where we intended to spend 
Sunday. Father preached the next day to a large congre- 
gation of attentive hearers. Cincinnatus was here found to 
be so lame that we could ride him no farther, and we were 
obliged to send him back; but as we could find no one going 
that way, father tied a bit of board about his neck, with, 
as near as I can recollect, these words upon it: 

'My name is Cincinnatus, I belong to P. Chase, Gilead, 
Bishop of Illinois. I am eighteen years old, and somewhat 
lame. Let me pass on to Gilead, Michigan, where I shall 
be well taken care of through the winter, as a reward for 
my past services.' 

We then turned him out to seek his fortune. We have not 
heard from him since, but I have no doubt he went directly 


By medicine life may be prolonged, yet death 
WiU seize the doctor too. 

— Cymbeline, V, 5, 1626. 

In August, 1834, Mrs. Silver was stricken with bilious 
fever. Mr. Silver in his light buggy drawn by Old Kate 
scoured the prairie in search of a nurse, but sickness was 
widely prevalent and efforts were in vain. He then bethought 
himself of Mrs. Shintafer, a sturdy Dutch woman who had 
borne her husband twenty-one children. Rumor declared 
that she had much gold hidden away in the toes of stockings 
and in other places of home deposit; and it was well known 
that she would refuse compensation for solicited service. 
But the plight was desperate, and Mr. Silver, knowing of 
her big heart, ventured to put in a petition. She replied 
affirmatively, saying that she would stay until she had seen 


his wife on her feet. Immediately after this juncture, her 
neighbors proffered advice : 

"Don't go to Mrs. Silver's; she is a very proud woman, 
and she won't speak to you after she gets well." 

" Never you mind, I have given my word, and I shall go." 

She came. Illness was prolonged, and at the end of six 
weeks her patient was reduced to fifty pounds, on the old 
maxim, starve a fever. Mercury was the reigning remedy 
of the day; calomel was administered by physician's orders 
until Mrs. Silver was salivated. But her magnificent consti- 
tution triumphed, although the muscles of the jaw were con- 
tracted, so that for the ensuing year she must needs be nour- 
ished on liquids only. On Mr. Silver's earliest visit to New 
York after her recovery he brought to Mrs. Shintafer a hand- 
some silk gown; and he and his wife drove frequently to her 
home with offerings of fruit, messages, and other expressions 
of good will. Finally, the long and useful life of the good 
woman was drawing to a close, and she sent for her former 
patient, and delivered to her this oral message: 

" Mrs. Silver, I am on my dying bed ; I shall never rise 
from it except to meet my Saviour at the Day of Judgment. 
And before I go I wish solemnly to affirm to you regarding 
your sickness, that if I had not thrown the greater part of 
your medicine out of the window you would not be alive 
this day! " 

In the year 1849 Mr. Silver visited various Eastern cities. 
Cholera was prevalent, and he carried home the seeds of it. 
One morning soon after his return he came down to break- 
fast wearing a green and yellow aspect of countenance, and 
before night his recovery was highly doubtful, convulsions 
having set in. 

While still able to assert himself, he laid down the absolute 
decree that under no circumstances whatever was any phy- 
sician to be admitted to his chamber. He also called atten- 
tion to a simple prescription for cholera which he had 
brought home from New York, as follows: 

"Drop twenty drops of the spirits of camphor on a tea- 
spoonful of sugar, and dissolve the whole in twenty teaspoon- 
fuls of water. Administer one teaspoonful of the mixture 


once in five minutes, diminishing the frequency as the symp- 
toms abate." 

Mr. Silver's two attendants, his wife and her sister, ad- 
ministered the remedy according to directions, and bestowed 
care as suggested by experience and common sense: the room 
darkened, quiet, well ventilated; nourishment slight and sim- 
ple, cold applications to the feverish head, hot applications 
to the seats of pain. The case was very severe, but not fatal; 
Mr. Silver came down in a day and consumed three months 
in recovery. 

In the meantime the doctors in and about Edwardsburg 
were consumed with curiosity that he should have triumphed 
without them; and they all signed a "round robin" letter 
humbly petitioning that they might be permitted to visit him 
in a non-official capacity. To this he returned a cordial note 
of welcome; personally he liked them very much; but he 
had vowed a mighty vow against their "Herculean doses." 
They came, and he expatiated on the remedial excellencies 
of camphor. 

In 1836 a third event occurred which, if the reader will 
pardon the lack of chronological sequence in this narrative, 
I will now describe. Mr. Silver's orchard had just been 
pruned and he was reviewing the work when he discovered 
a little inadvertent neglect. Drawing down a limb with one 
hand that he might remove a few twigs, his pruning knife 
slipped and tapped the main artery of the left wrist. The 
blood spurted quite a long distance at each pulsation, but 
Mr. Silver with his usual presence of mind grasped the left 
wrist vigorously with his right hand, walked into the house 
and ordered the surgeon to be summoned. Dr. B. came. He 
was a man of years, had served professionally in the regular 
army, was a man of experience, skill and success. But he 
was becoming intemperate, a condition which affected his 
judgment but not his manners, and was as yet unsuspected. 
With a patient of admirable physique the surgical problem 
was a simple one, but Dr. B. blundered. Again and again 
the artery broke out; he introduced a styptic; he trenched 
on the edge of a nerve, and nearly produced lockjaw. 

A council of physicians was called; blood poisoning was 


pronounced imminent, and amputation near the shoulder 
was declared inevitable to save the patient's life. Anaesthetics 
were unknown in 1836, and the operating surgeon declared 
that Mr. Silver did not move a muscle of his face during 
the removal of the limb. Immediately after, the physicians 
pointed out to Dr. B. the condition of the wrist, whereat 
he turned perfectly white, and was silent. Later, he sent 
in a bill for fifty dollars for professional services, whereupon 
Mr. Silver sent for him, and delivered this ultimatum: 

" Dr. B., if you were worth a dollar in the world, I would 
sue you heavily for damages; as you are not, you will go 
scot free, but you will receive no compensation from me." 

The doctor silently quitted the house. He went from bad 
to worse, was responsilDle for much subsequent malpractice, 
gradually lost his patronage. When his own death was ap- 
proaching, he gave this order: 

" Fasten a bracket in the corner of this room; place on it a 
black bottle, and write underneath the following inscription: 
This is what killed Dr. B." 

A pleasant bit of sunshine came into Mr. Silver's life dur- 
ing his illness. His brother-in-law, Enoch Long, with his 
two boys, Hastings and Stephen, came, accompanied by a 
brilliant and delightful surgeon, Dr. Peter W. Handle, who 
at twenty-five had married the lads' sister, Lucia Long, a 
charming girl of seventeen. Both she and her firstborn had 
been called to the spiritual world recently; and the husband, 
seeking distraction from his grief, had planned a rapid and 
extensive eastern trip; but finding Mr. Silver "in a serious 
and dangerous condition," he said at once, 

" I will stay and see you safely out of the woods." 
He lived to be an octogenarian and served in the United 
States Navy, practising medicine and surgery many years in 
San Francisco. But the sunshine of Dr. Randle's presence 
was as nothing to the psychological experiences of Mr. Silver 
in connection with the loss of his arm, which threw con- 
firmatory crosslights on the new things he was to learn 
regarding the spiritual body; all of which will be related in 
the next chapter. He has often been heard to speak of this 
deprivation of a limb as one of the great blessings of his 



The Master is come, and calleth for thee. 

— Martha of Bethany to Mary. 

We now come to a transcendent event: the reception by 
Mr. and Mrs. Silver of the New-Church faith which changed 
the whole current of their lives. The first New Churchman 
whom they ever saw was a Mr. Lawrence, coming, I think, 
from Cincinnati. He liked to tangle up Mrs. Silver's mind 
in her illogical creed in order to show her the way out; 
and he lent her husband a volume of Swedenborg. But they 
opened it to a description of the spiritual world which they 
distorted and rejected, because they did not know the laws 
of that world. 

We see therefore that Mr. Lawrence was at the best only 
a forerunner — a kind of Lief Eric; the real Christopher 
Columbus who brought my parents in 1839 to a knowledge 
of the new world of spiritual thought was Mr. Edwin Burn- 
ham of Detroit. He was thirty-six years of age, and his 
mother had already been baptized into our faith. The Rev. 
Holland Weeks (1768-1843), father-in-law of Mr. Burn- 
ham, consecrated as a clergyman of our faith in 1821, visited 
Detroit, and instituted its New Church Society on August 25, 
1839. Mr. Burnham was appointed its leader, and continued 
services " on each welcome recurrence of the Holy Sabbath." 
After the manner of Mr. William Schlatter of Philadelphia, 
Mr. Burnham, who was also engaged in merchandise, was 
accustomed to place New-Church books and tracts in boxes 
of goods sent out; and Mr. Silver, dependent on Detroit as 
well as New York for his purchases, became the happy re- 
cipient of these spiritual commodities. Cordial personal 
intercourse between these two men followed. Mr. Edwin 
Burnham's brother Lyman, writing me from Brooklyn on 
April 1st, 1881, says: 

" How well / remember the happiness of my dear brother 
Edwin, in Detroit, over forty years ago, when he came home 
late at night and told us of a conversation he had just had 
with Mr. Silver about the New-Church doctrines, and how 
delighted he was! And how many times since then have I 


thought of that night, and of the happy and important resuUs 
which have followed! And now I hope they will meet in 
heaven, — bright, useful and happy angels! " 

Having attended a Burnham-Goddard wedding in 1866 
and its Golden semi-centennial celebration later, I insert a 
direct New-Church genealogical line: 

i. Rev. Holland Weeks married Harriet Hopkins, 
ii. Elizabeth H. Weeks married Edwin Bumham. 

iii. Mary Burnham married Rev. John Goddard. 

iv. Bertha Goddard married Sherman Layton. 
V. Sherman Layton, Jr., of Ellis, Mass., is a great-great- 
grandson of Holland Weeks. 

We now return to the original thread of our story. As 
there had been for years in the minds of the Silvers an under- 
current away from the old creeds, the Burnham gift soon 
proved a delight. Mr. Silver began Heaven and Hell without 
saying anything to his wife; she discovered it tucked away 
in a drawer, and read it without saying anything to him ; they 
traveled invisibly side by side and soon discovered each 
other. She exclaimed, regarding Swedenborg's book: 

"How beautiful, if it could only be true! And yet, if 
I were a school girl, and attempted a composition on Heaven, 
could I write anything half as sensible? " 

But her chief source of delight was the new teaching of 
One God in One Person, the Lord the Saviour Jesus Christ; 
the Inmost Divine Love as the Father, the Glorified Humanity 
as the Son; their combined Power shed abroad as the Holy 
Spirit. No longer the bewildering question: "Shall I pray 
to the stern Father as more powerful, or to the compassionate 
Son as more accessible? " 

Mr. Silver found a rapid solution to many questions. He 
recalled his experience on Lake Erie: the ship on fire, death 
imminent, the panorama of his whole life in all its minutiae 
flashing before his mental vision. Here was the psychological 
explanation of the record: Man's natural memory retains 
" everything that he has heard, seen, learned or thought in 
the world from earliest infancy even to the end of life " 
[Heaven and Hell, No. 461). Mr. Silver exclaimed, "I 
have experienced it and I know it is true! " 


He recalled the loss of his left arm three years before; 
and now there still remained with him the sensation in the 
spiritual arm so distinctly that he had to learn whenever he 
got out of the right side of a buggy that he could not de- 
pend upon his left arm to brace him against the horse. 
Turning to Heaven and Hell No. 453, he read that man is 
while here a spiritual being in complete human form, and 
that by death, which is only the death of the earthly body, 
man cannot be said to have lost anything that is really his 
own. And he exclaimed, " I know that is true, for I have 
experienced the death of the physical arm, and it is only 
a covering." * 

Mr. Silver had been observing that his two hands could 
not feel each other, although he was ignorant of the fact 
that they belonged to different planes of sensation. He had 
also observed that the fingers of the left hand could feel 
each other with a fine sensitiveness of touch which made that 
of the right hand — muffled with clay — seem dull. Turning 
to Heaven and Hell, Nos. 461, 462, he read that when the 
spiritual touches what is spiritual it is just the same as when 
the natural touches what is natural, except that the senses of 
the spirit are keener, that is, more exquisite. And he ex- 
claimed, " Proved by experience to be true! " 

Anticipating dates, I will state that Mr. Silver visited New 
York hospitals during the Civil War; found in a single ward 
twenty-seven soldiers that had lost limbs, compared experi- 
ences with them, and cheered them with assurances of com- 
plete equipment in the next world. His explanations ap- 
peared in a Tract for the Soldiers, giving the laws of the 
spiritual world as illustrated from Scripture, and declaring 
that " Steel cannot cut the spiritual body to pieces, nor sick- 
ness of the natural body injure it, nor time terminate its ex- 
istence." Mr. Silver's tract rendered a second service: Mr. 
John MacLachlan of Toronto issued a reprint of five thousand 

* A materialistic theory is abroad that the sensation remaining after an ampu- 
tation is due to the brain receiving the message from the severed nerves as if 
they still had their normal extension. But Mr. Silver retained the sensation 
undiminished at the end of forty-two years, when the severed arm with its 
nerves, tendons, bones, and muscles had gone wholly out of existence as a bit of 
human organism, and its elements had been distributed elsewhere. 


copies for distribution to soldiers after the Indian Uprising 
in Canada in 1886. 

Mr. Field, a devoted pioneer in the New Church, tells us 
in his partially autobiographical work * that he learned of a 
Judge Silver, an Episcopalian, interested in the New Church; 
that he wrote him expressing his desire for an acquaintance; 
that Mr. Silver immediately responded, bringing him to his 
Edwardsburg home on January 1st, 1842, for a fortnight's 
visit and arranging for the delivery of lectures. 

Visiting them later at their special and earnest request, he 

" Mr. and Mrs. Silver were no less earnest and indefatiga- 
ble in their efforts to make known to all who had ears to 
hear, the beautiful truths and glad tidings of great joy which 
are now made known to the world in the heavenly doctrines 
of the New Jerusalem. On leaving the abode of my kind 
entertainers at Edwardsburg, which I did in their company, 
riding with them in their carriage about sixty miles of my 
homeward journey, I turned my face again toward Battle 
Creek" (Field's Me77zozV5, p. 32). 

Mr. Hans Thielson, entering the baptismal gate of the 
New Church through Mr. Field on the same day as the Silvers 
— January the third, 1844 — was a Dane from Flensburg, 
Schleswig-Holstein, whose ancestors had been merchantmen 
for nearly three centuries. He was marked by ingenuous- 
ness, and gentle kindliness of spirit. Combined with high 
ideals and reverence, were an excellent intellect and inde- 
pendence of thought. Coming early to America, he fol- 
lowed engineering with increasing honors for fifty years. 
Well equipped with recommendations, he entered service for 
the Michigan Central R. R., was transferred to the Burling- 
ton and Quincy, and did distinguished work under Henry 
Villard on the Northern Pacific, commanding fifteen thousand 

men. t 

Judge Digby V. Bell and Judge Silver, beside sharing the 

* Memoirs, Incidents and Reminiscences of the Early History of the New 
Church in Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, and Adjacent States; and Canada, by 
Rev. George Field. Toronto, New York, London, 1879. 

t Indebtedness for facts is acknowledged to Rev. J. S. David's appreciative 
tribute in Neiv-Church Messenger, May 27, 1896, vol. Ixx. 

Judge Digby V. Bell 

William Bell, son of Digby 


bench, were both in the State Land office, and were spiritual 
comrades as well. The hospitality of the former was spa- 
cious, like his heart. Did not Mr. Silver once come to his 
Chicago home, when ill; and did not Judge and Mrs. Bell 
receive him as if the care of a guest under the weather were 
a vested right — precious and unalienable! And what a 
warm-hearted father; how he liked to summon as many of 
his eleven children as possible, place them in a row so that 
their heads formed a graduated line down to the little toddler, 
and then proudly exclaim to his visitor: "See my string of 

His little daughter Sally and I were comrades, and we 
thought that Dr. Charles L. Merriman — whose character 
was as sunny as his name — was a New Churchman worth 
while. He loved children, and he used to share double- 
kerneled or philopena nuts with us; and I recall how, in 
the Bells' Detroit home, we rushed out triumphantly upon 
him from an ambuscade behind the parlor door, and antici- 
pated him in shouting the magic word " philopena," which 
entitled us to a gift from him. He might as well live in the 
hearts of children as to live in dry statistical Church reports.* 

Rev. Horatio N. Strong was one of the living stones in the 
Lord's Church. The old-fashioned word piety fitly comes in 
here, for he was strongly devotional. He and his kind-spirited 
wife Rhoda bore bravely the transition to the higher life of 
their noble young son William who was a member of our 
household. They also had borne the privations of a new 
country with a humility which was really heroic underneath. 
If you knew the smallness of ministers' salaries in those 
days, you would realize that with many little mouths to sup- 
ply, life was a bit hard. But his children were fed spiritually 
upon gratitude; their characters did not grow lean on com- 
plaint. He would gather his little ones about the frugal 
board, and point out the goodness of the Lord in making 
these things to grow for them. I am reminded of Robert 
Herrick's Thanksgiving: 

* Dr. Merriman's discrimination in doctrine and his modesty as an ex- 
pounder of spiritual truth are shown in The Medium, vol. iii, page 334 (1851). 


Lord, thou hast given me a cell 
Wherein to dwell; 

A little house, whose humble roof 
Is weather proof. 

Some brittle sticks of thorn or briar 
Make me a fire, 

Close by whose living coal I sit 
And glow like it. 

Lord, I confess too, when I dine 
The pulse is thine. 

And all those other bits that be 
There placed by Thee. 

Mr. Strong carried on work thereafter, chiefly missionary, 
in a half dozen states during thirty years. He writes Janu- 
ary 22, 1848, that he has baptized sixty-six persons in three 
years, more than forty being adults {New Jerusalem Maga- 
zine, vol. xxi, p. 202, February, 1848). I close with pleasant 
testimony to his worth as Chaplain for several years, be- 
ginning in 1848, of the Michigan State Prison. Some years 
after he left the institution he was traveling on a steam train 
when a stranger approached him, and said: 

" You will not recognize me, Mr. Strong, but I was a con- 
vict in the State Prison when you were chaplain. On the 
expiration of my term I went west, where I was entirely un- 
known, and began life all over again. There is my wife," 
pointing to a prepossessing young woman, " I did not deceive 
her. She was told all my past history by me, but she was 
willing to trust me, and she has not regretted her decision. 
We have a happy, prosperous home; for with God's help I 
have led a straightforward life; and I owe much, very much, 
to your comforting companionship and inspiring religious 

Jabez Fox, then editor of a newspaper in Marshall, made 
a round trip of 180 miles by carriage that he and his young 
wife might be baptized by Rev. Horatio N. Strong in the 
home of Mr. Silver in Edwardsburg. 

The Hon. Lucius Lyon presented a marked instance of 


the effect on a man of a new point of view. The voice of 
destructive Biblical criticism had come over from France, 
and was luring its followers to the very border land of agnos- 
ticism. But with Mr. Lyon there lay beneath the surface, 
hidden from his conscious self, a longing to believe the Good 
Book. Hearing a lecture by Mr. Silver on the symbolic 
nature of Scripture, he came eagerly forward at its close; 
and his tears of gratitude dropped on my father's extended 
hand as he invited him to be his guest, the two men talked 
until midnight. Judge Silver was not a controversialist; but 
he had fought out many a mental battle in arriving at the 
truth; and in that day of growing physical science, and de- 
caying blind faith, he was instrumental in leading more than 
one man through the Gate Logical into clearer light. Mr. 
Lyon, wishing to read at once, chose Heaven and Hell and 
the Life of Swedenborg. Exaltation and despair followed 
in unequal proportion: 

" Mr. Silver, these truths are glorious, I never was so happy 
in my life. But I shall certainly be lost. Such opportunities 
have been wasted in all the dark years! " 

" What! happy, and yet going to hell, as you say? " 
"Oh! but I am rejoiced that there is so beautiful a faith, 
and that so many will enjoy heaven because of it! " 

The number of New Churchmen in Michigan in this early 
period — the nineteenth mid-century — was small; but to a 
goodly number was given public office, some receiving two 
or three successively. Field, Strong, and Fox were made 
State Chaplains; Bell, Chamberlain, and Silver, Judges; Bell, 
and Silver, Land Office commissioners, the former also Audi- 
tor-General; Lucius Lyon, United States Senator and United 
States Surveyor-General; John Allen and H. P. Bush, State 
Senators; Amos T. Hall, State Treasurer. Mr. Robert An- 
drews was Treasurer in the State Land Office under Mr. Silver. 
But among all these men none was more instrumental for 
good than the Rev. George Field, who belonged essentially 
to the Church Militant, was a man fearless in his convictions, 
and controversially able in their defence. He was a warm 
friend of the General Convention of the New Jerusalem, and 
liked to have the church activities in accordance with its eccle- 


siastical standards. He labored nearly fifty years for the 
Church, and administered baptism five hundred times.* 

Mr. Silver has many times been heard to say, " The Episco- 
pal Church has been a good mother to me, and has kept me 
when a young man from much evil," and he still retained 
strong kindly personal affection for his old friends. Bishop 
John Henry Hobart of New York, who administered con- 
firmation to my father in 1823, had passed in 1830 to the 
other life; but the Waddington rector still lived; and Mr. 
Silver wrote him of his change of faith and sent some litera- 
ture. The reply came that the subject was too large for 
epistolary treatment; and in accepting proffered hospitality 
he preferred to talk the matter over face to face. He came 
to Michigan, bringing a clerical friend ; the stay of some days 
abounded in mutual geniality and good cheer with no refer- 
ence to the postponed topic until the moment of leaving, when 
he said to his Episcopal colleague while placing his hand 
affectionately on his host's shoulder: "Well, whenever Mr. 
Silver is tired of wandering we shall be glad to receive him 
back into the true fold." 


Neither will they be persuaded, though one rose from the dead. 

— Luke, xvi: 31. 

Animal Magnetism is first mentioned on January 25, 
1843, in Mrs. Silver's letters, and it became an absorbing 
topic among the receptive Western people. Hypnotic experi- 
ments by ignorant amateurs were frequently tried. Two 
persons sat facing each other, each holding his hand against 
the hand of the other, palm to palm, each gazing steadily 
into the eyes of the other. The hypnotist, with his strong, 
steady will and his power of concentrated thought, soon over- 
came the weaker will and the semi-passive mental attitude of 
his human subject. Hypnotic sleep ensued, sometimes aided 
by magnetic downward passes by the hand. Reversal upward 
passes usually brought the subject to his normal wakeful- 
ness; when these failed, there was usually consternation 

* See article by Rev. A. A. Frost in TVew Jerusalem Messenger, Jan., 1884, 
vol. xliv, p. 45; New Jerusalem Magazine, June, 1843, vol. xxi, p. 391. 


and alarm among the onlookers. I recall a man of good 
heart, easy temperament, and mental equipment a little 
below par, who was readily thrown into sleep in his chair 
by a keen-eyed, alert-minded, decisive man, who would then 
completely control him; causing him to ape all the motions 
of the angler; baiting an imaginary hook with an imaginary 
worm, and catching imaginary fish while holding an imagi- 
nary pole. 

Mr. Silver examined and experimented a little, and soon 
became convinced that hypnotic power was dangerous, and 
he strongly discountenanced its exercise. There was no 
thought of therapeutic or other benefit to the person experi- 
mented on; it was largely a drawing-room diversion by which 
one person controlled the muscular system, and even the 
mind of another. It was more than physiological, it was psy- 
chological power invading the danger zone. 

About this time Mr. T. S. Arthur, a New Churchman of 
Philadelphia, published a notable article entitled, Agnes, or 
the Possessed, regarding which he declared that its statements 
were facts well authenticated. Agnes, the heroine, was a 
sweet, ingenuous young girl, who consented to become a sub- 
ject for hypnotic experiment, making this condition with 
the two honorable physicans in question, that she was never 
to be impelled, when unconscious, to do anything which she 
would not be willing to do if conscious. The pledge was 
given and kept. But post hypnotic suggestion constantly in- 
creased, until even in her wakeful and conscious moments, 
they could arrest her footsteps on the opposite side of the 
street, and otherwise gravely interfere with her freedom 
of action. Vainly she endeavored to throw off their influence, 
until it occurred to her to say the Lord's Prayer to herself 
when they endeavored to put her to sleep. It was wholly 
efficacious, and the two men completely lost control. We 
recall how the Lord, while here, used again and again the 
words of Holy Writ to neutralize hostile influences (Matt, iv, 
7; Luke iv, 8, 12). 

Thought transference, now designated as telepathy, was 
often discussed in Michigan in the late forties. 

" Yes," said Mr. Silver, " I sit in my office absorbed in 


my business affairs. Suddenly, the thought of an old friend 
comes vividly to mind, with nothing whatever appealing to 
the bodily senses to remind me of him or to break the earlier 
continuity of thought. Three minutes later the old friend 
walks in; he was thinking of me intently, and his thought was 
projected ahead of his body, and arrived first." 

Spiritism traveled westward soon after hypnotism and 
spread like wildfire. Mr. Silver brought home from his east- 
ern trip rumors of the " Rochester Rappings." On this sub- 
ject my mother took an early stand with her characteristic de- 
cisiveness. One afternoon my parents were invited out of 
town for a little visit. The absorbing topic of the host's 
family proved to be slate-writing. They declared that my 
mother had a highly magnetic temperament, and all the 
qualifications for successful mediumship, and that if she 
would consent to be guided by invisible forces, wonderful 
messages might come through the slate awaiting her. Where- 
upon she lifted up both her hands, declared that God had 
given her these members for her individual use, and never 
would she yield them to any spirit, real or alleged. 

One evening a man under the influence of liquor attempted 
to drive across a sandbar in Pleasant Lake near our house. 
The runner of his sleigh struck the projecting root of a tree, 
he was thrown out, and was found the next morning lifeless 
from exposure. Shortly, some one remarked that as the man 
had died in full health his body would be a good subject for 
dissection. The remark grew into a rumor which reached the 
ears of kinsmen, who finally drove twelve miles westward to 
consult at Niles a clairvoyant medium. She pronounced the 
rumor true, declared circumstantially that the body had been 
sold to medical students in Chicago, and even named the men 
engaged in the dishonorable transaction. Still unconvinced, 
the kinsmen drove a dozen miles eastward to Cassopolis to 
consult another medium, who told substantially the same 
story. Whereupon, village excitement grew, until the grave 
was opened, and the body was found lying in repose. 

I was taught by my parents to let spiritualistic experiments 
severely alone. At one time, as a guest to hear music by a 
pupil of Rossini, I found myself unexpectedly in the house of 


a medium. I was invited to join the circle for communica- 
tions. I replied, 

" Pardon me, I must decline to take part, but do not allow 
me to disturb the current of the evening. I will sit in the 
comer of the sofa and look on." 

But the hostess was either too courteous to permit anything 
to the exclusion of a guest, or afraid of the non-sympathetic 
element present. My mission seemed to be the blocking of 
this seance. 


Delia and I are driving alone, — 

Driving, driving; 
Sleepily jogs the reliable roan, 
And over the meadows the blossoms are blown, 
And the song of the thrush finds an echoing tone, 

Shriving my soul to be clear as her own. 
Delia and I are moving content. . . . 

— George Herbert Clarke. 

No, Mr. and Mrs. Silver were never quite content without 
the coveted voice of a child in their home. And one day 
Mr. Silver announced the advent of a daughter. No child 
was ever accorded a sweeter and tenderer welcome, and she 
grew up to discover beyond the peradventure of a doubt that 
life is a thousand times worth living. Her father was gra- 
ciously pleased that heaven had sent a girl, and she came to 
be glad likewise. We know the happiness that results when 
the divine life flows into the spiritual organism of a woman. 
We cannot know by experience the kind of happiness that 
results when the divine life flows into the spiritual organism 
of a man. Never wish to exchange the known for the un- 

Mr. Silver's rapturous letter a month after the child came 
is extant; and no one will deny him the possession of a cre- 
ative imagination, when one reads the things he thinks he 
sees prophetically in the small face. After expending a hun- 
dred words or thereabouts on the newly-arrived maiden, he 
employs a similar space in an admirable tribute to his wife. 
He loved her name: hence the child was called Ednah; and 
in his most gracious moments he called her Edification. 


Mr. and Mrs. Silver were conducting their first experiment 
in parental training. The childish requirement, par excel- 
lence, in those days, was Obedience. It ranked high and 
was written in large letters. No loitering delay, no dilatory 
acquiescence, no procrastinating fulfillment. Some day the 
child must face the world for herself; and this preparatory 
discipline would strengthen the fibre and brace the spirit. 

This serious parental training on the part of Mr. and Mrs. 
Silver did not deprive the child of freedom, but tended 
toward self-control, as the following incident will show. In 
the eastern chamber, which was her playroom, she discovered 
some magazines on a high shelf in a closet. She succeeded 
in climbing within reach, and read of graveyards, ghosts, 
and clanking chains. As a result, fear of the dark loomed 
up as a horrid monster; but she proceeded to take the out- 
works of the enemy with a soliloquy: 

" Now, Ednah Silver, you know there are no such things 
as ghosts, and you are to show that you know it by going alone 
over and over again through the darkest rooms in this house." 

The immediate campaign was entirely successful, but many 
months later she awoke, and saw a spectre in white standing 
by the window. Plainly, the best way to exorcise a ghost is 
to investigate him; and he proved to be a piece of hanging 
drapery illumined by the moon. Victory for all time was 
now complete, won without parental knowledge. 

Aside from school efforts at advancement, the adult com- 
panionship at home was unconsciously stimulating. One day 
she and her father were sitting in the orchard when some fruit 
detached by a passing breeze furnished him the chance for a 
bit of philosophy. 

"Did you see that apple fall? What made it fall? Sir 
Isaac Newton says it is the attraction of gravitation; but that 
does not explain it. What is gravitation? It is the pulling 
power which a big ball like the earth has over a little ball like 
the apple. But that does not really answer the question. My 
child, I will tell you what drew that apple to the ground: it 
was the power of God." On another day she began: 

"Father, I do not see how God could live forever, and 
ever, and ever, in the past, with nobody to make Him." 


" My child, I do not want to know." 

It was the best possible answer to a question running into 
infinity, and wholly beyond the province of the finite mind. 
And the answer was efficacious. If her big, wise father was 
content not to know, so was she. But new questions came up. 
One day she heard the metaphysical statement that "there 
can be no sound unless there is an ear to hear it," and she 
fought it with all the energy of her childish nature. 

" Oh, Father, how perfectly absurd ! Here is an avalanche 
weighing a thousand tons which comes tumbling down into 
the valley. If there are no ears about, then all is as still as 
death; but if there is one small mosquito in the neighborhood 
there is a noise." But Mr. Silver stood manfully by his guns. 

His instruction was by no means addressed primarily to 
the mind. He held the key to children's hearts, and found 
ready entrance to hers. His simple, cordial talks regarding 
the Bible diffused a warmth in the atmosphere that a child 
could not help loving. 

Rev. Charles Evans, a Baptist, enriched Edwardsburg life, 
and his children were the little Ednah's playmates. They 
sprang from three continents, and an island. Four were 
born in Sumatra, one at the Cape of Good Hope, four in 
England, and two in America. This fact was published years 
ago in the Boston Evening Transcript, when one of his sons, 
Thomas, was leader of the singing at the Sunday-School 
Teachers' meetings at Tremont Temple, The family is inter- 

Charles Evans, born in Bristol, England, in 1791, studied 
for the ministry in the Stokescroft Baptist College, and was 
ordained. At twenty-seven, he married Miss Martha Scriven, 
a highly educated maiden of twenty-one, who left a devoted 
and loving home to share the dangerous vicissitudes of Asi- 
atic missionary life. They sailed December 24, 1819, from 
Gravesend; studied the Malay language, aided religious ser- 
vices, and ministered to sick sailors en route; received during 
their five weeks at St. Helena many courtesies from the Rev. 
Mr. Vernon, chaplain of the Station; and visited Longwood, 
where they saw the greatest of captives, Napoleon Bonaparte. 
Their entire voyage covered five months and a half, dropping 


anchor on June 9, 1820, at Beencoolen (Benkulen) Roads, 
Sumatra. When we read Richard Burton, who had tested 
his missionary nerve by founding a station a bit earlier among 
the strange "lettered cannibals" called Bataks, we realize 
that the Evans wedding journey was a serious-minded affair. 
Their first chapter of Oriental life was made sunny by a very 
kind welcome from the British Governor, Sir Thomas Stam- 
ford Raffles of Beencoolen. Himself a standard historian 
of Java and the Malays, he appointed Mr. Evans later to make 
extensive research of people and language in the Manangkar- 
ban country. 

In the meantime, Mr. Evans had settled his family perma- 
nently under the Dutch flag at Padang. Years went on. 
Severe obstacles to his mission work presented themselves: 
the Malay mind was not receptive of Christianity; the Mo- 
hammedan religion was strongly entrenched; the Koran was 
jealous of the Bible; the local government was obstructive; 
the Home Board was overconfident of results from its mission- 
aries, and Mr. Evans was conscientiously candid in reporting 
the limits of his harvest. Mrs. Evans had established a 
highly successful school at Padang for the daughters of 
European residents. But the tropical climate was hostile 
to the Evans household. Return to England was contemplated 
after years of heroic effort. A great-hearted mercantile friend 
Captain Edward Rogers, in command of the good ship 
Padang, offered to transport the Evans family free of charge 
to England. They sailed reluctantly, after seven years' ab- 

Finally reaching Edwardsburg, after a sojourn in England, 
the Evanses exchanged amenities with other churches, estab- 
lished a social home centre, and were well beloved beyond 
their own fold. The friendship between little Susan Evans 
and little Ednah Silver, begun here, was continued in Brook- 
lyn and New York, and further continued through repeated 
visits to her, as Mrs. Joseph B. Hoyt, at her beautiful home 
on Noroton Hill, Stamford, Conn. She asked much about my 
faith, and declared that her theology had softened with the 
years. She enjoyed my confirmation of her conviction that 
her sister Edwina really did see angels, and a glorious spirit- 


ual Hght, at her death. We talked about the beautiful inner 
meaning of Bible parables. In 1909 I visited the Judson 
Memorial Church in Washington Square, New York. Here 
I saw two additions placed there by my former Michigan 
playmate, Susan Evans Hoyt: a memorial window by John 
La Farge, in honor of Rev. and Mrs. Charles Evans, mis- 
sionaries to Sumatra in 1819-1826; also a St. Gaudens bap- 
tistry adorned with beautiful floating angels, in honor of 
Mr. Joseph B. Hoyt, deceased. 

Mr. Silver returned from his eastern trips bearing juvenile 
gifts for his only child. At one time he brought a mechanical 
toy which presented on a revolving disc a series of pictures 
of horses in various stages of advance movement past a post. 
Seen through a slot, the spectator's persistence of vision en- 
sured the effect of horses in rapid flight. This toy was the 
forerunner of the modern cinematograph which reaches many 
million people daily in moving picture shows. 

The Silvers furnished home pets: Watch, the shaggy New- 
foundland, that ran with exuberant joy to meet his little 
mistress; Jesse, the canary, a songster of famous trills and 
roulades, that used to carry on extensive dialogues with her. 
When she went away for a year he began in vain his morning 
conversation — the beloved voice did not reply. It will be 
remembered that Homer's Odysseus had a famous hunting 
dog, Argos, that recognized him after twenty years' absence. 
The difference is this: the Ithacan dog died of joy at his 
master's return; the Michigan canary died of grief at his 
mistress' absence. Kate, the chestnut mare, trotted many a 
mile over Beardsley's Prairie, carrying the Silver family in 
a light buggy with a collapsible top. One day, on passing 
a luxurious mansion, this conversation opened: 

" Father, see that beautiful great house ; how happy the 
people must be that live there!" 

" My child, do you see the plain, small building yonder? 
I know the people in both, and those in the little house are 
quite as happy as those in the big one." 

Years later, entering his study, she seized a leisure moment 
to expatiate on a sumptuous wedding of international inter- 
est; the press contained columns devoted to gorgeous gifts 


and gowns. Mr. Silver listened for three minutes ; then, with 
an unconscious bit of indirect prophecy justified by results, 
he said: 

"All this is of no account whatever; there are only two 
things that count: Is he a fine man, and do they love each 
other? " Whereupon, he plunged back into his dear world 
of theology. 

Years later, he related an incident bearing on commercial 
morality. Entering a Third Avenue furniture store in New 
York where business was conducted on the usual paper cur- 
rency basis, he found the proprietor rubbing his hands with 
glee over an unexpected profit. It was during the Civil War, 
and a woman from the remote rural regions had just pur- 
chased a sofa for twenty dollars, giving in payment a gold 
piece for that amount. She was content at receiving no 
change, being unaware of the enormous premium on the 
precious metal. Gold had not yet reached 285, but the 
merchant had received and retained at least twice the amount 
he himself had stipulated; and in Mr. Silver's eyes the extra 
margin Avas pure theft. He himself had been tested. When 
in Michigan he sold a large amount of land to an ambitious 
young man, although he strongly advised the transfer of 
fewer acres. The purchaser, sanguine and ardent, finally 
came to grief financially, and was quite in Mr. Silver's power, 
but the latter extended his hand, and helped the debtor to 
his feet. 

But life is not all ethics. You should visit our cellar at 
Phoenix Cottage, Michigan, and see the shallow parallel bins 
one above another. Here lies the hand-picked fruit: Rhode 
Island greenings, Bell flowers, russets, striped apples of spicy 
flavor; and golden pippins which, green now, would mellow 
in ripening, and would turn yellow, thereby justifying their 

Let us enter the living room of Phoenix Cottage in winter 
time. Ablaze in the generous fireplace, hickory wood sends 
out cheer; on the hearth, perforated apples exude delicious 
juice; above the brass andirons, corn is popping; on the 
table are nuts from the attic — the shagbark hickory, the 
black walnut, chestnut, hazelnut, butternut; lastly, the beech- 


_5 oi 


Rev. George Field 

Mrs. Susan M. H. Dow 


nut. Hear Rev. John Worcester on the symbolism of the 
beech, not given verbatim, from his Plants of the Bible, pp. 
63, 64. 

Its cleanliness, seen in the smooth bark and polished leaves, 
suggests a principle of purity; the oil of its fruit signifies that 
its works are works of love; the fact of the nuts growing in 
pairs indicates that they relate to marriage; and represents 
a knowledge of the duty of singleness in marriage; the warm 
lining of the bur suggests a comfortable home; the bur's 
prickly exterior suggests the instinct of protection around 
one's marriage life; and the very sharpness of the beechnut's 
angles sets forth the perfect definiteness of the laws of single- 
ness in the conjugial relations. 

Our favorite climbing vine was the honeysuckle, which 
offered slender cups of nectar to the humming birds as it 
climbed the veranda pillar in a graceful spiral, and gave 
its little tribute of perfume to the robins nesting at the top 
under the eaves, songsters which instinctively knew their 
home, and place of abode, after the manner of the blessed 
angels {Divine Love and Wisdom, No. 134). 

Wordsworth praises the skylark as an ethereal minstrel; 
he calls the green linnet a brother of the dancing leaves, and 
he says to the cuckoo, " Thrice welcome, darling of the 
Spring." Keats, in an exquisite classic, addresses the night- 
ingale as a " light winged Dryad of the trees." Shelley 
hails the skylark as a blithe spirit, and an embodied joy; 
James Hogg addresses it as a musical cherub, and an emblem 
of happiness, blithesome and cumberless. No transcendent 
genius writes rapturous lyrics to the robin and his mate. To 
some they are only a prosaic Darby and Joan; but their pres- 
ence happily is not too good for daily food, and Mrs. Silver 
helped them out with her own music. 

When we observe the current songs at the lighter theatres, 
and recall Mrs. Silver's sweet voice in old-fashioned ballads, 
we may say with Shakespeare: 


Now, good Cesario, but that piece of song, 
That old and antique song we heard last night; 
Methought it did relieve my passion much, 
More than light airs and recollected terms 
Of these most brisk and giddy-paced times. 

In reviewing Michigan life, more emphasis should be 
given to Jabez Fox, one of a group of Marshall New Church- 
men. He was frankly cordial in spirit, clear of thought, and 
generous in labor, serving long years in the ministry. 

A much valued neighbor just across the state line in Elk- 
hart, Indiana, was Dr. Havilah Beardsley (1795-1856), to 
whom his New-Church library was one of his dearest treas- 
ures. His wife, Rachel Calhoun, was kinsman to the South 
Carolina statesman. She was not only generously hospitable 
to friends, but had the rare and big-hearted gift of putting 
herself sympathetically in the place of those less favorably 
circumstanced than herself. She and her husband learned 
of our faith through Rev. George Field's lectures; and Mrs. 
W. S. Howland of Denver writes me: 

" My grandfather accepted the Doctrines at once; he seemed 
to be ready to receive them, and my grandmother also. They 
knew they were the truth right away; they had no doubt 
about it!" 

Mrs. Josiah (Susan M. H.) Dorr, long a member of the 
Boston Society, contributed, with her husband, a valuable 
element in Michigan New-Church life. Their opulent home 
with surrounding grounds in the suburbs of Detroit was a 
place for religious gatherings, a centre for social life, and 
a warm shelter for Rev. George Field's little children when 
suddenly made motherless. 

A pleasure journey of a thousand miles was made by the 
Silver household in 1851 in a covered carriage with seats 
for four, drawn by a pair of dappled grays eight years old 
— well-matched, well-broken, fairly spirited. They were 
managed by Mr. Silver, with his one hand, after this wise: 
the reins a little taut formed a loop caught in a strong hook 
at the back of the seat, and on them were fastened leather 
knobs in pairs, so that he could slip his hand rapidly for- 


ward, and get a good purchase in case of emergency. He 
knew the sandy roads; and he cut across with horses and 
carriage by boat from Cleveland to Buffalo. Resuming 
wheels, the drive was delightful in May and June through 
northern New York, and over the Green Mountains of Ver- 
mont. The horses danced gaily over the bridge at Concord, 
New Hampshire; the return was made by cars. This journey 
was preparatory to a permanent home in the east. 

Three events of vital significance in Mr. Silver's life had 
occurred during his twenty-two years in Michigan: 

I. His discovery of the New Church in 1839 through 
Edwin Burnham at Detroit. This both illuminated and en- 
larged his horizon, adding a deeper meaning to life. 

H. His baptism in 1844 by Rev. George Field. This 
rebaptism seemed to him right, because administered with 
the idea, in the mind of both officiating clergyman and candi- 
date, of One God in One Person; the atonement being the 
reconciliation of man with God. 

HI. Prominent in the Michigan life was his ordination at 
the hands of the Rev. Thomas Worcester at the Philadelphia 
Convention of 1849. Mr. Silver was fifty-two. Behind him 
lay nearly ten years of enthusiastic missionary lay teaching; 
before him lay thirty-two years of joyful labor in the Master's 
vineyard under the new consecration. 


What I have done, my safety urg'd me to. 

— Henry IV, First Part, v. 5. 

Unexpected stress of ill health on the part of Mr. Silver, 
terminated his residence in Michigan, and sent him back to 
his native air. He settled near his old Hopkinton home at 
Contoocook, the village with the Indian name. The interest 
in the New Church which he aroused in 1851 was still 
alive in 1853. Circumstances favored the movement dear 
to Mr. Silver's heart. A Universalist Church edifice erected 
in 1837, was still sturdy in fibre, strong-timbered, well- 
constructed, and unoccupied. It was easily transferable 
to the New Church. Here, after western itinerary missionary 


work was his first fixed parish with its happy privileges. Hav- 
ing the nature that takes home-root, he furnished a social 
centre for his flock by designing and erecting a dwelling 
house for his family — a structure with four equal gables 
surmounted by a miniature reproduction for a cupola. 

To his Sunday services came the village doctor, the village 
lawyer, the village postmaster, the village merchant. School- 
teachers abounded, but the bulk of his congregation was rural. 

The farmers for miles around harnessed their teams, stowed 
the entire family in the vehicles, and drove to church, shelter- 
ing their horses in the capacious shed room. They brought 
luncheon and provender for the noon hour feeling that two 
religious services were but an adequate return for their 
long drive. 

Precisely while Mr. Silver was at Contoocook, Kingsley 
was preaching to illiterate toilers in the field. The critical 
capacity of his rustic hearers in Old Hampshire I cannot 
estimate; but I can assure you that the New Hampshire 
farmers are apt to be parishioners whom the clergyman 
must equip himself to meet adequately. They had a keen, 
shrewd humor which gave them a sense of proportion, and 
made them quick to detect incongruities; and their very sim- 
plicity of character made them clear-sighted. 

Mr. Silver was indebted to Contoocook for his five years' 
practice in pulpit preaching without notes. He found char- 
acter-study in his parish, which, like all parishes, is a world 
in miniature, with as many aspects of temperament, disposi- 
tion, tastes, and capacities, as the number of people in his 
pews: it was a vastly interesting study in human nature, and 
an admirable opportunity for him to practise adaptability. 
He loved them, and made warm friends. 

Mr. Silver had been a country lad, and he and the grown 
country lads in the pews knew the habits of plants as well 
as the haunts and ways of bird, reptile, fish and small land 
animals, and he often brought them into his sermon for illus- 
tration. For example: 

"Our faults, when quiescent, are like snakes in their holes; 
while hidden, we are safe from immediate danger. Tempta- 
tion brings them out; now is the time to strike. One blow 


will only "scotch " them, wounding tliem more or less super- 
ficially; repeated blows will be requisite to disable them 
hopelessly. Watch your chance, strike vigorously, when they 
put out their heads! " 

Children sometimes caught the tenor of his discourse. One 
Sunday the small boys of Mr. Charles Gould heard a symbolic 
sermon on the children that mocked the good prophet Elisha, 
and of their subsequent destruction by the bears. Mr. and 
Mrs. Gould made no comment on the sermon within hearing 
of the little folk; but the latter were in the nursery the next 
day when matters waxed warm between them. The younger 
raised his hand to strike, whereupon the other exclaimed: 
"Take care, take care, little brother, that's the bear prin- 

A letter lying before me from Contoocook dated Novem- 
ber 4th, 1853, speaks of Mr. Silver's increasing audiences: 
"There are occasionally three hundred present, the average 
number being about two hundred." And under date of Feb- 
ruary 14th, 1854, Mr. Silver's first New-Church lecture at 
Warner is mentioned, with an audience approximating five 
hundred. The services were aided by the Contoocook choir. 

Church music was a vital feature of divine worship, and 
a great social resource of parochial life. Choir rehearsals 
were held at scattered homes, the music-loving farmer gladly 
opening his doors. In winter the singers sped on runners 
to the happy music of sleigh bells. The leader, Mr. Henry 
Clemons, who cooperated cordially with Mr. Silver's efforts, 
had a fine tenor voice, an enthusiastic temperament, and long- 
practised skill in teaching musical notation by blackboard. 
He carried to the rehearsals for accompaniment a large lap 
melodeon constructed like an accordion. The well-filled 
choir gallery traversed the entire width of the church build- 
ing, girls in white raiment abounded, and divine service was 
enriched by the acompaniment of a portable pipe organ, vio- 
lins, a bass viol and an ophicleide. 

Following the formation of the legal society to look after 
the material interests of the church, came, on May 24, 1857, 
the institution of The Contoocook Society of the New Jeru- 
salem over which the Rev. Thomas Worcester of Boston 


impressively presided. Among the charter members were 
Alonzo and Erastus E. Currier, who had served six years 
in the town militia (the institution dating from 1792), and 
who were now tillers of the soil; and who with their wives 
and growing families gradually added nine to the congre- 
gation. Mr. and Mrs, Charles Gould also enriched our num- 
bers by nine. He had been much engaged in teaching, and 
brought a pedagogue's analytical mind to the study of Swed- 
enborg; and, loving mother earth, he retained the family 
estate on which he was born. The name Hardy is pleasantly 
recalled. Mr. and Mrs. Asa Kimball imparted their zeal 
for the parish welfare to their six adult children. The latter 
group migrated to California, where Warren C. and Frank 
A. Kimball purchased in 1868 the Ranch de la Nacion, con- 
taining forty-two square miles of land in San Diego, with six 
miles of water frontage on the harbor, and laid out National 
City in 1869. 

Fourteen Morrills, in the combined households of Jona- 
than M., Jacob M., and George W., made Mr. Silver glad 
that they had been born; and Mrs. Elizabeth C. Dean and 
her husband brought to us her already ripening faith in the 
New Church. Walter Scott Davis was the son of Captain 
Nathaniel Davis, and the grandson of Gen. Aquila Davis — a 
worthy ancestry. In early manhood, after academic train- 
ing, a teacher, he removed later from Warner, N. H., to 
Contoocook, where he purchased extensive water power, en- 
tered largely into manufacturing, was the father of valuable 
industrial inventions, and served as state senator in 1885, and 
representative in 1878. He identified himself strongly with 
the Contoocook Society, and served it loyally as lay reader 
during pulpit vacancies. He and Miss Dolly Jones were 
parties at a double wedding solemnized by Mr. Silver on 
May 3, 1857. 

To convert a critical man of the world at forty-six — a 
man completely detached from religious organizations — to 
convert him into a devoted churchgoer is so infrequent a 
pulpit experience that space shall be accorded it in this nar- 

Captain Paul Rolfe George of Contoocook, had, in 1853, 


Printed by permission of Mrs. Lord from 

Life and Times in Hopkinton, New Hampshire' 

by the late C. C. Lord 

Printed by permission of Mrs. Lord 


already sifted every known creed and had found it wanting. 
OccasionaHy in driving about the country on a Sunday he 
dropped into a church; and as he was the village magnate 
whose identity was easily recognized, the officiating clergy- 
man would sometimes dexterously shift the tenor of his dis- 
course, and preach a sermon to the unconverted. 

Reaching a mark through the pathway of the soul is not 
as simple an activity as direct military target practice; the 
pulpit shot always failed to reach effectively the man dis- 
tinguished for social tact in his exact and careful study of 
human nature. 

One day Captain George's attention was arrested by a 
placard on the wall of the Contoocook postoffice kept by 
Isaac D. Merrill. Here he learned that the Rev. Abiel Silver 
was to present the teachings of the New Church, and he at 
once exclaimed: 

" Here is a new-fangled religion, I will go." 
And on quitting the church after service he said to a friend, 
" I like that man, he gives me a peg to hang my hat on." 
And for the next five years the sun in its daily appearance 
was not more trustworthy than he in his weekly appearance 
in his pew when not absent from town. At this early time he 
lived with a brother-in-law, and brought to Sunday morning 
services his three golden-haired nephews — Roger, Hamilton 
and Frank Perkins — and if they were a bit restless he 
touched them on the shoulder, pointed to the pulpit, and, with- 
out fairly removing his eyes from the minister, eagerly held 
the thread of the discourse while enforcing discipline. 

The eldest of these nephews, of whom Mr. George was 
very proud, we seldom saw. He was an ensign at Annapolis, 
and was sent later on the Cyane to look after Gen. Walker; 
to Paraguay to chastise Dictator Lopez; took part on the 
Release in the coveted Mediterranean cruise; and entertained 
us with accounts of his experience on the Sumpter down the 
west coast of Africa to suppress the slave trade. Winning 
promotion, he was on the Chickasaw under Farragut in Mo- 
bile Bay in August, 1864; he was subsequently known as 
Commodore George H. Perkins, to whose memory a bronze 
tablet has been unveiled at the Annapolis Naval Academy, 


the cords of the concealing flag being drawn by his daughter, 
Mrs. Larz Anderson. 

Captain George utilized his younger nephews for ethical 
purposes in furtherance of his own soul. He told us that 
during his army life in the Mexican War he had contracted 
the habit of using too strong language; and now he made 
an arrangement with the boys whereby they were to watch 
him, and at each offence they were to say, "Skip the hard 
words, Captain"; and for each rebuke he would pay them 
one cent. Occasionally he would report progress to his min- 
ister, saying, that although the lads at first received a con- 
siderable revenue, it was diminishing, and gave quite hand- 
some promise of reaching zero. 

Mr. George was quick to respond to vivid and unexpected 
revelations of character. Coming upon a young housebuilder 
whom he knew, at the moment after his fall from a staging, 
thereby breaking his leg, the latter's first exclamation was, 
" Oh, what will become of my dependent father! " Where- 
upon, Mr. George instantly replied, 

"Don't worry, I will gladly be responsible for his care 
and support for six months." 

But Mr. George was to attain greater heights under Mr. 
Silver's preaching in a growing sensitiveness as to standards 
of life, as we shall see a bit later in his dealing with his 
workmen. He purchased the handsome homestead of his 
brother-in-law, Hamilton Eliot Perkins, who, a Harvard Law 
School graduate, removed to Concord, N. H., to establish 
an office; Mr, George's new possession consisted of fertile 
alluvial land on the banks of the Contoocook River, which 
gave the present owner an opportunity to practise scientific 
farming and to emulate the agricultural efforts of his neigh- 
bors by his own superior crops. One year he secured New- 
Church workmen to cut his grain, and carefully stipulated 
in advance the exact price for the labor. The grain had been 
beaten down and tangled by wind and rain, and proved a 
much severer task than either party had anticipated, but the 
reapers were prepared to accept silently the situation, as one 
of the mutations of life. 

They found themselves summoned to their employer's 


library. Mr. George dearly loved a dramatic situation, and 
here was one. On his desk lay two unequal piles of money, 
and he opened the interview in the colloquial language which 
befitted the occasion, and with great geniality. 

" Your job finished? " 

" It is, sir." 

" Pretty tough one?" 

" Pretty tough." 

" Good deal worse than you expected ; the wheat was lodged 
quite badly? " 

" That is true." 

" But," and here his voice assumed a Wall Street tone,. 
"we agreed beforehand on the price? " 

"Yes, sir." 

" Business is business, and a bargain is a bargain? " 

" Yes, sir." 

At this point his manner suddenly softened, and, pointing 
alternately to the smaller and to the larger pile of money 
on his desk, he said: 

"That is the amount on which we originally agreed; this 
is what the labor is really worth; that is the old way; this 
is the new. I am going to give you the larger amount; you 
are to receive New-Church pay." 

I have never heard Mr. George make any illusion to this 
incident; but I have more than once heard the workmen 
relate it with great gusto. 

Early in 1855, Capt. George said to Mr. Silver: 

" I am going to marry Miss Caroline Livingston of Lowell 
in March, and, after a trip abroad, shall settle down in Con- 
toocook and make myself the best New Churchman that I 
know how. But I shall never join the Church, because it 
would not be good for the Church." 

And he quite lived up to his assertion. Mrs. George stood 
by his side in her general attitude toward matters, loving 
his friends to the end, sharing his church attendance, con- 
tinuing his hospitalities during the forty years she survived 
him. ^I saw her last in 1902. At her death she left $1000 
to the Contoocook New Church. 

Red letter days indeed for Contoocook were those of the 


Maine and New Hampshire Association in August, 1861. To 
a detached little society, it was a rare privilege to extend 
hospitality to fifty visitors, including seven clergymen. Rev. 
George H. Marston filled well the role of chief host. Rev. 
Samuel F. Dike, presiding minister of the Association, gave 
a never-to-be-forgotten sermon on the pool of Bethesda. An 
enthusiast from his Bath Society declared, in comment, that 
he had only given a fair example of his powers; but Captain 
George demurred : 

" No man could rise to that height fifty-two Sundays in a 

Mr. Edwin Gould of Montreal, an exact and conscientious 
student in the field of religious thought, with large outlying 
possessions in the domain of literature and music, received 
on this occasion from the presiding minister the license to 
preach, as the preparatory step to a long and devoted pastor- 
ate. He still lives in his able son. Rev. E. M. Lawrence 
Gould. Mr. George S. Hilton, whose church work in Mere- 
dith, N. H., gave good promise, received the same official 
sanction from Mr. Dike. Rev. Charles Dunham, embarked 
in a life-voyage of useful ministerial service, enriched the 
occasion by a sermon; and Mr. Edwin Hale Abbot, then a 
tutor at Harvard, gave a lecture on "Love of Country" which 
was full of patriotism and talent. Mr. Frank Sewall of Bath 
brought a devotional and consecrated spirit, the forerunner 
of an unusually rich and varied contribution to the Church, 
both in and out of the pulpit. Rev. William B. Hayden of 
Portland, Maine, brought the point of view embracing a broad 
horizon of interests, secular and spiritual; and Rev. Richard 
Norman Foster, a man of ability, brought an independent 
mind a little wary of narrow ecclesiastical walls. Rev. John 
C. Ager, Professor in the Urbana University of Ohio, was 
warmly welcomed among old friends of his boyhood; and 
Rev. Abiel Silver, now of New York, was very happy over 
the promising condition of his little flock, and their excel- 
lent privileges on this occasion for enlarging their New- 
Church acquaintanceship. Captain and Mrs. George har- 
bored guests generously in their spacious home, and gave 
their grounds for a lawn party. He in the meantime was 


studying the types of character around him, and said later: 

"Mr. Silver, from my observation, the New Church is 
made up of two classes of people — studious, thinking people, 
like Mr. Hayden and Mr. Edwin Abbot, and, on the other 
hand, simple-hearted folk in the good of life; and the clergy- 
man goes up and down, up and down, trying to fill the gap." 

Captain George had viewed the world at various angles, 
from frontier life at the scarcely known upper Mississippi, 
to the office of quartermaster in the Mexican War under 
Colonel Caleb Gushing, with whom he established an intimate 
and lifelong companionship. He had seen all sorts and condi- 
tions of men, and loved my father for his genuineness and 

When my father was called to the New York pulpit Captain 
George was as proud of him as if he were his favorite son. 
In those early sixties he and his wife habitually spent their 
winters there. 

He delighted in the theatre and often invited us. One 
evening he read aloud to us The Lady of Lyons, and it was 
a vastly finer rendering than the Wallack company could give 
in its supreme moments. No member of that cast had a soul 
with so many vibratory chords, and he could play them all. 
The last night I ever saw him, our theatre party broke up 
into little groups, in returning to the hotel, and as he fell 
to my share, he said: 

" Miss Silver, your father is getting to be an old man, and 
some day he will leave you; and I want to say now that the 
little blue room in our home is yours for life." 

But although ten years younger, his hold on life did not 
compare with that of my father, who outlived him seventeen 
years. He grew to be a bit apprehensive about death; he 
felt that he discovered the higher ideals late in life. And 
heaven was kind to him, and largely veiled from him the 
coming of the angel of the resurrection. He was stricken 
at his Contoocook home on a Sunday morning in 1864, and 
was unconscious most of the few remaining days. At his 
decease, Mr. Silver came on to address a trainload of hearers 
from Concord, New Hampshire, as he paid the last warm 
tribute over the clay tenement that had housed a very unusual 


A notable event in Mr. Silver's five years' ministry at 
Contoocook was the discovery, through his preaching in the 
New Church, of Mr. John Ager, who later became a most 
valuable factor both as educational instructor and preacher. 
He accepted the new spiritual message after intelligent in- 
vestigation, and serious-hearted aim. One of his pedagogi- 
cal lectures upon amusements helped to sweeten and elevate 
the diversions of young people for that day. Mr. Silver 
gave him a note of introduction to the faculty of Urbana 
University, describing him as a young man of talent and 
merit; and shortly after his arrival the authorities wrote back 
fervently, "Send on a dozen more like him!" He was 
ordained into the ministry in 1860, being then twenty-five. 
After a three years' pastorate in Brookline, he married Miss 
Newhall of Chicago; and they held their children in the 
Church fold. After forty-four years in the Brooklyn, N. Y., 
pulpit, he became a successful instructor in our Theological 
School at Cambridge. 


I push through a thicket of memories in which the thousand-fingered 
branches arrestingly catch. 

— Henry James's Notes of a Son and Brother. 

On a winter day in 1858, Mr. Silver received a letter of 
stirring import which deflected southward the current of our 
lives. It was written by Mr. Daniel Lammot as representa- 
tive of the Society of the New Jerusalem at Wilmington, 
Delaware, asking the recipient to make a tentative visit of 
two or three weeks, with a view to permanent establishment 
in its pulpit. He went, he saw, and the affirmative attitude 
of mind in which he returned found expression later in an 

As shepherd of his New Hampshire flock, Mr. Silver 
preached his farewell sermon on April 4th, 1858. A nucleus 
among them had, to a degree, instructed themselves in mat- 
ters spiritual by Bible study, and by the repeated purchase 
and reading of Swedenborg's works. The Society has had 
to struggle against the increasing city-ward drift of rural 


populations everywhere, and the consequent drainage of vi- 
tality. The Contoocook parishioners gave Mr. Silver a warm 
place in their hearts. His picture etched by the sun which 
you may see in the church building is not more real than 
his image incised on their memory by a higher and subtler 

Migrating southward, we knew little about Delaware, ex- 
cept that aristocratically it was named for a lord, and demo- 
cratically it led the historic procession of Thirteen Colonies 
by its ratification of the Federal Constitution — little Dela- 
ware at the head, little Rhode Island in the rear. Arrived 
at Wilmington, Mr. Lammot and two of his sons met us at 
the station, Mrs. Lammot greeted us demonstratively as she 
descended her steps to receive us as guests at her home, and 
Miss Lammot, lingering within the walls, extended to us a 
welcome less impetuous but equally genuine. We were soon 
installed in our new home near the Brandywine River — a 
stream cheerfully picturesque in its wooded banks, and darkly 
historic as the scene where Washington had been defeated, 
and Lafayette had received a wound. 

The institution of slavery still lingered in Delaware, giving 
a distinct color to life, and here Mr. Silver counted among 
his parishioners the only slaveholder he ever had — Mrs. 
George Reade Riddle, wife of a United States senator. She 
often described to us life on her Virginia plantation. If a 
black toe was injured, " Missus " was sent for to suggest re- 
lief; if death threatened, "Missus" was sent for to pray; she 
was called upon to be physician and chaplain. War and 
emancipation swept her plantation life out of existence later, 
but she retained in her city home her house servants whom 
she kindly sheltered and cared for long after their capacity 
for service had ceased. Her house was luxurious, its viands 
served in silver, and its atmosphere generously loyal to the 
faith of the New Church. Her gift still on our walls is Holla- 
way's 1810 engraving of one of Raphael's cartoons. When 
a missionary was her guest, and she could not quite decide 
whether her parting gift should be a five or a ten-dollar gold 
piece, she would place the two in her pocket, and present the 
one which her fingers first touched. 


Soon after Mr. Silver's arrival at Wilmington came the 
dedication of their little blue granite church. Exteriorly, 
one saw three slender parallel windows over the door. The 
circular corner tower stretching upward terminated in an 
elongated cone. Entering, and passing through the vestibule, 
the audience room revealed itself attractively. The timbered 
roof, pews, and other furnishings were of oak; three arches 
of cut stone outlined three sunken recesses: for the chancel 
in front, for the organ at the left, for a minister's room on 
the right. 

Mrs. Alfred du Pont was most fittingly the godmother of 
the Wilmington Society of the New Jerusalem, as the eldest 
daughter of the man so often called the Father of the New 
Church in Delaware. As Margaretta Elizabeth Lammot, she 
married at the age of sixteen Alfred Victor Philadelphus 
du Pont, aged twenty-six, and removed from Philadelphia to 
Delaware. The next year, 1825, she revisited her native city 
to attend the famous Lafayette Ball, dancing with her hus- 
band's cousin, Francis du Pont, aged twenty-two, who later 
became rear-admiral in the United States Navy. 

The bride, Margaretta Elizabeth Lammot du Pont, was 
very welcome into the family with which she had allied her- 
self. Her father-in-law, Irenee du Pont, entered warmly into 
plans for a gift to the young people — a home on the Brandy- 
wine River a few miles from Wilmington to be called 
Nemours, which was a name with ancestral associations. The 
new house was of stone, having attractive grounds, with trees 
and blossoming shrubs without, and spacious rooms within. 
Here Lafayette came for social purposes, he and Irenee du 
Pont having been old comrades in the French National Guard. 
Here, seven little du Ponts, four boys and three girls, were 
sent by heaven to enrich the home life. Here for thirty-one 
years Mrs. Alfred du Pont chiefly represented the New Church 
until, in 1855, her father made Wilmington his home. 

Allow me to introduce the readers to Nemours, the home 
in 1858 of Mrs. Alfred du Pont, the Lady Bountiful of the 
New Church. On entering directly from the veranda to the 
very spacious hall, nearly square in size, we see a piano, 
where our hostess often plays for dancing, to the edification 


of the young people drawn from the eight Episcopalian du 
Pont families on the Brandywine. 

At the right of the hall lies the library containing three 
thousand volumes in nine languages, especially French, in 
which latter Mrs. du Pont revels, as she reads that language 
with the same ease as her native tongue. She reads home 
and foreign Reviews, buys new publications, peruses Sweden- 
borg and observes current conditions, saying, " One must 
know the world if one is to meet it." 

Mrs. Mary Augusta Hounsfield was the second daughter of 
Daniel Lammot. One of the happy remembrances of her child- 
hood was the dedication of the Temple of the New Jerusalem 
in the Quaker City; and she learned to appreciate its munifi- 
cent donor, William Schlatter, and to form an intimate and 
lifelong friendship with his daughter Julia, who became Mrs. 
Theophilus Chandler of Brookline, Massachusetts. 

The Hounsfield home was on Delaware Avenue, in an 
attractive house of wood with a bit that was rural in front — 
trees, shrubbery and flowers. " Sheltering Arms " was the 
name suggested by some one for this homestead, where 
reigned hospitality for friends, kindliness to the neighbor 
in trouble, motherliness to the orphan children of her brother, 
Ferdinand Lammot, and devotion to her own. 

Eleanora, third daughter of Daniel Lammot, married 
in 1844 Edward W. Gilpin. Their home, standing beside 
that of Mrs. Hounsfield, also prepossessed you in advance by 
its graceful trees, and pleasant verdure bright with flowers, 
enlivening the enclosure in front. Her wifely pride was 
gratified by the advance of her husband from the position 
of lawyer to that of attorney-general, and from that of at- 
torney-general to that of chief justice of the state of Delaware. 
Her motherly instincts were gratified by the advent of two 
little daughters, Meta and Paulina. Her love of our beauti- 
ful faith was gratified by witnessing the reception by her 
husband of the New-Church teachings. 

The successive departure of Mr. Lammot's children south- 
ward from Philadelphia began in 1824; and he arrived in 
"Wilmington in 1855, rich in descendants: Margaretta Lam- 
mot du Pont and her seven children; Mary Lammot Houns- 


field and her two children; Eleanora Lammot Gilpin and 
her two children; and the orphan children of Ferdinand Lam- 
mot. But the multiplication did not end here. Mr. Lammot 
himself, after the translation to the other world of his wife, 
Susannah Beck, married, in 1819, Anna Smith of Philadel- 
phia, who added seven children more, among whom Harry 
and Alfred carried their New-Church light to California. 

Mrs. Anna Smith Lammot, who captured our good will 
on our arrival in Wilmington in 1858 by the warm spon- 
taneity of her welcome, was a person of uncommon gifts. 
Her mind was of the order of genius rather than talent, with 
intuitive flashes of perception. She was wedded to the earlier 
school of literature. She characterized the modem analytical 
novelists as grave intruders on the sacred recesses of char- 
acter. She quarreled with Thackeray, and, as his foil, used 
to set up her beloved Walter Scott: 

''He was a gentleman, with his high and fine reserve! He 
did not place human nature on a dissecting table." 

Mrs. Lammot was also conservative regarding the New 
Church, and entered a rebuke for any superficial readers 
among us who do not digest what we accept. She wrote early 
in 1869: 

" People see New-Church books, and take much for granted 
that they must be on the right side; whereas the most danger- 
ous are those that under the guise of New-Church doctrine 
broach speculations of their own. This is wounding the 
Truth in the house of its friends." 

Mrs. Lammot left a volume of her o^vn ins. verses, and 
her paraphrase of Psalm cxxxix shows that she was beloved 
by Polyhymnia, the Muse of sacred hymns. These are the 
opening verses: 

Lord ! Thou my inmost soul hast known 

Throughout my life-long days, 
Thou knowest every word I speak, 

Thou seest all my ways. 

Such knowledge is too wonderful, 

Too high, too vast for me! 
Where, from Thy Spirit shall I go? 

Where, from Thy Presence flee? 

Mr. Daniel Lammot 

Mrs. Daniel Lammot 

Mrs. Mary Lammot Homesfield 



Mrs. ElpdTiord Ltinunot Gilpin 


Mr. Dan Lammot 



Major Rnbprt La Matte 

Col. William A. La Motte 



Brigadier-General Charles Eugene La Mnlte 


Dan led the second group of children born to the patriarch, 
Daniel Lammot. His alert interest in the welfare of the 
New Church corresponded with his alert physical activity. 
He married Signorila Dolores Morguiandi, a strikingly hand- 
some lady reared in South America; and around their hearth- 
stone gathered attractive little Lammots, olive of complexion, 
Castilian in manners, and Spanish in temperament. 

Major Robert, second son of Daniel Lammot, departed 
from his father's family name, and reverted to the French 
spelling — La Motte. He returned during our stay in Wilm- 
ington from several years' absence in California. He was 
very precious to his mother's heart, and his home-coming 
was heralded in advance with delight. Arriving unexpectedly 
on a Sunday morning, he slipped into church just in time 
for the sermon. Mr. Silver was discoursing on the Prodigal 
Son. He dwelt forcibly and in detail on the wanderer's 
sojourn in a far country, on his downward path, and on the 
glad joy over his return to his father's house. The pulpit 
was unaware of the presence of the new auditor, but the pews 
knew him, and recognized the incongruity: that, on the very 
threshold of his arrival, the noble absentee should be greeted 
with so tragic a warning regarding Wicked Wanderers. After 
the benediction came a family jubilee; and Mrs. Lammot 
soon made her way to the preacher, and said with smiling 
good humor, and a sparkle of fun in her eyes: 

"Mr. Silver, this is my son Robert, he is not a prodigal 
son, and he has not wasted his substance in riotous living." 

Col. William La Motte outdistanced his brothers in Gallic 
traits, with his Parisian accent, his French love of precision 
and accuracy, and his instinct for the amenities of drawing- 
room life. Social honors naturally fell to him. When, in 
1876, Dom Pedro H, the public-spirited Emperor of Brazil, 
visited many manufactories, including that of the New 
Churchman, Mr. William H. Swift, Judge Wales of Wilming- 
ton tendered a dinner to the royal visitors, and Col. La Motte 
was one of the guests. 

He did not, after the manner of Frenchmen described by 
Hamerton in Around My House, attend church by proxy 
through the feminine members of his household. The pulpit 


can testify to his constant presence in his pew up to eighty 
years of age. During the last two years of his life his 
thoughts turned increasingly toward the other world. We 
hope that God has given him the companionship of little 
children, whom he loved devotedly while here. From the 
latter circumstance, it would seem as if there were a touch 
of pathos in his celibate life, but one could never detect it 
in his sunny temperament. 

Brigadier-General Charles Eugene La Motte, the youngest 
son, quitted at twenty-one the law office he had but recently 
opened, and volunteered for the Civil War, serving with en- 
thusiasm in the Army of the Potomac for four years. When 
promoted to a colonelcy, he modestly bore his access to the 
higher position, but wrote home playfully to his mother: 

" I must hasten home on a furlough before I grow round- 
shouldered with the weight of my honors, and become cross- 
eyed from trying to look at the eagles on both shoulders at 
once! " He was brevetted on the field with the title of Briga- 
dier-General, in March, 1865, for " gallant and meritorious 
conduct during the war." 

His Church loyalty w^as unswerving; and in later years he 
revealed his spiritual soldiership in bearing incredible se- 
verity of pain with the heroism of God's true children. Rob- 
ert La Motte became major in the war, and William, a colonel. 

Lewis P. Mercer became a New Churchman through the 
instrumentality of Mr. Silver in Wilmington, and, like John 
C. Ager, who was similarly drawn to our faith, he served 
unremittingly in the Master's vineyard for many long years 
thereafter. He wrote me in 1879: 

" It fills me with emotions of gratitude and gladness as I 
recall my own knowledge of your father's ministry, and my 
obligations to him as my 'spiritual father.' Blessed day, 
and wonderful to me the mercy of it! " 

Mr. Mercer, for a year, spent three evenings a week for 
religious instruction in Mr. Silver's Wilmington study, con- 
tinued his investigation under the Rev. Willard H. Hinkley, 
the Rev. N. C. Bumham, and in the Theological School of 
the General Convention of the New Jerusalem, being or- 
dained in 1872. 

Rev. John C. Ager at one time in 
Rev. Abiel Silver's sheepfold 

Rev. Lewis T. Mercer at one time in 
Rev. Abiel Silver's sheepfold 


Dr. August Negendank was the man in the pews who makes 
the pulpit happy, because he loved the Church more than 
the minister, and was loyal to it under all circumstances; my 
father used to describe him as " true-blue." He had married 
in 1856 Rebecca A. Snyder of nineteen, who shared, for 
more than half a century, his steadfast love and loyalty to 
the faith of their adoption. She was gentle-spirited, and 
capable of much home devotion. He rose to high honors as a 
physician, and had wide mental interest. 

Mr. and Mrs. William H. Swift were led within the gates 
of the Church by Mr. Silver. Their fidelity was enduring 
as granite, and people far away arose and called them 
blessed. She superintended the Sunday School for many long 
years. Annie La Motte and Mrs. Pyle will appear on an- 
other page. 

Let us take our last look at Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Lammot 
during their fiftieth marriage anniversary. 

" I have hardly gotten over my Golden Wedding day yet!" 
she writes in 1869, " I really think it was the happiest day 
of my so long a life — the fruition of all that my first wed- 
ding day promised." There was a Midas-touch to this fiftieth 
anniversary. Picture to yourself a procession of twelve 
grandchildren approaching the venerable husband and his 
frail-looking wife, each bearing a fifty-dollar gold piece — 
sumptuous testimony, in material and denomination, to the 
occasion. And little great-grandchildren came, bringing with 
unconscious grace their fragrant offering of celestial inno- 

The beautiful blue granite church which I loved in Wilm- 
ington has been swept out of existence by the right of eminent 
domain, and is replaced by a handsomer edifice in a finer 
district, in which is a window to the memory of the three 
noble daughters of the Father of the New Church in Dela- 
ware. Let me give my triple tribute of love. 

Margaretta Lammot du Pont represented dignity of charac- 
ter, and a reserve in which her more demonstrative pen some- 
times forgot itself in her letters. She was as upright as the 
walls of Jerusalem. In the du Pont library of three thousand 
volumes I once drew her attention to a sixteenth-century 


French classic, asking her if she had read it. She replied 
in the negative. It had fallen under her disapproval, and, 
although it stood on a shelf on a level with her hand for sev- 
eral decades, her conscience was never decoyed by her curi- 
osity. Regarding the Swedish seer, she used to say: " Sweden- 
borg's standpoint differs from the prevailing one; therefore 
it is necesary to readjust one's mind in accepting his books." 
You have met Mrs. du Pont, the Church godmother of Ne- 
mours; later in this book you will meet Lady du Pont of 
Goodstay and her picture. 

Mary Lammot Hounsfield impressed one after this wise: 
with an impetuous temperament that promptly asserted its 
cordiality, with a perennial vivacity that defied the envious 
years that were trying to frost her hair and rebuke its lively 
inclination to curl; with brilliant black eyes sparkling with 
fun or glowing with enthusiasm, with a resolute courage 
which could wrest a blessing from untoward events, with a 
capacity for personal loyalty as steadfast as the sun, with de- 
votion to the Church that never wavered, she may be counted 
as a truly valuable parishioner and friend. 

Eleanora Lammot Gilpin, although reared in the same 
Philadelphia environment as her sisters, developed an indi- 
viduality quite her own. She was like a Claude Lorraine 
picture, of which the outline is softened by an atmospheric 
haze. Her character had beautiful aerial effects; and in 
spite of her semi-invalidism, you went to her chamber to 
gather sunshine of the soul which, in her seclusion, she irra- 
diated for the benefit of her family and her friends. 


How do our old acquaintance of this isle? 

—Othello II: i. 1502. 

The Moor, commenting on his old acquaintance in the isle 
of Cypress, said, " I have found great love among them " ; 
and we could echo it regarding our acquaintance in the island 
of Manhattan. It had thirty bark-covered dwellings when 
it was purchased through barter by Peter Minuit from the 
Indians for $24.00 in 1626. It had 800,000 inhabitants 


when, in 1860, Rev. Abiel Silver, at sixty-three years of age, 
began life anew in the chief metropolis of the land. Rich 
in stored-up energy, compact of muscle, and sound in nerve, 
he could ajfford to lend an ear to a call from the New York 
Society of the New Jerusalem. 

A Triumvirate of men presided over the activities of the 
New York Society on our arrival — at least they seemed 
in the foreground among a group of excellent parishioners. 
Mr. Thomas Hitchcock represented a large field, from zealous 
activity in the issue of New-Church books by the press, to a 
paternal care over the temperature of the church on Sundays. 
He penned The Child's True Christian Religion, a simple 
exposition of our faith adapted to the growing mind; and 
he also wrote a book about earth and heaven, called Willie 
Harper s Two Lives. After more than fifty years, the little 
volume has been born anew through its recent emergence from 
the London press with both full-page illustrations, and margi- 
nal significant decorations. 

Mr. J. K. Hoyt was the second triumvir, a man of impul- 
sive generosity who came close, as Sunday School superin- 
tendent, to the hearts of the children. He gave many long 
years of service, and was our friend loyal and true. He is 
associated with an invitation for our first carriage drive 
among the environs of our new home. He especially showed 
us Central Park, crude and but faintly showing incipient 
beauty which was to be multiplied a thousand times under 
the magical touch of the great landscape architect, Frederick 
Law Olmstead. 

Mr. Charles Sullivan was the third triumvir of my father's 
parish, and he filled with assiduity his trusteeship of service, 
being described by Rev. Samuel S. Seward as one of those 
who " not only hold up the hands of the minister like Aaron 
and Hur, but cheer on the soldiers of the field like Joshua." 
Henry G. Thompson, who continued his father's manufacture 
of carpets at Thompsonville, Connecticut, and presided over 
their wholesale traffic in New York, was, like him, of tower- 
ing height. He was also a man of lofty convictions, who 
would have held his position unflinchingly as a minority of 
one against the world through his clear recognition and 


advocacy of the light of the New Church, in the distribution 
of which he spent very lavishly. 

For the sake of Cephas Giovanni Thompson's early portrait 
of Hawthorne on its walls, I visited the Grolier Club of New 
York in 1917. This institution, founded in 1884, has gath- 
ered thirteen thousand volumes. It embodies the finest aspira- 
tion toward the ideal production of books, characterized by 
the most artistic illuminations, the highest skill in beautiful 
bindings, and perfection in type and paper. It selected The 
Scarlet Letter as an " American Classic " worthy its highest 

Hawthorne and Thompson knew each other in Boston and 
Rome; and Miss Una Hawthorne, whom I met in Dresden 
on November 23, 1868, gave pleasant reminiscences of little 
Cora and Edmond Thompson. Joined by three other New- 
Church artists — William Page, Joseph Ropes and Abel 
Nichols — with an occasional visit from Robert and Mrs. 
Browning, Mr. Thompson held religious service in his own 
house, and nurtured for seven years his spiritual lamp in 
Rome, in spite of repressive political conditions, returning 
with his family in the late fifties to the New York New-Church 

Brooklyn sent us Col, William C. Church, a Civil War 
officer, and founder of the Army and Navy Journal, who be- 
came an avowed disciple of Swedenborg's spiritual philos- 
ophy. His wife possessed manners which seemed to me a 
beautiful exponent of the true Christian Religion. 

Visit with me the entertaining drawing-room of Mr. and 
Mrs. Francis Tryon, where well-disguised guests at a costume 
party astonish each other as they unmask. But there is a 
serious side: three young Tryon songstresses swell the an- 
thems of praise at Sunday worship. Juliet (Mrs. George 
Kemp), Laura (Mrs. Grosvenor P. Lowrey), Virginia (Mrs. 
George Kent), and a brother Francis, receive baptism, the 
first endowing a kindergarten for our New-Church settlement 
work at Kennedy House in memory of her little one trans- 
planted to the garden of God. 

During our stay, Mr. Joseph Kennedy Smyth returned 
from a prolonged residence in Paris, bringing a bust of 


Swedenborg made from the best available pictures, which 
is now installed as a gift from his son, Rev. Julian K. Smyth, 
in the library of the New York Society. The father also 
brought seven little Smyths to enrich the Sunday School. 
His delightful wife, one of five New-Church Ogden sisters, 
you will meet elsewhere. 

Christian Henry Meday was already well planted in New 
York on our arrival, and possessed the enduring disciple- 
ship to the Church which the minister knows how to value. 
Espousing our faith at nineteen, he became president of the 
New York Society, and Treasurer of the New Church Board 
of Publication. His wife and her sister were among those 
who modestly stand in the background, and turn out very 
efficient treasures when discovered. Edward Riley, echoing 
the name of his father, the New-Church pioneer, was sixty-one 
when we knew him, and had a record as musical inspirer for 
the early society. His warm-hearted family, our near neigh- 
bors, represented home harmony and instrumental harmony 
with their piano, 'cello, and violin. Grandchildren have been 
in the Waltham New-Church school. 

Italy enriched the New York Society through its son, Agos- 
tino E. Cerqua, a patriot keenly alive to his country's wel- 
fare. He was training little Italians to be good intelligent 
American citizens; but they must not fail to know the stirring 
modem history of their fathers' native land. Here is the 
opening of a little address by one of his pupils: 

" Victor Emmanuel owned a boot down in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea; and it began to pinch about the toes and to be 
uncomfortable ; and he sent for a famous French boot-maker. 
Now the Emperor, while excellent in making showy things, 
did not always make things that will wear; and after a while 
Louis Napoleon got kicked by the very boot he was trying 
to mend! " 

Mr. Cerqua was much aided financially in this educational 
scheme by an Italian importer and merchant, named, I think, 
Signor Fabricotta; he was a noble looking man, and very 
efficacious in putting superior ideas into little heads. We 
were often invited to these juvenile political disquisitions. 

Mr. Cerqua was bom in 1826 under Pope Leo XII, was 


reared in the Roman Catholic Church, and became a student 
for its priesthood ; but discovering the faith of the New Church 
he enlisted as a devoted follower, and was warmly seconded 
by his wife. She was six years his junior, and survived him 
eleven years. Brooklyn knew her in her widowhood as a 
devoted church member, and her trust in the Divine Provi- 
dence never wavered during her later years of total blind- 
ness. Her husband was a teachable disciple of our doctrines, 
a broad and unselfish patriot of two countries, with a love 
for his native land not incompatible with unswerving loyalty 
to our stars and stripes, and possessed a simplicity and di- 
rectness of character that the average American rarely shows. 

Mr. Otto Wilhelm Schack was a member of the New 
York Society who came from the land associated with King 
Canute, with Hamlet's father's ghost, with Thorwaldsen, 
the sculptor, and with the vexed Schleswig-Holstein question. 
His father, Estatoraade Gregers Schack, was counsellor to the 
King of Denmark — a position seemingly akin to a member- 
ship in our President's cabinet; as the council includes the 
ministries of war, marine, foreign affairs, the interior, jus- 
tice, finance, and so forth. 

One day, young Ensign Schack suffered an accident on one 
of his Majesty's vessels; whereupon the proposition to see 
America during his convalescence was urged by the Danish 
consul to the United States, Mr. Henri Braem, who requested 
permission therefor from the King, and from the ensign's 
father. The two men arrived in New York, and young Otto 
Schack shared his friend's roof. 

Denmark is much given to furnishing princesses for mon- 
archs on European thrones. She also furnished a suitor, in 
Mr. Schack, for the beautiful and gifted young Elizabeth 
Inez McCarthy, whose father, the Hon. Peter McCarthy, and 
son were mentioned in the New York Directory as " Gentle- 
men Landed Proprietors," and as one of the then forty fam- 
ilies who owned their horses and carriages. Mr. Schack met 
Miss McCarthy at a ball at the Countess de Dion's residence 
in De Pau Row between Fifth and Sixth Avenues near Fif- 
teenth Street, now the site of a hospital. The marriage was 
on August 21, 1843, the bridegroom being twenty-three. A 

Mr. J.IK. Hoyt of New York 

Mr. Robert L. Smith of New York 

The Angel ilelwers Heter from I'rison 

Book of Acts xii. 3-11 

Painting by Cephas Giovanni Thompson 

Cephas Giovanni Thompson, ivhose 
early portrait of Hawthorne is in 
possession of the Grolier Club 


life-long friend of Mr. Schack was Mr. William von Meyer 
(uncle of Secretary von Meyer under President Roosevelt), 
who stood as godfather, and left legacies to Mr. Schack's 
little grandchild, Constance Ulee Gracie. 

Mr. Otto Schack was a typical Dane, fair-haired, blue-eyed, 
fine-featured, a man of gracious courtesy, and enduring 
loyalty to his friends; and with his beautiful wife, and flock 
of children, added much socially to our numbers. He loved 
to study the fundamental principles of religious faith, and 
to discuss them with his minister. 

The navy reminds me of Capt. William McCarthy Little, 
a young gentleman in my father's flock in the old New York 
days. He was a nephew of Mrs. Otto Schack, and the son 
of a New York banker. I renewed the acquaintance on Jan- 
uary 17, 1869. We met at the house of the Rev. Alfred E. 
Ford in Florence, Italy, at a Sunday morning service held in 
his own spacious drawing room. The group of worshippers 
included the family of Mr. Hiram Powers, the sculptor, a few 
Italians, and Mr. and Mrs. Howard Ticknor of Boston, Mr. 
Ford gave an excellent sermon, and a piano sustained the 
music. Mr. Little, when offered a liturgy, produced a worn 
copy of his own which had been his companion in his travels. 

After service, the Americans, by invitation, gathered 
around Mr. Ford's open fire and exchanged experiences. Mr. 
Little, now an Annapolis midshipman, had recently been ap- 
pointed Aide to Commodore Pennock, and had profited by 
two years of rich European experience with the Admiral 
Farragut expedition; his opportunities in the shadow of 
greatness were magnificent, and we heard excellent things 
of him through Judge Aldis of Vermont, who, while consul 
at Nice, had arranged honors for the Admiral, and had noted 
the young New-Church midshipman. The latter rose to 
honors in rank. A group of young people baptized by Mr. 
Silver is pleasantly remembered — Messrs. Little, Tryon, 
Church, Moore, Lowry, and others. 

Into the veins of John L. Jewett eight generations of New 
England Jewetts had been pouring their sturdy Puritan blood. 
Because of his English ancestors, we expect in him tenacity 
of will and firmness of purpose. King Charles the First, and 


Archbishop Laud did not like the liberal-minded Jewett 
weavers, who were sometimes naughty nonconformists; and 
they, not liking the king's "Acts of Conformity," migrated 
to America in 1638. Although Puritans, they were not so un- 
worldly as to leave their heraldic devices behind, with the 
Jewett motto : " Tou jours le meme." Neither were they so 
spiritually unpractical as to despise riches, for Governor 
Winthrop calls them " godly men of good estate." 

John L. Jewett, born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 1799, 
was entrusted by Harper's, Appleton's, and other eminent 
publishing houses with the revisions of their most difficult 
work in foreign languages. He was translator of German, 
Spanish, and French, editing and issuing in 1854 a French 
and English dictionary. On January 17, 1849, Bryant, Irv- 
ing, Greeley, Raymond, and other eminent men heard his 
"most highly finished and original address" on Benjamin 

Mr. Jewett was, on our arrival in New York, holding sep- 
arate services on Sunday mornings in a hall down town as 
a representative of the General Convention of the New Jeru- 
salem, of which the New York Society was not a member. 
My father's position was this: The Convention had faults, 
but he preferred being within the organization, trying to mend 
them, than without, bombarding them with criticism. Where- 
upon Mr. Jewett, his wife, and his four or five musical chil- 
dren transferred themselves to the pulpit ministrations and 
the parochial activities under Mr. Silver. He was editor of 
the New Jerusalem Messenger from 1855 to 1862. 

I was fairly driven into my first venture in Sunday-School 
teaching by the authoritative voice of the New York superin- 
tendent: "You must come, you live near." It was a case of 
enforced draft, not of spontaneous volunteering; and there 
never was a more signal instance of unpreparedness. Sud- 
denly, two little Thachers, and two little Smyths, two little 
Bells, and two little Schacks, one little Turner, one little 
Meday, and one little Sprague were thrust into my care! I 
had had no brothers and no sisters, and only an intermittent 
cousinly acquaintance with little folk. The sunshine of play- 
fulness emanating from these little New Yorkers danced 

One of the treasures in Miss Silver's 
New York Sunday School class 



Another treasure in Miss Silver s 
NeuJ York Sunday School class 


gaily all over the corner where we sat. Their bubbling 
spirits and roguish fun which would have been delightful 
and normal on Monday, were reprehensibly out of place on 
Sunday in the eyes of the tyro of a teacher. 

I did not know a line of pedagogy, I had never been near 
a normal school, I was without training in forms, rules or 
systems, I was ignorant of child-psychology as a science. 
But teachers are born and not made. By instinct I kept com- 
pletely within the children's range in the instruction given; 
they were eager listeners, and volunteered questions worthy 
of a forum: Would the little unbaptized baby next door who 
had died go to heaven? Would the wicked father ever see 
his child again? 

They entered into the assigned topic, picked it up, and 
carried it farther. One day I said that we are real people and 
that our material body is like clothing; that our spiritual 
hand feels through its covering of clay: whereupon the child 
of luxury in the class, the one with the velvet coat, lifted up 
her hand, exclaiming, 

" yes, I have two gloves on, one of flesh and one of kid!" 

On another day, the instruction was repeated with varia- 
tions: We, as real people, live in our bodies as in a house, and 
we look out of our material eyes as through a window. And, 
as they had seen a lifeless human body, I pointed out to them 
that, although the material eye was there with all its beauti- 
ful lenses, it could not see: whereupon the handsome, mis- 
chief-loving boy of the class, with his quick mind, exclaimed, 

" yes. Miss Silver, I see, I know all about it, the person 
has gone away and left the window, and the blinds are shut." 

May I lead you out into the world with these children? 
One lad would now be called Archbishop, with the United 
Stales and Canada for his archdiocese, if our Church were 
organized ecclesiastically after the manner of the Anglicans. 
Over against the Church is the Stage, on which another lad 
trod as a comedian until the fall of the curtain on his earth- 
life in 1918. The angel of the resurrection called the only 
ewe lamb from her mother; and another young girl from her 
betrothed. One married a publisher, and from their home 
little human editions came, bearing the name of the firm; 


another, a lover of economics, married a man who represented 
Labor's welfare under President Wilson. A third represents 
domestic life in California; a fourth, named for the Empress 
Eugenie, drifted to France after the manner of her father 
and grandfather; to a fifth the tragedy of the Titanic came 
home to her husband, and heaven subsequently called away 
all her children. She might have been like the Greek Niobe, 
or the Scriptural Rachel — "she would not be comforted, 
because they were not." But, instead, she writes me: "All 
my jewels are safe and free in the Heavenly Life." One 
ardent child named her doll for her Sunday-School teacher; 
and her little brother, deliberate of speech, said on our 
leaving New York: 

" Oh, I am so glad that I am not in Miss Silver's Sunday- 
School class, because I do not have to be sorry when she 
goes away." 

I will now turn to the minister's part in the New York life. 
The Society had had clergymen to some extent nonresident, 
who came in town for pulpit service; and, as a new social 
centre, the parlors embracing the entire second floor in Mr. 
Silver's English basement house. No. 84, East 35th Street, 
were now thrown open at stated intervals, once or twice a 
month, for parish reunions. All came, the opulent, and those 
of slender purses, people of all sorts and conditions, thereby 
making the gatherings widely representative; parishioners 
furnished readings and music, vocal and instrumental. We 
learned to know each other. 

Study of spiritual truth was also desired; and a goodly 
number of persons met in the Sunday-School rooms each 
winter to interchange sentiments. I recall Mr. Hitchcock 
with his Latin version of the Apocalypse Explained, and Mr. 
William Mason, invited to preside at the humble reed organ. 
The public should be reached: and my mother's letter before 
me dated March 19, 1861, speaks of a four months' course 
of Sunday evening lectures just completed; and both she 
and the Messenger record good attendance. In 1865 she 
writes that nearly one hundred have been baptized during 
her husband's four-years' stay. He had issued two volumes 
of his lectures through the Appleton Company, Symbolic 


Character of the Sacred Scriptures and The Holy Word in 
Its Own Defence. He loved to visit his parish, which had 
fringes reaching into Long Island, New Jersey, and Staten 

The dear old New York parish had color, warmth, variety, 
and, above all, opportunity. The New York House of Wor- 
ship on Thirty-fifth Street near Park Avenue was dedicated in 
1859. I paid tribute to it by attending its semi-centennial 
celebration in 1909, the Hon. John Bigelow presiding, Judge 
Francis J. Worcester giving a historical address. Col. William 
C. Church, reminiscences, Rev. John C. Ager from Brooklyn, 
fraternal wishes, Rev. S. S. Seward, a fervent greeting, and 
Rev. Julian K. Smyth, the pastor, diffusing a spirit of spiritual 


What's to do? 

Shall we go see the reliques of this town? 

— Twelfth Night, iii: 3, 18. A.D. 1601. 

Nathaniel Hawthorne was born in Salem in 1804. He fed 
as a child on Shakespeare and Milton, attended Bowdoin 
College in Maine, and returned to Salem to woo the delight- 
fully congenial Sophia Peabody in the Grimshaw house. 
Henry James, writing of Hawthorne, is keen to discern the 
matchless Rembrandt shadows in his stories, but pities his 
meagre, colorless surroundings. I protest. Life there was 
new, but not necessarily crude. 

Henry James should have seen Salem, and the quiet grace 
and dignified repose of its very porches and doorways, and 
its best houses harmonious in structural proportion, and ex- 
quisite in their subordinate design. Visiting at the Cook- 
Oliver house, 142 Federal Street, Mr. James would have 
observed the Alsatian paper on the hall, hand-printed from 
blocks fifteen by eighteen inches, now in the Metropolitan 
Museum in New York. Seated in a faultless Chippendale 
chair, with his cup filled from a Paul Revere coffee pot, 
slender and graceful, Henry James would have admired here 
the supremely good work of Mclntyre — a genius in bringing 


beauty out of white pine through his conscientious craftsman- 
ship by hand-processes in carving and the use of a hundred 
different tools. The family of Mr. James's host, well arrayed 
and well mannered, should have driven him on Sunday to 
the Lancaster church, designed by Charles Bulfinch, whose 
spire delights the eye for miles around. He had part in 
designing the matchless Capitol at Washington. 

Our first home in Salem was at 29 Charter Street, near 
Hawthorne's birthplace and near the scene of his wooing. 
In our spacious brick building, with high-studded rooms 
twenty-two feet square repeated on each story, were long, 
dark mysterious passages and baffling closets suggesting trag- 
edy. We found that we gained prestige by living in this 
Stephen H. Phillips mansion, and we enjoyed the borrowed 
glory. But any undue pride was likely to be cowed by our 
contemplation of the neighboring "Burying Point." Here 
was interred in 1698 the body of Timothy Lindall. The cen- 
tral arch of his headstone encloses a cherub's head, suggesting 
the happy land above. Minor arches are on either side: 
one crowns a skeleton in bas-relief whose eyeless sockets 
remind us that the light of our earthly life will soon be 
put out; and opposite stands a winged figure of Father 
Time bearing on his head the significant hourglass to ad- 
monish us that the sands of our life are fast running out; 
and carrying in his hand the fatal scythe to warn us of the 
grim reaper. These, with the weeping willows and the lugu- 
brious epitaphs on those " sleeping below " all reminded us 
of the coming of the Great and Terrible Judgment Day. 

A happier theology came to Salem when Major Joseph 
Hiller discovered the New Church in 1796. In 1840 there was 
a continuation of quiet testimony, as expressed through 
Sunday worship in private families in Salem. Mr. John 
Burleigh (1780-1862) had shown his colors, and was an 
early disciple. His daughter, Eleanor Pauline Burleigh, when 
twenty years of age married, on June 3, 1842, Dr. John T. 
Harris of Abington; and the church there, and in Roxbury, 
can testify to the service rendered by himself and family who 
will appear elsewhere in this narrative. Abel Nichols shared 
the Salem enthusiasm. 

Dr. S. M. Cute of Salem 

Dr. John T. Harris 


Dr. S. M. Gate gathered up the threads dropped by Mr. 
Burleigh and others, and was instrumental in bringing Mr. 
Silver to Salem, having himself conducted lay service when 
necessary. For these occasions, he promulgated previously 
a playful decree to his patients that they were not to take 
sick, or grow worse between ten and twelve A.M. on Sun- 
days. The Silver and Gate friendship, which suffered neither 
variableness nor shadow of turning, began during the min- 
ister's semi-missionary vacations in Maine. At an earlier 
period, Gate had turned as wholeheartedly to the teachings 
of Hahnemann, as to those of Swedenborg. As a zealous 
disciple of the latter, few men have been more concentrated 
in purpose, and diligent in spirit. At the instance of Dr. 
Gate and his confreres, Mr. Silver accepted in 1866 an 
official invitation to the pulpit of the Salem Society of the 
New Jerusalem. 

George Ropes, not yet transferred to the Boston Society, 
strengthened the little group at Salem. He enlivened our 
evenings by his spirited account of voyages in his Uncle 
John Bertram's ships to Zanzibar for dates and spices. His 
brother, Joseph Ropes, long a resident abroad, was perfectly 
fitted by temperament, culture, and a degree of delicacy of 
health, for leisurely social life on the continent. Joseph 
Ropes, uncle of these brothers, was later strongly associated 
with Salem, whence he returned for the evening of life after 
years in Italy where he and his wife, a sister of Rev. Frank 
Sewall had aided in keeping alive the light of the New 
Church in days of little religious liberty. 

Visit the spacious home on Chestnut Street of Mr. and 
Mrs. Nathan Nichols. He is of Quaker descent; she is a 
sister of Rev. Thomas P. Rodman, ordained into the New- 
Church ministry by Rev. Thomas Worcester in 1843. Mrs. 
Nathan Nichols was of ardent temperament, with a large 
generous nature, and real glad-heartedness. She maintained 
an affirmative attitude toward her minister and his household, 
and was impetuously ready with her purse for a Sunday- 
School festival subscription. Tall and impressive in figure, 
her mobile face was alive with emotion as she enacted the 
typical hostess at her Silver Wedding Anniversary. 


Miss Harriet Mansfield of Broad Street in Salem, although 
a semi-invalid and shut-in, preserved sunshine of tempera- 
ment, and has always kept her lamp of spiritual truth trimmed 
and burning. Her home had the usual sea-faring traditions, 
and I recall a sofa of massive wood carving brought by a kins- 
man from Russia, which is determined to stay in the family, 
and quite scorns, as inadequate, a proffered purchase price 
of one thousand dollars. But another sofa less princely, 
was vastly more impressive ; here sat my father, fifteen years 
later, when, on the verge of another world, he paid her his 
last visit, and, as she said, illumined the dark March day by 
his spiritual message. 

The Salem New-Church Society, having no consecrated 
House of Worship of its own, met during the first year of Mr. 
Silver's stay, in the chapel oi the Howard Street Baptist 
Church erected in 1805. It was a bright, pleasant gathering- 
place, and here the Sunday School held its first Christmas 
festival. It was a tentative effort, and timid prophets de- 
clared that the children would not be equal to the adventu- 
rous musical programme. But the chorus which included one 
little Ingersoll, two little Cates, and three little Whitmores, 
sang like nightingales, and had all the glad-hearted spon- 
taneity of feathered songsters in the trees; and they received 
their gifts with the happy eagerness of childhood. Mr. Hardy 
exercised quiet fidelity as Sunday-School superintendent. 
He, and his wife, and Mrs. Bartlett, were unobtrusive workers 
in the society, of the kind who are never fully recognized 
except by the recording angel. 

The chapel proving too small for Sunday evening lectures, 
they were transferred to the main church itself, with good 
audiences; and Mr. Upton, the unassuming New-Church 
organist, gave sympathetic expression to the musical service. 
Mrs. Ingersoll was another worshiper; and if you look down 
her ancestral perspective you will find more sea-captains: 
the storybook of nearly everybody's life smells of the salt 
sea air. Margaret Barker's zeal for church work and her 
absorbing devotion to her friends were only equaled by 
her ability to paint charming sketches of plant life. Mrs. 
Newhall is worth your acquaintance: many winters had 


frosted her hair, but its wintriness was neutralized by the 
benevolent sunshine on her face. She was tall and impres- 
sive in stature, and weighty in influence. Deliberate in 
action, she pondered in thought; and she decided in her 
rapidly ripening years, to receive New-Church baptism, and 
to enter our fold. 

During Mr. Silver's second year, we removed to Chestnut 
Street, and New-Church worship was transferred to Hamilton 
Hall, built in 1805. And now a new element came tempo- 
rarily into our devotional life. New-Church people making 
a long summer stay at Swampscott Beach drove over on 
Sundays — the Robbinses, Hortons, Wooldredges, William 
Dunbars, and William Cutlers. They brought earnest pur- 
pose in worship; and, because we went up to the praise of 
the Lord together, life-long friendships with the Silver family 
took root. 

Life in Salem was not wholly religious. Picture Mr. Silver 
in his parishioners' gift of an easy chair — with an adjust- 
able back, that he might incline at his ease, and an attachable 
bookrack, that he might read. But, with his wife opposite, 
he is at chess — a game inherently monarchical in its king 
and queen, feudal in its loiights, aristocratic in its castles, 
and ecclesiastical in its bishops. Kings, barons, and trouba- 
dours loved it; but Wycliff rebuked the clergy for playing 
it at the inn, until " thei han lost there witt." 

The wife of Dr. Cate (Martha J. Messer) survived him 
many years. Her transition from her earlier faith, that of 
the Episcopal Church, to that of the New Church, was by a 
path hedged with questions; and the answers were carefully 
weighed. Through the heart-warming hospitality of her 
household she had known many New-Church clergymen; 
and the Rev. William B. Hayden was successfully instru- 
mental in the solution of her queries. Mr. Silver valued 
her; and unremittingly after his decease they continued the 
old beckoning welcome to his family. 

For Mrs. Cate, her last brief, sweet sleep which men call 
death, followed a protracted and trying illness, softened by 
the devoted care of loving children. At her funeral the 
silent form surrounded by flowers expressed a certain majesty 


of character born of a strong and conscientious will; the 
benign look on the countenance spoke of victories won; and 
there was also youth mingled with the tranquillity. She had 
left her message behind as is often the case when the spirit 
and the body part, and we recall the promise of the New 
Church teaching us that years belong to the body which the 
temporary tenant has now left, and that she, carrying life-giv- 
ing goodness with her, is now to enjoy perpetual youth for- 
ever. The Rev. John Goddard, who shares with the present 
writer a friendship with the Gates covering half a century, 
gave a heart-stirring and spiritually illuminating address 
at the obsequies. It breathed such a benediction as a servant 
of the Lord of golden ripeness of character can give. 


October, tawny maid, with russet gown 

Embroidered with the sumach's scarlet dyes, 

The sweet-gum and the maple's traceries, 

Comes lightly through the fields and meadows brown. 

Upon her lips there is the purple stain 

Of grapes — blue asters bind her nut brown hair, 

And all about her is the golden air. 

And silvery veil of softly falling rain. 

— Reverie by Viola Virginia Antley. 

At seventy -one, Mr. Silver began his thirteen years in Rox- 
bury. Gladheartedly he enlarged his efforts in the Master's 
vineyard which always supplies the wine of gladness — as 
the Psalmist calls it — for those who love the work. 

For the initiative in the New-Ghurch movement here, we 
are indebted to Mrs. William Francis Jackson, a lady of great 
nobility of character, high-spirited but with admirable self- 
control, and firm as the everlasting hills in her religious con- 
victions. In the winter of 1858-1859 she gathered persons 
in her very spacious drawing-room, where services by visit- 
ing ministers or laymen were conducted. Gradually a de- 
termined effort began for permanent public worship. The 
Brookline Society was at that time shepherdless ; and Mr. 
William B. Hasehine with Mrs. Jackson visited Mr. Silver 
in Salem, to ask that he assume spiritual charge of the two 


groups of receivers a few miles apart, preaching in the at- 
tractive little stone church at Brookline on Sunday mornings, 
and in a hall at Roxbury on Sunday afternoons. 

Mr. Silver accepted the double field, beginning in May, 
1868. Dr. John T. Harris, an earnest co-worker, organized 
a Sunday School which grew in seventeen months from 28 
to 59 members. Miss Georgiana Appleton gives contem- 
poraneous testimony of its first Christmas Eve, where old and 
young gathered with happy hearts. Again she writes: 

"March 6, 1870. — A beautiful day, and one, I think, 
many of us will never forget; and may we all be led in the 
right path, in the way of goodness and truth! Our church ser- 
vices were of the deepest interest. The hall was crowded with 
an attractive audience. Twenty-two of our little society were 
baptized, — from the head of a family, down to a little child. 
It was a very interesting sight. Many tears of joy and thank- 
fulness came to the eyes of those who were watching the 
friends they loved so well." * 

Mr. Silver, desiring that the religious Society should not 
be hastily or crudely formed, that the ground should be 
carefully measured, and his own efforts seriously tested, 
preached two years and eight months under the Roxbury 
Association, a body organized for external uses — pulpit 
expenses, securing of hall for worship, advertising services, 
etc. The latter part of this period shows the richest harvest, 
Mr. Thompson recording (p. 14) : " From the sixth of March 
to the twelfth of December, 1870, forty-two persons were 

In forming the religious society, Mr. Silver again acted 
with deliberation. Before leaving Salem he had conferred 
with the Rev. Thomas Worcester and the Rev. James Reed 
regarding the Roxbury-Brookline proposition; and an of- 
ficial communication is the pleasant fraternal reply formu- 
lated later by their Society. I give a brief extract: 

''Resolved, That we take great pleasure and satisfaction 
in the prospect of another society of the New Church within 

* Pages 13, 14 in History of the Boston Highlands (later called Roxbury) 
Society of the New Jerusalem by John A. Thompson. Boston. Published by 
the Society. 1887. 


the limits of our city; that we cordially extend to it the right 
hand of fellowship; that it has our best wishes for its peace 
and prosperity; that we trust that the two societies in Boston 
may be spiritually, as well as literally, near to each other, 
and may work harmoniously and efficiently together in the 
promotion of the common cause in which they are engaged." 

On December 6th, 1870, the religious Society was insti- 
tuted with forty-nine members who signed the " Articles of 
Charity and Faith." Many from the Boston and Brookline 
Societies were present, and warmly congratulated the mem- 
bers of the new spiritual sheepfold. Following the institu- 
tion service, Mr. Silver's address dwelt on the fact that it 
was primarily the living principles mutually embraced that 
made us a Society, but that our reciprocal desire for an out- 
ward acknowledgment of this union tends to bring the divine 
elements down into ultimates, and helps us to become more 
strongly united, and readily progressive in the heavenly way. 

Offerings for the edifice came generously, when, after seven 
years' worship in halls, we were ready to transfer to a con- 
secrated Church of our own. The lot was eligible, and the 
building rich in the browns of the Roxbury pudding-stone. 
The audience-room has a timbered roof, the story below com- 
prises a vestry seating 200, and five minor rooms. 

Donald MacDonald, a noble Scotchman and most worthy 
disciple of the New Church, aside from furnishing the stained 
glass at large through a business arrangement, presented a 
most effective window for the vestibule, setting forth the 
Scriptural Pharisee and Publican in a manner to incite us all 
to humility of spirit as we enter for worship. Mrs. Robert 
L. Smith made a gift of chairs for the chancel. Through 
Horace P. Chandler came the stone font, a perfect specimen 
of Gothic art with a heavy moulded and decorated base, 
round shaft, enriched cap, and octagonal basin, upon which 
are cut appropriate emblems. It is supplied with a jet, thus 
carrying out to a degree the idea of baptism by living water. 
Mr. J. P. Fenno proffered the larger sum by which the au- 
dience room might be finished in richer wood. A window 
to Mr. and Mrs. George Howe designed by Fredericks of 
New York was given by his daughters, Mrs. Peleg Eddy and 

Mrs. William F. Jacks 

Mrs. Abiel Silver 

Glimpse of Chunk of tin- \eu Jerusdlem at Roxhury\ 
Massachusetts, dedicated in 1875 


Mrs. Edward Harris; it contains three figures, each in a 
large quatrefoil: at the left is Moses with the Tables of the 
Law indicating the Jewish Dispensation; above, the Good 
Shepherd who founded the Christian Dispensation; at the 
right, the Angel of the Apocalypse, trumpet in hand, pro- 
claiming the promise of the New Jerusalem. For aid in 
musical service in the Sunday School, Dr. George G. Ken- 
nedy gave an excellent organ for the vestry, and numerous 
copies of the Liturgy for adult worship. 

The fatal illness in 1874 of Lieut. William B. Gushing, 
who performed the remarkably daring feat of torpedoing the 
Confederate ironclad Albemarle in the Roanoke on Octo- 
ber 27, 1864, quickened the religious devotion of his mother, 
Mrs. Mary B. Gushing. She sat under Mr. Silver's preaching 
in Salem, and presented a copy of the Bible for the Church 
sanctuary at Roxbury, her later home. 

All this reminds us of the scene near Mount Sinai, when 
the willing hearted and the wise hearted brought their free 
offerings to enrich the tabernacle of the Lord; the craftsman, 
the skillful worker, the embroiderer, the weaver (Exodus, 
xxxv: 35 R.V.). I might add our joy at Christmas Avhen 
we brought the fir tree, the pine tree and the box together to 
beautify the place of His sanctuary. On the chancel wall is 
this inscription: 

" send out Thy Light and Thy Truth: let them lead me; 
let them bring me unto Thy Holy Hill, and to Thy Taber- 

The Dedication service was on January 5, 1875, and in 
one feature it recalled that on the consecration of Solomon's 
Temple in I Kings, viii: 6-9, when a procession of priests 
brought in the ark containing the two tables of stone — the 
Divine Covenant — and deposited it in the Most Holy Place. 
Now, the venerable Rev. Joseph Pettee bearing a copy of 
the Divine Word in his hand, entered at the head of a pro- 
cession of consecrated clergymen, including Rev. James Reed, 
Rev. Samuel S. Seward, Rev. John Worcester, Rev. F. H. 
Hemperly, and others, and he placed the Volume in the Re- 
pository permanently constructed for that purpose. Mr. Sil- 
ver's dedicatory address was followed by a beautiful sermon 


from the Rev. John Worcester, from Revelation, i : 4, wherein 
the vital elements of spiritual life are defined. 

Who were some of the early Roxbury parishioners that 
have been translated to the higher life? 

Dr. Joseph P. Paine gave for thirty-one years a superbly 
liberal margin of time from his professional labors; he was 
never blue from pessimism, nor gray from apathy. Dr. 
John T. Harris, beloved of his patients, had a cheerful face 
which furnished psycho-therapeutic treatment in addition to 
his little pellets. And this reminds me of Miss Appleton, 
who scattered sunshine among us for forty years. The face 
of Dr. Hiram B. Cross was a benediction, and he administered 
consolatory treatment to the bereaved by his tactfully dis- 
tributed pamphlets on the other life. His wife, recently de- 
ceased, was a faithful ally, and devotee of the Sunday School. 
William L. Blanchard has been called " the strongest man on 
the Prudential Committee," his annual commercial trips 
abroad giving him large outlook as a man of affairs. Samuel 
F. Howard held the scales judicially as a presiding officer, 
and, although living far from church, rivaled the diurnal 
motion of the earth in his regularity of attendance in his 
pew. Simeon H. Keene supplied the warm church welcome 
to new comers; and Cornelius T. Dunham had the moral 
courage and stamina for furthering a new cause. John A. 
Thompson was our treasurer. Societies are subject to vicis- 
situdes; and financial clouds might frown, congregations 
might wax and wane, waves of calamity might dash high; 
but there sat Mr. Thompson for forty-four years, as unmoved 
as the Rock of Gibraltar. 

Upon the heads of the Nathanael D. Silsbee household of 
six or seven Mr. Silver laid his hand in baptism. On their 
severance of relation with another Church, they wrote of their 
withdrawal to their Unitarian pastor. Rev, Mr. Bowen, him- 
self on the verge of the other world. And he replied with 
appreciation of their loss, but largeness of vision, ending 
his letter to them as follows: 

"There are many paths that lead to heaven, and I hope 
that we shall all finally meet in the Holy City, New Jeru- 


James R. Phelps gave lavishly of time and vitality; pre- 
siding for thirty years at our Church organ, winning young 
people to the choir, inspiring infantile choruses in our can- 
tatas, and possessing the musical temperament. 

The parents of Captain Thomas G. Jewitt of Maine trans- 
mitted the New-Church faith to the fifth generation, George 
and Lora French, who were confirmed in the Roxbury So- 
ciety. We warmly welcomed the Captain's sister, Mrs. Henry 
B. Hoskins, and five of his adult children, and their house- 
holds — the Jesse Jewitts, Charles Jewitts, Perkinses, Hallets, 
and Mrs. Charles T. Pratt. Captain Jesse Jewitt was suc- 
cessively detailed on the staffs of Generals Sherman, Sheri- 
dan, Hamlin, Canby, Banks and Hurlburt in the Civil War, 
after which he brought to Bridgewater, Massachusetts, Mary 
Wood, a bride of sixteen, from her New Orleans home in a 
garden of pomegranates, figs, oranges, bananas and plums. 
Rev. Theodore Wright opened to her the gate of our Church, 
after which a whole detachment of Jewitts from Bridgewater 
moved Roxburyward. 

Mrs. Mary G. Chandler Ware was one of Mr. Silver's 
earnest auditors during his five Lancaster summer vacations 
in 1871-75. A great-granddaughter of Judge John Chandler, 
she inherited picturesque acres on the sinuous Nashua, enjoy- 
ing nearly eighty years her stout oak house and its admirable 
library. She moved back the intrusive barn and taught it 
good manners. Her fences showed thrift, her fields, intelli- 
gence. " She is the best farmer of us all," said the New- 
Church Jonas Goss and Horatio Humphrey. Her Thoughts 
in My Garden speaks of the practical utility of fallen leaves, 
and the spiritual significance of flowers, weeds, and squirrels. 
She labored for women prisoners, and neighborhood better- 
ment. When forty-three she married the noble Dr. John 
Ware, son of Professor Henry Ware of the Harvard Divinity 

Mrs. Francis W. Kittredge gave zest to the Roxbury choir 
musically, held the interest of her Sunday-School class, and 
contributed valuable social life to our parish. Her sisters 
were Misses Florence and Mabel Wlieaton. All were children 
of Charles A. Wlieaton, who was a very earnest New-Church 


lay lecturer. He had come into the New Church through 
Noble's Appeal, and wrote symbolic illustrations from Scrip- 
ture for the Daily Standard of Syracuse, living afterwards 
in Minnesota. His wife was Ellen Douglas, daughter of 
Judge Birdseye, and happy were we who knew eight of their 

Mr. Kittredge wrote out for me from memory in 1911, a 
funeral discourse by my father in 1877, over a beloved 
nephew. He says: 

"We were all in the depths of gloom and misery. And 
then, there was an immediate translation of our minds and 
hearts from the physical suggestions of pain, permanent loss, 
and mourning, to the shores of the spiritual world in its 
brightness, and freshness, and strength. Mr. Silver described 
the joyful reception by the heavenly angels of the immortal 
spirit of young Morgan; and of his appropriate home-coming 
and entrance into his own inheritance. The sense of our 
loss was wiped out; there was no loss to him; and we could 
not wish him back." 

Mrs. Horace P. (Eliza Withington) Noyes was the daugh- 
ter of a scholarly and Bible-loving Episcopalian clergyman. 
Developing self -poise and self-determination, she entered the 
New-Church fold. She proved an admirable Roxbury Sun- 
day-School teacher for boys, sometimes purposely leading 
them a little beyond their depth that she might incite them 
to explore the vast expanse beyond, and holding them after 
their entrance upon the great ocean of life. They wrote her 
of their difficult spiritual navigation, and she gave them sym- 
pathetic help. Miss Mary A. Ingell was often a silent and 
invisible benefactor of Church and friend, and only the re- 
cording angel could tell her beautiful story. Maine, which 
seems to produce New-Church people to enrich other regions, 
sent us Mrs. Annie Seavey Foster, whose early home was 
illumined by our faith, and who came, conscientiously bear- 
ing her lamp in her hand. Mrs. Henry G. R. Dearborn was 
another treasure. Her husband's family aided the Revolu- 
tionary War, served in the cabinet of President Jefferson, 
and gave name to Fort Dearborn where Chicago now stands. 
She was fine-fibred, and loved her friends graciously. 

5 o 


^ ^ 

Home oj Rei. Abiel Silier at Ro.xbury. Massachusetts 
erected by him in 1874 


" These," she would say, pointing to the pictures of Mr. and 
Mrs. Silver, "these are my Penates." She was alive to 
spiritual truth and loved her Bible. The Christmas gift 
of a little brass taper-holder turned her thoughts to the Divine 
assurance: " Thou wilt light my candle." 

Among the many marriages consecrated by Mr. Silver, 
perhaps the most unusual was one at his own home in Rox- 
bury on the evening of January the sixth, 1876. Upon the 
head of the bridegroom-elect had descended the snows of 
seventy-seven winters, and upon the head of the bride-elect 
had fallen the sunshine of seventy-two summers. They had 
been lovers in their youth, but had become estranged. In 
the course of years both had married, and both had lost their 
consorts by death. And now, in the crimson and gold of 
their autumnal years they renewed the vernal romance of 
their youth. Both received the genial approval of their de- 
scendants who were present at the ceremony. And after the 
final benediction on heads which, if the soul ever grew old, 
we should call venerable, they began the closing journey of 
life with the privilege of counting the milestones together. 

Rev. Edward Everett Hale was an excellent illustration 
of interchangeable good will between Churches. He and Rev. 
Abiel Silver first met and became acquainted as guests at a 
Unitarian lawyer's dinner table. When we all met him, he 
gave me a sweeping invitation to attend for all time his Ladies' 
Literature Class. I accepted for three years, where I found 
his instruction vivid, stimulating, whole-souled. His flaming 
zeal for Shakespeare was shown at a reading of " Twelfth 
Night" by Professor Robert Raymond of Brooklyn at the 
home of our charming and gifted neighbor, Mrs. William 
Atherton. She was the great-great-granddaughter of Jonathan 
Edwards, but the blood of austere Calvinism which he handed 
down was softened in her veins by her upbringing under 
Henry Ward Beecher; her mother, who married into a branch 
of the Yale Dwights, loved to discuss theology with my 
father. Mr. Hale's social tact was shown when, one day, 
I incidentally found myself beside him in an open street 
car. He instantly began : 

" Miss Silver, I am so glad to see you, I have had a 


story laid up for two years to tell you. One evening in our 
vestry a lady called your father an old man; and I said, 
'Don't knock us all flat by calling Mr. Silver an old man, 
he is younger than I.' The lady smiled a cryptic smile, and 
subsequently inquired your father's age. Now, Miss Silver, 
I honestly thought that he was younger than I, and also 
thought that the incident would please you." (Mr. Silver was 
twenty-five when, in 1822, Mr. Hale was born.) 

Twice, in Mr. Silver's illnesses, Mr. Hale sent big masses 
of flowers from his church; and once, at a Unitarian funeral 
when their singers were lacking, our choir furnished the 
music; which reminds me that he wrote with ardent enthusi- 
asm of the hymns of our New-Church Mary Lathbury, saying: 
" Her chance of having a name two hundred years hence is 
better than that of any writer in America today." Her 
Easter hymn and its music by Rev. Frank Sewall are of ex- 
traordinary value, and greatly enrich our liturgy. 

Mr. Hale was fond of saying that the man in his family 
history of whom he was the most proud was the man who was 
hung (Philip Hale). And in our World War we realize the 
value of his Man Without a Country, and do not wonder, in 
its subsequent reprint of a million copies abroad, that the 
Italians call it " a great luminous taper." 

Within ten days after the sudden transition of my father 
to another world, Mr. Hale, whose parish was all Boston, 
came to see my mother and myself, declaring that we could 
not realize how much it had cost him to stay away so long, 
and that he had abstained from coming because our other 
friends had nearer claims. He spent an hour, in his gener- 
ous way, in extending comfort, saying: 

"In railroad and other accidents I have more than once 
expected to be instantly killed; I have faced death, as far 
as attitude of mind was concerned, as completely as I ever 
shall, and I wish to assure you that the sensation was per- 
fectly delightful, because I should soon have my questions 
answered regarding the other life." 

The limitations of the great-hearted Mr. Hale remind me 
of a similar instance. Mr. Silver was asked by one of his 
parishioners to pay a tributary call of courtesy to a lady who 


had attained one hundred years of life. He thus described it: 

"I was ushered into the drawing-room, and quite soon 
a grey-haired lady of sixty entered; she was the granddaugh- 
ter. A bit later, a grey-haired lady of eighty entered; she 
was the daughter. Then came the centenarian. Her white 
hair was in little curls all around her face, and she looked 
just like a century plant in full blossom! " 

Not long afterwards, the angels of the resurrection wished 
to welcome her to their world, and she fell into that sweet, 
brief, beneficent sleep which men call death. Previously, 
consciously facing the situation, she grew into an intensely 
questioning attitude. Her Unitarian minister was summoned, 
and she asked: 

"What kind of a world am I to enter? What are its con- 
ditions? Who will meet me? How will things look? What 
will be my activities? " 

And the honest-hearted clergyman — well-read, scholarly, 
intellectual — answered squarely, " I do not know." 

So the sweet centenarian passed on with her questions un- 
answered; and her family said, "0 why did we not send 
for Mr. James Reed, or Mr. Silver? " 

In religious classes, Mr. Silver's answers were brief, to 
the point, and above all, clear; with just enough of philosophy 
to reinforce them by appealing to the reasoning faculty, and 
just enough illustration to make them interesting. For ex- 
ample : 

" We may therefore settle down in the absolute conclusion 
that, as the spiritual world is the world of causes, and the 
material world the world of effects, therefore natural bodies 
can never rise into the spiritual plane; that effects can 
never ascend to causes; that the brain does not produce 
the soul, nor the universe, God; that the Lord's works are 
onward; that the butterfly does not return into the chrysalis, 
nor the hen into the egg-shell, nor angels into bodies of clay." 

Mr. Silver loved to indoctrinate novitiates, and during the 
simple afternoon services in the Roxbury Hall invited audi- 
tors to remain after the benediction and ask questions from 
their seats. I recall only three questions: one person asked, 
whether a man must not do wrong from sheer fatalism if 


God foresaw that he would certainly do it? And Mr. Silver 
replied that God would not be infinite, if He could not foresee, 
without touching in the faintest degree man's freedom; and 
that, when He foresaw that the man would do wrong He also 
foresaw that he need not have done it, if he had acted from the 
higher power which God is constantly extending to all His 
creatures. The man took his choice. Another questioner, 
believing in phrenology (now regarded as a pseudo-science) 
presented this proposition: 

" If a man has an enormously large organ of combative- 
ness, is he not practically predestined to become a pugilist, 
or a contentious peace-breaker, or a quarrelsome husband, 
or an abnormal controversialist? " To which Mr. Silver 

"Not at all; he can by the grace of God turn that very 
tendency the other way, making it combat the very dangers 
that threaten ; transforming his energy into a splendid weapon 
toward achieving self-control. All depends on this; whether 
he puts that weapon into the hands of the Old Man in the 
flesh, or into the hands of the New Man. Remember that 
the Lord is behind the latter." On another occasion Mr. 
Silver had been saying that the Lord in His incarnation had 
wrapped Himself around with an outer finite nature similar 
to ours which can be tempted in all points like ourselves 
(Hebrews, iv, 15). And a visiting clergyman of another 
faith, asked, with a bit of triumph: 

"What became of this nature? Did it die like the beasts 
of the field, or is it now a distinct personality? " 

" That other nature," Mr. Silver replied, " did not possess 
by itself the element of immortality; it perished when no 
longer needed. We must have a higher or inner nature be- 
yond the outer one where, through freedom and rationality, 
we have the capacity for union with God. Our higher nature 
is finite, but that of Jesus Christ was the very Divine Itself." 

But Mr. Silver's great opportunity and delight was his 
parochial visits of which he practically made two almost 
every evening. He went early to see the children who would 
rush to meet him, lead him to a chair, plant themselves one 
on each knee, and begin the conversation. The mother, after 


carrying them off to their slumhers, would return, and ask 
questions suggested by his stimulating sermons, thereby un- 
consciously turning the visit into a Bible class. The husband, 
perhaps a non-Churchgoer, has been known to listen behind 
his newspaper. Mr. Silver would reach home by nine o'clock 
and commune for an hour with his family. These parochial 
visits, which might be purely social according to circum- 
stances, ensured one-third of Mr. Silver's undoubted success; 
the parlor classes ensured one-third; and the rest was gained 
by his Sunday morning sermons together with his Sunday 
evening lectures, where I have seen standing room occupied. 

His missionary message during ten years as a lay lecturer, 
and thirty-two as a clergyman, was chiefly this: To show that 
the Lamb's Book of Life — the Holy Word — was written 
within and on the back (Rev., v, 1); and that the renewal 
of the ancient interpretation by symbolism would break the 
seals, and reveal the inner sense. 

To gather up every thread, even the remotest, in his parish 
and weave them into the fabric of Church life; to impress 
vividly on his members the distinctive value of our spiritual 
treasures; this was another phase of his work, as well as to 
teach, from the very beginning, the new comers — like the 
Apthorps, Barteaux, Chipmans, Dixes, Hudsons, Richardsons, 
Woodwards, etc. Mr. Silver brought a missionary impetus 
from the west; it has increased in Massachusetts since 1866. 

In common conversation, aphorisms sometimes dropped 
from Mr. Silver's lips: 

" Tell me what a man laughs at, and I will tell you what 
kind of a man he is." 

" The element in a man which makes him feel humiliated 
by poverty is the same element which makes him feel elated 
by riches. In both cases he puts the emphasis on the wrong 

" When a Christian meets a man on the street his first 
thought is. What can I do for you? When a non-Christian 
meets a man on the street his first thought is. What can I get 
out of you? " 

Mr. Silver, like all clergymen, touched the world in un- 
expected ways outside his parish. He received repeated 


invitations from a New Churchman employed by Cheney 
Brothers, silk manufacturers in South Manchester, Connecti- 
cut, to come and preach in their Chapel. Mr. Cheney at its 
head had established permission to those imder him for the 
expression of all creeds, and he entertained Mr. Silver with 
cordial hospitality on his visit in the year 1880. 

In the seventies, Mr. Silver received from Mr. Edmond 
de Chazal his photograph with a friendly message on the 
back in French. This greeting came from the tiny picturesque 
African island of Mauritius, twenty-three by thirty-six miles; 
and the spontaneous gift sent half way round the globe 
shows how the New-Church Messenger, as intermediary, makes 
us all brethren. Of French blood, Mr. de Chazal was bom 
on the island in 1809, lived seven years in Europe, and re- 
turned permanently to Mauritius. In 1835 he married Mile. 
Claire Rouillard; both were reared Roman Catholics, but 
united in accepting our faith. He employed a thousand 
laborers from India on his sugar plantation, and made his 
home a social and religious center. He preserved his lamp 
of spiritual truth, zealously spread its light around, and 
found assistants among his twelve children for handing it 
down {New-Church Review, October, 1919, pp. 536-559). 

Roxbury Church members have extended their activities 
beyond our borders. Six have served as presidents of the 
Massachusetts New-Church Woman's Alliance. They have 
been installed in our Book-Rooms, one remaining thirty-two 
years. They ser\'e as pianist and superintendent of the Lynn 
Neighborhood House; the latter has been elected presiding 
officer of the National Sunday School Conference in 1918. 

About the year 1879, Mr. Silver suggested to the Roxbury 
Society the calling of a younger man as assistant minister. 
The Rev. Duane Vinton Bowen was selected, and began his 
ministrations in 1880. He had preached about fifteen years 
as a Unitarian clergyman, entering our Theological School 
in 1878, and espousing our faith by ordination in 1880. 
His sermons had simplicity of explanation, sincerity of pur- 
pose, and high appeal. 

At Mr. Silver's last administration of the Holy Communion 
in his own church, as he lifted his hand over the consecrated 

Rev. Abiel Silt 

Monsieur Edoiiard de Chazal of Mauritius 

Reverend Julian K. Smyth in 1882 

Rev. Julian K. Sniyth in IHW 

Ednah C. Silver in 1877 


bread there came momentarily into his face a perfectly bea- 
tific expression never seen there before. It made my heart 
stand still, and I whispered to myself, "We shall not keep 
him long." Shortly after, his life ended suddenly by acci- 
dental drowning at the close of a much-occupied Sunday, 
March 27, 1881. 

The Rev. John Worcester gave a beautiful address at the 
obsequies. A Unitarian clergyman present commented later 
on the bright color of the tributary flowers, and on the inde- 
finable absence of depressing gloom, and continued: 

" The services were calm, sweet, elevating, as becometh 
the New-Church faith; and, as to Mr. Worcester's address, 
its simplicity was sublime, and the Lord's Prayer seemed the 
only fitting close." 

Mrs. Silver survived her husband eleven years, and en- 
joyed Rev. Julian K. Smyth's ministrations in Roxbury for 
a decade, attending church services regularly until sixteen 
days before her departure, when nearing her ninety-fourth 
year. I never knew whether she preferred Mr. Silver's simple 
church services, or the richer and more enlarged forms of 
his successor; she did not say, but I conjecture that she loved 
the welfare of the Roxbury Society more than she loved the 
ways of her husband ; and I do know that she stood constantly 
behind the young preacher strengthening his hands. 

And the Smyths were kind in return. We learned, that 
however small to nothingness a geometrical center may be, 
a Roxbury parish center is large enough to hold the Smyths 
and ourselves with ease. The Old Regime and the New 
Regime were warm friends. 

With the briefest illness, and no pain, Mrs. Silver passed 
from this life. Mr. John Worcester, at the Golden Wedding 
of the Silvers had suggested a golden marriage hereafter in 
the golden city. And you remember Charles Kingsley's words 
regarding his own happy marriage, written by himself to be 
placed on a cross over the graves of his wife and himself: 

"Amavimus, Amamus, Amabimus." 

(We have loved, we love, we shall love.) 

Among many things which I believe about the other world, 
I will mention two : 


I believe that my father and mother are making a little 
home together somewhere. 

And I believe that they sometimes speak about me. 

I append a dream once experienced by Mrs. Silver: 

"She thought that she was in a boat crossing the ocean 
of life. The winds and waves were tempestuous, and alarm- 
ing peril seemed imminent. As she finally drew near the 
opposite shore, friends were visible, leaning forward and 
watching with intense eagerness her arrival. 

"Approaching still nearer, she saw the Lord standing among 
them, with an expression of benign and ineffable compas- 
sion on His face. Looking more closely, she perceived in 
His hand a cord hitherto invisible which was attached to her 
boat. Then she knew that he had been her ever present help 
from the beginning." 

And He led them safely on (Psalms, Ixxvii, 53). 



The coveted opportunity came at last. It occurred in 
May, 1889, in a recreative interval between sessions of the 
General Convention of the New Jerusalem held at Washing- 
ton, D. C. There sat the Rev. Chauncey Giles on the deck 
of a small Potomac steamer en route for Mount Vernon. In 
spite of his great social popularity, he was for the moment 
unoccupied. He had seen much of the New Church abroad, 
and I wished to compare the audiences which I had seen at 
three or four places in London with those in the United States. 
And I remember that he analyzed our own, saying that teach- 
ers formed a large element; and that the professions of law 
and medicine were generously represented. This chapter 
therefore will include detached sketches of members of our 
general body, that we may see what type of person is at- 
tracted toward our faith. 


And poise the cause in justice' equal scales, 

Whose beam stands sure, whose rightful cause prevails. 

—King Henry VI, Part II, ii, 4. 

Edward Gilpin, Chief Justice of Delaware, held a position 
of esteem in a little state that has produced the Rodneys, 
Claytons, Bayards, and Judge George Gray. Mr. Gilpin rose 
from the position of lawyer, through that of the Attorney- 
Generalship, to the highest legal office in the gift of the 
state. A court decision by him involving the death penalty 
occurred while we lived in Wilmington. The condemned man 
had attempted robbery in the house of Mrs. Chambers, a 
familiar center for charming musicales, which brought the 


tragedy quite close to us. The maid-servant was nearly mur- 
dered by the house-breaker, in her valiant defence of the 
family silver; and those present at the trial were strongly 
impressed by the fervor of Chief Justice Gilpin's address to 
the prisoner, who was a colored man. There was in it a 
pathos that was strongly humane and Christian. The culprit 
was clearly convicted, chiefly from circumstantial evidence; 
and the law enjoined capital punishment; a difficult position 

— that of Judge — for a man of much tenderness of heart. 
He was devotedly attached to his two daughters, and on 

the transition to another world of the elder, he grew ten 
years older in a day. He loved the secluded apartment of 
his wife, a semi-invalid, who radiated sunshine from within. 
She had been cradled in the New Church; he had been reared 
a Quaker; but he came to see the value both of our faith, 
and of the sacraments; and, when nearing sixty years of 
age, at the side of his wife's reclining chair, he received 
baptism in devout humility at the hand of my father. Later, 
he read aloud the Scriptures at a series of informal house 
gatherings for religious study and conference, and he other- 
wise aided the Society's success. He became a warm per- 
sonal friend of Rev. Willard H. Hinkley — formerly a lawyer 

— who was ordained into the ministry at thirty-four by Rev. 
Abiel Silver in 1865, and who became successor of the latter 
in the Wilmington pulpit. 

Chief Justice Mason of the Superior Court of Massachu- 
setts had not quite attained the Scriptural three score years 
and ten in the year 1905. His last audible utterance on 
earth gave the key to his character. He said that his vacation 
was ended, that his associates had kindly given him all the 
time that they could spare, and that he must get up, and go 
to his work. He expected to recover. He had revealed 
earlier his solid estimate of the meaning of life, and his 
own half unconscious standard, when Justice Oliver Wendell 
Holmes was about to leave the Supreme Court of Massachu- 
setts for the Supreme Court at Washington. At the public 
gathering in honor of the departing guest. Justice Mason 
gave this felicitous tribute: 

Chief Justice Albert Mason 


" We know no man weU until we know him in his calling, 
for one's vocation is much more than the instrument by which 
he secures support for himself and those dependent on him. 
In it he makes the most complete manifestation of the true 
quality of his life that he can make in this world." * This 
quite reminds us of Swedenborg's statement that the life 
of charity which is to act justly and sincerely in every func- 
tion, business and work, from a heavenly origin, is the life 
which leads to heaven {Heaven and Hell, No. 535). 

At twenty-five, young Mason entered the Civil War for 
three years. As regimental and brigade quartermaster, he 
was exempt from active fighting, but volunteered for the 
assault on Port Hudson. In an unfavorable turn in affairs, 
he realized the need of rations for his brigade on their with- 
drawal. Under a shower of rifle balls, " by sudden sallies, 
by creeping, by climbing over fallen timber, followed at all 
times by the fire of the enemy, he succeeded in withdrawing 
without injury, brought up his supply train, and had rations 
ready for the troops when they came out from the line of 
battle" (pp. 13, 14).* 

Resuming law for nine years after the war, Mr. Mason 
opened an office in Boston in 1874, was appointed to the 
Bench of the Massachusetts Superior Court in 1882, and 
became Chief Justice in 1890. Late in life he declined a 
promotion to the Supreme Court of the State. 

He gave college education to daughters as well as sons; 
and Miss Martha Mason fills worthily the position as Prin- 
cipal of the Waltham School for Girls. 

Fifteen members of the bar — Messrs Badger, Bartlett, 
Cowley, Dunbar, French, Greenough, Hammond, Jones, Lord, 
Mayberry, Nay, Morse, Pillsbury and Sugre, ending with 
Attorney-General Parker — took part in the posthumous 
Mason testimonial heretofore mentioned. The lawyers keenly 
appreciated him. Observe their tributes: 

" He was content to be the Judge, and never sought to try 
the case for one counsel or the other, nor to get into the jury 

* From Proceedings of the Suffolk Bar and Superior Court in memory of 
Albert Mason, Chief Justice of the Superior Court, June 16, 1905, 44 pp. 
Boston, George H. Ellis Co., Printers, 272 Congress St., 1905. 


box. ... He was not wholly free from the spirit of combat; 
and his keen eyes would flash with appreciation of the sharp 
thrust and parry." But: 

" The young man who went before him with a motion, and 
had neglected to observe some rule of the court, or had not 
paid attention to some statute that he ought to have known 
bore on the point, was never met with sharp retort or sar- 
castic observation. He was never sent out of the court with 
his face flaming, and a feeling that he had made a fool of 
himself" (pp. 19, 20, 24). 

Albert E. Pillsbury says of Mason's religion: 

" He lived and thought on a higher level than is permitted 
to most of human kind. ... He had the spirituality, and 
perhaps some of the mysticism, of the church of his affec- 
tion. ... So permeated was he wuth this impalpable essence 
that his whole life and conduct seemed to be the outward and 
visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace. It illumined 
him. It radiated from him." 

Judge Mason discovered the New Church in 1857, the 
year of his marriage to Lydia Phinney Whiting, who shared 
his discipleship during his remaining forty-eight years. His 
magazine articles included The Ministry from the Layman's 
Point of View, The Use of Clubs, Wealth and Progress, The 
Divine Law of Use in its Application to Industrial Problems, 
and Patience in Social Reform. 

At his obsequies in 1905, the bench and bar were well 
represented, and the Rev. James Reed's address sympatheti- 
cally earnest. 

Many of the good Chief Justice's fellow-pilgrims in the 
New Church knew and loved him in the mellow ripeness of 
his late years, when a certain childlike ingenuousness — the 
wisdom of innocence — convinced us that he had been in the 
world, but not of it. 

Albert W. Paine has been called " the Nestor of the Penob- 
scot bar." His book, Paine Genealogy, Ipswich Branch, 
1881, reveals the lawyer's clever reasoning in his able hand- 
ling of circumstantial evidence. 

Is character founded on heredity? Did Albert draw the 


energy of his ninety-five years from his great-great-great- 
great-great-grandfather, William Paine, who sailed from Eng- 
land in the ship Increase in 1635? Grants of Massachusetts 
acres gratified his British land hunger. In return, he labored 
to ensure unrestricted navigation for the Hudson, by free- 
ing it from the Dutch. Arriving here the year before Har- 
vard's birth, he established the first endowed Free School, 
whose income of $330.00 was still alive in 1879; you could 
visit the Paine Schoolhouse in 1881 at the mouth of the 
Ipswich River. William Paine and Gov. John Winthrop es- 
tablished the Lynn and Braintree Iron Works which were 
exempted from taxation on condition of their furnishing 
means for " instructing their workmen in knowledge of God." 
Paine was a " sincere professor of religion," and Winthrop's 
piety was beyond question. William's son John received a 
land grant on condition that he should settle twenty families 
near Ipswich, and then procure and maintain " a Godly and 
Orthodox ministry there." 

William, Jr., of the fourth generation, when eighty-three, 
marched with his sons and grandsons to Cambridge to present 
them for service to Gen. Washington in 1775. He returned 
to Mansfield, and used his "king's arms" valiantly against 
the howling wolves around his home. 

William Paine, third, exhibited emphasis of character in 
the form of serious convictions. He clung to his religious 
standards. ^Hienever the bass viol was played to augment 
the music in his church he instantly quitted the building. 
He " would not sit and hear the fiddle scraped in the house 
of God." He was scrupulous to tenacity in his business ethics. 
On buying a farm he gave his notes payable. When they be- 
came due, the Continental currency had sunk in value nearly 
to zero; but he kept his promise "to the letter," and paid 
100 per cent. 

Wliat are the prominent Paine traits in these seven genera- 
tions? Many omitted incidents reveal the dynamic energy, 
the stirring initiative, the quest of adventure, needful in early 
frontier life. 

And always, a strong impetus to action; intelligence 
applied to use; public spirit; and conscientious convictions. 


Having built a pedigree pedestal, we will now place on it the 
central figure of this narrative. 

Albert Ware Paine (1812-1907) was born in Winslow, 
Maine, on the Kennebec. His parents, members of the Con- 
gregational Church, extended free and welcome entertain- 
ment to all clergymen. Their pew for worship was seldom 
less than full, and they represented that nearly extinct species 
that went constantly to church, and considered storm and 
cold as affording no excuse for non-attendance, but as an 
incentive in the opposite direction. 

A graduate of Waterville College, now called Colby, just 
across the Kennebec from his home, young Albert Paine 
in 1835 removed to Bangor on the picturesque Penobscot, 
and was admitted the same year to the bar, where he did large 
service. In 1853 he pleaded before the Supreme Court at 
Washington. He served at home as Bank Examiner, and 
Commissioner on State Insurance and Taxes. His most dis- 
tinctive work, covering many years, was the procurement of 
an Act permitting parties accused of crime to testify before 
the jury in their own behalf. Through petitions in the Maine 
legislature and the Massachusetts press, he saw it established 
by our Congress, and rejoiced at its adoption by the British 

Mr. Paine discovered the New Church in 1834 through 
Rev. Henry A. Worcester, then a young bachelor and Yale 
alumnus. In 1840 occurred the marriage of Albert Paine 
and Miss Mary Jane Hale. Their daughter, Miss Selma 
Paine, contributed a volume of valuable verse issued in 1907. 
As seen at our earlier Conventions with her silver hair, lily 
complexion, delicately chiseled lips, and white raiment, she 
had to my vision a flower-like delicacy full of ethereal grace. 

Albert Paine enriched the New Church in Bangor during 
seventy-two years, living until ninety-five. He is described 
by one of his descendants as " entirely devoted, heart and 
intellect, to the teachings of Swedenborg." 



I do come with words as medicinal as true. 

— The Winter's Tale, II, iii, 35. 

Dr. August Negendank, homeopathic physician of Wilm- 
ington, Delaware, was born at Giistrow, in Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin, in 1823. He quitted this home in 1849, the very 
year that witnessed the departure from Germany of the lib- 
eral-minded Carl Schurz, and the radical Louis Prang; also, 
from the doctor's own duchy, the fiery Carl Zerrahn; and we 
entertained a semi-conjecture that the Negendank lungs might 
also have desired a Republican atmosphere. After 1871, 
I was curious as to his attitude toward the Franco-Prussian 
war. I had been in Berlin when Bismarck was making stirring 
speeches; from there to Rome, where the civil power of Pope 
Piux ix was somewhat precariously upheld by French bayo- 
nets; and earlier to Paris, where Louis Napoleon had made 
it the gayest of cities. But there was a lurid counter-glow 
of volcanic fire beneath; largely concealed, but very much 
alive. I saw the Emperor on July 18th, 1868, when all ve- 
hicles were stopped by officers, as out of the Tuilleries gate 
he came in the Imperial carriage; its wheels, in passing, 
almost touching our wheels. The people cheered slightly, he 
saluted indifferently, with a countenance utterly impassive, 
inscrutable, sphinx-like. 

Dr. Negendank was a true-blue American, but he loved 
the Vaterland which had given him medical training at the 
"Klinik" at Kiel, Holstein; he continued his studies in the 
Philadelphia College of Medicine, and in association with 
Dr. Hering. Already a New Churchman, he removed in 1854 
to Wilmington, Delaware, for nearly fifty years' residence; 
building up a large practice, organizing the physicians of his 
own school, and aiding to found the first Homeopathic hos- 
pital in the city. He was at once made physician-in-chief, 
and dean of its training school, both of which offices he held 
until his death. 

The Doctor's metaphysical mind enabled him to defend the 


writings of Henry James, Sr., in which he took great delight.* 
Widely read, and with a keen and genial sense of humor to- 
gether with mental stimulus which he brought to his patients, 
they were strongly tempted to recover slowly, and enjoy him 
the longer. 

Dr. John Ellis, according to his pedigree book, was de- 
scended from Richard Ellis, a Welsh officer under Cromwell, 
whose descendants had a becoming desire to be right, and 
were often decided theologians with very positive opinions 
regarding salvation, damnation, infant sprinkling, immer- 
sion, predestination, and foreordination. In 1745 the Ellises 
took root in Ashfield, Massachusetts. The serious earnest- 
ness of those days is shown by names bestowed on the maidens 
in the Ellis family, as follows: Remember, Experience, De- 
sire, Thankful, Patience, Grateful, Submit, Prudence, and 
Consider. The names Amiable, and Wealthy, are less som- 
bre. Remember married Ebenezer Smith " who, at nineteen, 
had been strikingly converted from the fear to the love of 

" There being no minister or magistrate at Ashfield on the 
wedding day, the groom took the bride behind him on horse- 
back, and, guided by marked trees, rode from Ashfield to 
Deerfield to have the ceremony performed. His father, 
Chileab Smith, went before them on another horse with his 
gun, to guard them from the Indians." 

Chileab's log dwelling-house was surmounted by a tower 
pierced with port holes for armed men to guard against 
tomahawks. It was surrounded by a stockade twelve feet 
high, enclosing eighty-one square rods, constructed of bullet- 
proof upright logs. Is it strange that the young bridegroom 
Ebenezer lived to fight the battles of the Lord with amazing 
energy, resolute will, and high consecration of purpose, bear- 
ing " one of the sanctified names in the Baptist denomina- 

* All people are not thus endowed. A critic was once asked to review a 
treatise by Henry James on The Secret of Swedenborg. He grappled with 
it in vain, and finally took revenate on its incomprehensibility by saying that 
he guessed that Swedenborg would keep his secret, for there was no danger 
of its leaking out through Henry James. 


Dr. John Ellis, born in 1815, settled in Detroit in 1846, 
and his success with cholera in the epidemic year of 1849, 
drew public attention. He held a Chair in the Homeopathic 
College of New York City, with William Cullen Bryant as 
Honorary President. He was a New Churchman forty-eight 
years, and bequeathed $30,000.00 for New-Church uses here, 
and 110,000.00 for distributing Swedenborg's works in Italy 
in the language of that country. 


And stUl they gazed, and still the wonder grew, 
That one small head could carry all he knew. 

— Goldsmith's Deserted Village. 

Professor Truman Henry Safford, when less than three 
years of age, manifested a marked gift for mathematics; at 
six, he could make remarkable arithmetical calculations; at 
eight, he had entered on the study of algebra, geometry, trig- 
onometry and astronomy; at ten, "he could multiply men- 
tally one row of fifteen figures by another of eighteen, in a 
minute or less, according to the testimony of the Rev. H. W. 
Adams, who put him through a grueling three hours' exami- 
nation." He was one among five lightning calculators, the 
others being Ampere, Bixton, the elder Bidder, and Gauss, 
who have shown high all-around mental ability.* 

Professor Safford was born in Vermont in 1836, was 
graduated from Harvard in 1854, and received a Ph.D. 
from Williams in 1878. Regarding the breadth of his voca- 
tional work, I have consulted Professor Frank W. Very — a 
well-equipped judge, since he has had large opportunities 
along similar lines, having been connected with the Westwood 
Observatory, Mass., since 1906, and for seventeen years at 
the Allegheny Observatory associated with Professor Samuel 
P. Langley in his unveiling of the invisible rays of the infra- 
red spectrum, as well as in the experiments which led to 

* Lightning Calculators. A study in the Psychology of Harnessing the Sub- 
conscious. By H. Addington Bruce, McClure's, September, 1912. See pp. 


aviation. Professor Very writes me under date of Febru- 
ary 28, 1918: 

"In reply to your letter ... on Professor Saflford, I 
would say that, though he was noteworthy as a mathematical 
genius, his attainments were by no means confined to the 
mathematical side of astronomy. Bond's great work on the 
Orion nebula in the Annals of Harvard College Observatory- 
owes much of its merit to the careful editing of Safford, then 
a young man; for Bond had in the meantime passed from 
the scene of his earthly labors." 

We now come to Professor Safford's work elsewhere. In 
1863 came an opportunity before the public to buy from 
Clark in Cambridge the largest and best refracting telescope 
in the world at that time, with an aperture of eighteen and 
three-fourths inches, and a focal length of twenty-three feet 
and two inches. The Chicago Astronomical Society purchased 
it, and in 1866, an Observatory to house it was furnished by 
Mr. J. Young Scammon, who gave it the name of Dearborn 

Professor Safford was called from the east, and became 
Director of the Observatory at its opening, Mr. Scammon 
furnishing his salary.* " The first thing Safford did was 
to discover one hundred and eight new nebulae." Every- 
thing proved excellent except the increasingly unworkable 
revolving dome, which difficulty Professor Safford solved 
by using the telescope for zone work with a fixed dome, and 
observed three thousand stars in a southern zone. The great 
Chicago fire of 1871 bankrupted the financial resources of 
the Observatory, and this ended Safford's observations and 

Professor in the Chicago University from 1866, Safford 
submitted his report on March 16, 1874, giving the mean 
declinations of nine hundred and eighty-one stars for Janu- 
ary, 1875. After filling a government position in the United 
States Coast and Geodetic survey for two years, he went in 
1876 to Williams College, Massachusetts, as mathematical 

* For Safford and Scammon, see Popular Astronomy, vol. xxiv. No. 8, p. 475, 
The Semi-Centennial of the Dearborn Observatory, by Philip Fox, October, 
1916. Also, The New Church and Chicago, 1906, pp. 26, 27. 


astronomer and teacher for the remaining twenty-five years 
of his life. 

Professor Safford, having accepted the tenets of the New 
Church, joined the Boston Society in 1857. His printed views 
on church music and ritual were characterized by reverent 
and devotional feeling. 

Professor Theophilus Parsons writes regarding his grand- 
father Moses Parsons, an Orthodox parson of Byfield, Massa- 
chusetts, that on a salary not exceeding eighty pounds a year, 
payable partly in silver and partly in produce, he sent three 
of his five sons to Harvard, and maintained also for his 
wife and two daughters a comfortable and hospitable home. 
Back of his church stipend was his large farm; and his virile 
energy was matched by his moral courage, 

Theophilus, son of Moses, born in the Byfield farmhouse 
erected in 1703, came fairly by his intellectual ambition. 
After Harvard came the law with a brilliant beginning at 
Falmouth, now called Portland, Maine. The burning of the 
town by the British in 1775, although a rude interruption 
to his labors, proved a blessing in disguise. On returning 
to Byfield, he gained immediate access to one of the finest 
law libraries in America, that of Judge Trowbridge, who 
was then under the Parsons roof, from which he gathered 
a vast amount of learning. Becoming a lawyer in Newbury- 
port, he declared that the finest suit he ever gained was when 
he won his wife. John Quincy Adams and Robert Treat 
Paine studied under him; and Judge Joseph Story declared 
him to be head and shoulders taller than any one in the 
state. In 1806 he became Chief Justice of the supreme ju- 
dicial court of Massachusetts. 

Professor Theophilus Parsons of the Boston Society of the 
New Jerusalem, grandson of the educationally ambitious 
parson, and son and biographer of the classically trained chief 
justice, was born in the spacious paternal mansion in New- 
buryport, built in 1789 and still visible on Green and Wash- 
ington Streets, the grounds filling a whole square. In 1800, 
the little Theophilus, aged three, went with the family to 
Boston, and grew up in a stimulating atmosphere. As a 


lawyer he wrote valuable books pertaining to his field, and he 
filled for twenty-two years the chair of Dane Professor of 
Law at Harvard, his Alma Mater. 

In 1869, Mr. Charles W. Eliot, then thirty-five, became 
president of Harvard, surrounding himself with young work- 
ers, and introducing the elective system as an aid in the deter- 
mination of studies. Professor Parsons, who was then seventy- 
two, resigned his position in 1870 questioning whether this 
new method would conduce to stiff mental discipline, and to 
the production of vigorous mental fibre. Those who have 
followed the system down to President Lowell's day can 
judge whether Professor Parsons's remarks had a gleam of 

His method of reasoning is shown in his ISew Jerusalem 
Magazine article (vol. v. No. 5) entitled Sivedenhorgs States- 
manship and the Charge of Insanity; also in his book on The 
Infinite and the Finite (1872) where he presents a clear-cut 
demarcation between the realms and methods of reasoning on 
the natural plane below, and those on the plane of spiritual 
thought above. 

In 1823 Mr. Parsons married the accomplished Catharine 
Amory Chandler, of great beauty as a bride, but more beauti- 
ful at her Golden Wedding. The Rev. James Reed gives us 
another aspect of her: 

" She had a bright, original mind, great good sense, a keen 
possession of humor, ready wit, evenness of temper, and a 
depth of reserve unsuspected." 

The Professor's daughter, Emily Elizabeth, sprang to her 
country's aid. At the outbreak of the Civil War she entered 
on an arduous year of training as an army nurse. She next 
volunteered her services, and was led into positions of great 
responsibility, from hospital work at Fort Schuyler, to a 
Vicksburg steamer. She was our guest in New York, and we 
had a glimpse of her motherly spirit — tender, but resolute. 
In the rough barracks on Blackwell's Island, her little cham- 
ber, partitioned off in a corner, was open at the top. Here, 
in her warm wrapper, she was alert to hear the faintest cry 
of distress. She was also alert to hear any bad words from 
the soldiers; on discovery, she would march straight to their 


bedside, and threaten them with expulsion from her ward. 
It was sufficient: they loved her for her great heart; and they 
learned — sometimes for life — good speech and good man- 

Rudolph Tafel was not yet sixteen on reaching America; 
but with his scholastic training, he soon found his level. 
In 1854, at the age of twenty-three, he became Librarian of 
the U. S. Naval Academy; in 1855, Professor of Modem 
Languages at the Maryland State College, St. John's; in 1862 
he accepted the Chair of Modern Languages and Comparative 
Philology at the Washington University at St. Louis; his able 
philosophical thesis brought him the Tiibingen degree of 
Ph.D., whereupon he was admitted to Societies for Oriental 
and Philological research. 

How was Rudolph Tafel fitted for work involving ready 
knowledge of several tongues? His father. Dr. Leonard 
Tafel, at Ulm, Germany, was a celebrated teacher of classical 
and modern languages in the Royal College, and he trained 
the lad to be a fine linguist. 

From his cradle, little Rudolph was reared in the New 
Church, and was stimulated, mentally and spiritually, by his 
uncle Immanuel Tafel, Librarian and Professor of Philosophy 
at Tubingen University. 

During Rudolph's twenty years here, the most important 
event was his appointment in 1869, bestowed after New 
Churchman had expressed serious consideration regarding 
the condition of Swedenborg's niss. deposited in the Royal 
Library at Stockholm. These precious documents were suf- 
fering from the ravages of time, and in danger from destruc- 
tion by fire. Many were untranslated, and some were even 
unpublished. They must not only be preserved, but repro- 
duced in fac simile. Picture Professor Tafel's alacrity in 
espousing their guardianship, when Convention gave him a 
commission to Stockholm, having secured the sympathetic 
Cooperation of the English New-Church Conference. Mr. 
Tafel entered with great energy on his work, which was 
endorsed afresh after his reports. He conscientiously scru- 
tinized every letter in the photo-lithographed copy of the un- 


published mss., the resulting work of which filled ten huge 
folio volumes. 

Completing this great work, he discovered another; he 
would collect all possible documentary evidence concerning 
Swedenborg himself. He at once enlisted the service of 
librarians, and advertised through the Swedish press for 
private letters giving the desired information. He sought 
out Swedenborg's ancestry; he obtained glimpses of his 
student University life; he discovered his Journals of travel; 
he gained access to records at the Court of Appeals; he 
weighed his financial resources and expenditures; he examined 
his official reports in the Royal School of Mines; he read his 
speeches filed in the archives of the rigsdag (parliament); 
he caught fleeting views of his social life; he studied Bishop 
Swedberg's parochial and diocesan career as bearing on his 
distinguished son's story. The territory which all these facts 
covered included the lower one-third of Sweden itself; and 
all this evidence was carefully sifted; and the value of the 
witnesses searchingly scrutinized. This material was trans- 
lated, systematized, extensively annotated by Mr. Tafel, and, 
after eight years, published in London in 1875-1877 in three 
folio volumes comprising in all 1382 quarto pages. To us 
who have long had companionship with these Documents Con- 
cerning Swedenborg in our libraries, Mr, Tafel's work looms 
up as a matter for intense gratitude. 

Rudolph Tafel in his boyhood at Ulm used to visit his uncle, 
Dr. Gottlob Tafel at Stuttgart. In 1869, when honors were 
thick upon him, he visited it again to claim his accomplished 
cousin Emilie Tafel as his bride. My most pleasant ac- 
quaintance with her is epistolary; and I hereby thank her 
heartily for furnishing from London exact data for this 

When I read Rudolph Tafel's book upon the Lord's Prayer, 
I felt as if I were riding on a placid lake where the plummet 
is sometimes dropped deep ; and when, after his ordination, we 
heard his sermon in New York from Isa. xxxiii. 20, we were 
lifted into the heights, where we caught a rapturous glimpse 
of Jerusalem as a tabernacle which shall not be taken down; 
and we were inspired to strengthen its stakes and cords. 


Rudolph Tafel spent the last twenty-three years of his life 
in serving the London Camden Road pulpit, strengthened by 
the religious devotion of his wife. He wrote extensively for 
the Church, was appointed to higher offices, won warm friends, 
and tranquilly approached that brief sleep which men call 

Rudolph Tafel's brother Louis received New-Church ordi- 
nation in 1869; his father, Leonard, in 1871, his nephew, 
Walter Winfred Tafel, in 1913; Rudolph's brother-in-law, 
Fedor Goerwitz, in 1879, becoming, from Zurich, Switzerland, 
missionary on the continent of Europe; Fedor's elder son, 
Emanuel Goerwitz, ordained in 1899, was short-lived; his 
younger son, Adolph Ludwig Goerwitz, is his successor in 
church work abroad. 

Dr. Thomas Moses (1836-1917) was both surgeon and 
pedagogue, the latter vocation filling the larger number of 
years. After his birth, his little barque was moored for a 
good many years in the excellent harbor of Bath, Maine, 
before venturing elsewhere on the voyage of life. Reared 
under New-Church influences at home, young Moses went 
to Bowdoin College at seventeen for the full course. He loved 
study, and joined a Greek Letter Society, but his boyish auto- 
graph epistles which lie before me reveal elasticity and 
exuberance of spirit with a sense of fun. Once he was 
decoyed into willing absence from class lessons. The boys 
often tried to entrap him again. At one time he escaped 
through the window, slid down the lightning rod, and arrived 
in time. He was a studious student. 

Thomas Moses graduated from Bowdoin in 1857, and indi- 
cated his choice of a vocation by entering the Jefferson 
Medical College at Philadelphia. Here he received his 
degree. His summer in London in 1859 was rich in oppor- 
tunity at Guy's Hospital, one of the three largest in the city. 
Returning to America, he spent a year in Bellevue Hospital, 
New York, recrossing the Atlantic for London in 1861. He 
next crossed the channel to France, and found apartments 
in a mighty interesting part of Paris near Notre Dame. 

A breath of fresh and grateful New-Church life reached 


Dr. Moses in vacation time when there entered his apartments 
one day Mr. (afterwards Rev.) Frank Sewall, who had played 
with him as a boy in Bath, who had shared Bowdoin College 
life with him for three years, and who now came flushed with 
delight over his month with enthusiasts of his own religious 
faith at Saint-Amand-Mont-Rond. This is a small town, in- 
cluded in the ancient and fascinating province of Aquitaine, 
the romance country where Richard Coeur de Lion engaged in 
singing songs, writing verses, and leading tournaments. St. 
Amand was the home of Mr. J. F. S. Le Boys des Guays — a 
judge, and a writer on Roman law, — a New Churchman, an 
enthusiastic distributor of the new light, and as unchanging 
in his devotion as the north star. Here young Moses received 
cordial hospitality also. 

The year of young Moses in Paris, from which he writes 
enthusiastically of the Sorbonne, was but preparatory for his 
work in our Civil War. For him the transition was great from 
the hoary hospitals of Europe, carefully systematized and 
tranquilly administered in times of peace, to hospital work on 
ship board in a tumultuous war, where medical service was 
in a degree improvised to meet unexpected and constantly 
shifting conditions. 

We first find him on the sailing vessel Euterpe, having two 
hundred and fifty-three sick men on board, with a shortage 
of nurses and inadequate aid elsewhere. He is surgeon-in- 
chief, steward, and paymaster, in fact, if not in name. His 
last ship, the United States Troop Transport, the Connecticut, 
is a Hudson River boat, very large, and with fine speed. His 
greatest charge is eleven hundred wounded from Fredericks- 
burg, May 11, 1864. He is content with large opportunity 
for service, and small honors. He rejoices over the mili- 
tary promotion of his boyhood friend, Tom Hyde, because 
"it suits his temperament," and he prophetically declares 
that he will some day be a General. During later hospital 
work in Washington, Dr. Moses found, in 1867, a treasure of 
a wife in Miss Hannah Appleton Cranch. Her father, John 
Cranch, was a New-Church artist who spent 1830-1831 in 
Rome and Florence. 

We now come to a sharp turn in the life of Dr. Moses. 


The Rev. Frank Sewall, called in 1870 to the head of the 
Urbana University in Ohio, persuaded his old friend to re- 
linquish the practice of medicine and surgery, and be his 
coworker in education. Prof. Moses remained twenty-six 
years at Urbana, instructing in his special branches, physi- 
ology and hygiene, and holding classes in Natural Science. 
His opportunity for knowledge of the latter field was varied. 
Bowdoin furnished Professor Parker Cleaveland, a man of 
extraordinary ability in geology; and, by felicity of circum- 
stance, Professor Moses was able in 1873 to attend the School 
of Natural History founded by Professor Louis Agassiz at 
Penikese Island in Buzzard's Bay, and to see the great Swiss 
naturalist at the height of his sixty-six years. Dr. Moses 
went back to his own pupils, not only a storehouse of new 
knowledge, but a human battery surcharged with energy. 

The Moses family removed from Urbana to Waltham, 
Mass., the Doctor resumed teaching, and added twenty-one 
more years to a useful life. The strongest praise I have 
heard of him as a pedagogue is his influence on the character 
of boys. He followed the young student lads out into life, 
throwing a guiding sunlight on to their path, and warning the 
atmosphere of their souls. He was a noble New Churchman. 

Timothy Otis Paine (1824-1895), was at one time Pro- 
fessor of Oriental Languages in our Cambridge Theological 
School; and I recall, soon after the arrival in Boston of the 
Way Collection of Egyptian Curiosities, the appearance in 
the newspapers of Mr. Paine's translation of one of its 
ancient hieroglyphic prayers. It was humbly accepted by 
the leading journal, which admitted that there was no one in 
Boston wise enough to dispute the learned decipherer. Paine 
drew crowded audiences to our Theological School of which 
he was Semitic professor. Before him lay portions of the 
Egyptian Book of the Dead in the ancient picture language 
which he readily turned into English, and from which he 
drew with ease its teachings on the resurrection and judgment. 
His chief study was the Holy Word, and he examined Chaldee, 
Syriac, Coptic, and Samaritan tongues together with Talmudic 
and Rabbinical lore as far as they might throw light on the 


Bible as a Book written in the East. He loved Hebrew; Greek 
gave him access to the Septuagint; he was familiar with Latin, 
German and Swedish. He possessed Bibles in many tongues. 

At twenty-eight he began a nine years' labor in restoring 
the Holy Houses of Scripture, assembling materials from I 
Kings, vi, vii, and from Ezekiel, xl-xlii. He discovered that 
they supplement each other, and he built up from the original 
Hebrew a structure representing Solomon's Temple. Adding 
the Ark, Tabernacle, etc., he published an edition through 
Houghton, Mifflin & Company, at a retail price of twenty 
dollars. It contained thousands of Scripture references, and 
thirty full-page illustrations. 

At thirty-two, Mr. Paine married Agnes Howard, who had 
been carefully reared under New-Church influence. At thirty- 
six, he received ordination, and gave quiet devotion to his 
Elmwood parish for his remaining thirty-five years. The 
history of his wife's ancestry is interesting. You may read 
how the Indian Chief Ousamequin " hath given, granted, en- 
feoff'ed, and sold " certain territory, forty-nine square miles, 
afterwards called Bridgewater. He made his mark — a pic- 
turesque signature — by laying his hand on the parchment 
and tracing its outline. The deputy purchasers. Miles 
Standish and others, in good English chirography, bound 
themselves for payment, as follows: 

" 7 coats, a yard and a half in a coat. 9 Hatchets. 8 
Hose. 20 Knives. 4 Moose Skins. 10 yards and a half 
of cotton." 

John Howard, ancestor of Agnes Howard Paine, was one 
of the original settlers of this territory, and the Howard 
Genealogical volume before me states that, down the cen- 
turies, the Howards intermarried with the Washburnes, Keiths, 
Kingsmans, Fobeses, Edsons, Mitchells, and Harrises — 
Bridgewater names now associated with the New Church. 

Timothy 0. Paine was quaint, reserved, and ingenuous, 
with a sensitive, shy sense of humor, and a poetic vein. I 
quote from a little volume of 89 pages of verse, issued in 
1897. The poem on the Wren begins: 


Little chubby, twittering wren, 
In the eastern home again 
Soon wik build the hasty bed 
Round the gray old barn or shed, — 
In a mortise of a brace, 
Bluebird box, or other place 
Large enough for bumblebee, 
Or, my feather-ball, for thee. 
Wonder if you, little pest, 
Still fill up the bluebird's nest 
Now with straw, and now with twig. 
Till the hole is not so big 
As the bluebird's darling head; 
Stealing from her her sweet bed, 
Forcing her to work for you 
A whole precious day or two? — 

In Heaven we shall be children again; 
Children of One from children of twain. 

None but children shall come into Heaven ; 
Children of seventy, children of seven. 

So it is said, and so it is sung: 

As we grow older we shall grow young. 

In Mr. Paine's poem entitled Measure he treats of John's 
Apocalyptic vision of the Holy City (Rev. xxi: 16, 17) where 
the length, breadth and height were equal — "the measure of 
a man, that is, of an angel." And, after his transition to a 
higher life, loving friends placed over his forest grave a 
large symbolic granite cube. 

Marshall Freeman Josselyn, Professor of Romance Lan- 
guages in the Boston University, touched life on many sides. 

When in 1882 the Rev. Julian K. Smyth accepted the pulpit 
of the Roxbury, Massachusetts, Church of the New Jerusalem, 
Mr. Josselyn was an eager-hearted lad of sixteen, with 
youth's capacity for hero-worship, which found expression 
through his membership of the Pastor's Aid where he worked 


zealously in envelope-addressing together with hymn-copying 
and other clerical work for the Magnificat. 

His eagerness for spiritual knowledge showed itself when 
Mr. Smyth instituted a class for the study of Discrete De- 
grees illustrated by charts; and in a still more marked degree 
when the Theological School kindly opened its doors to the 
public. As a member of crowded audiences for instruction 
by Rev. T. 0. Paine in the Egyptian " Book of the Dead," 
young Josselyn entered into the subject with ardor, taking 
voluminous notes, and fairly warming the atmosphere with 
his enthusiasm. 

As Sunday-School librarian, he easily captured the hearts 
of the children, as a Sunday-School teacher he quite as easily 
won the loyalty of the older lads, as a flute player he joined 
the Roxbury Fraternity orchestra, and gladly gave his Sim- 
day evenings to the religious gatherings for young people. 
At twenty-two years of age he received the rite of confirma- 
tion, being one of a group of twelve persons — half of them 
on the threshold of life — who, on April 1, 1888, took upon 
themselves the vows of the Church under the ministration of 
Mr. Smyth. 

Mr. Josselyn was healthy-toned, well-balanced, and pos- 
sessed a keen sense of fun. In our social gatherings his 
private theatricals, his imaginary talk through the telephone, 
his assumption of the role of a rustic school boy before a 
blackboard, were replete with delicious and unexpected turns 
of thought. He possessed the elastic spirit of gaiety, and the 
true heart for comradeship. 

The attempt at a business career followed Mr. Josselyn's 
graduation from the Boston Latin School, but his gifts and 
preferences lay in other directions. On the completion of his 
course at the Boston University in the Class of 1898 he went 
immediately abroad and entered upon advanced studies in 
the Romance Languages, receiving in 1900 the degree of 
Docteur de rUniversite de Paris. His thesis appeared in 
print the same year, and was a study of Italian phonetics 
under the most eminent of living teachers in that line, the 
Abbe Rousselot of the Institut Catholique. For this work he 
was made Maitre de Phonetique in the latter institution, 


Rousselot declaring him the most brilliant student that had 
ever taken work with him. A joint commission of the five 
academic bodies composing the Institute of France further 
bestowed upon Mr. Josselyn for the above work the French 
equivalent of the German Ph.D., and awarded him a prize of 
five hundred francs. 

Shortly after this, Dr. Josselyn became Assistant Pro- 
fessor, and later, full Professor, of Romance Languages in 
the Boston University, and we enjoyed his enthusiasm over 
Camoens and the Lusiad. His course of lectures on Dante 
showed the luminous effect of an acquaintance with Sweden- 
borg's philosophy of life in interpreting the supreme religious 
poet of Italy. In 1904 three Italian societies in this country 
made Professor Josselyn their representative at Arezzo in 
celebrating the six hundredth anniversary of Petrarch's birth. 
In 1907 Professor Josselyn resigned his chair in the Bos- 
ton University and went abroad for permanent residence, re- 
newing the acquaintance with Europe which he had learned 
to love through many sightseeing tours, and a special one on 
a traveling scholarship. He and his sister spent several 
years in Florence and in Munich, where he was employed 
in revising, editing and publishing text-books singly or in 
collaboration with others, and receiving special honor from 
Professor Flamini, the prince of Dante scholars. He had 
practically completed in his last years a translation of that 
difficult work. La Vita Nuova. 

Returning to America in 1915, he was called to the 
higher life early in 1916. The funeral services were im- 
pressively rendered by Rev. James Reed and Rev. H. Clinton 
Hay in the Boston Church of the New Jerusalem, the earlier 
spiritual home of Mr. Josselyn's mother. Several educational 
bodies were represented in the audience. 

On November 3, 1916, an organ given in memory of Pro- 
fessor Josselyn by his devoted sister was dedicated in Jacob 
Sleeper Hall of the Boston University. Its noble qualities 
were admirably brought out by his faculty colleague. Pro- 
fessor John Marshall of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, who 
played the Allegretto from Beethoven's Seventh Symphony, 
bringing out in a masterly manner the passages imbued with 


pathos. Those still remaining of the faculty in Professor 
Josselyn's day paid the honor of their presence, Professor 
Alexander Hamilton Rice, an intimate colleague of the 
deceased, gave in gracious form and heartfelt eloquence a 
tribute of discerning appreciation which stirred our hearts. 
He dwelt on his true scholar's conscience and his ideal as a 
teacher, on his gallant gaiety, and his steady courage. 

Sarah Alice Worcester was Professor of Modem Lan- 
guages at Urbana University from 1892 to 1899. From it 
she had received the degree of A.M. for her thesis in three 
languages upon the Nibelungenlied. Spending several years 
abroad, she had studied in Paris, Heidelberg, and Spain. 
Sacrificing her vacation in the torrid summer of 1900, she 
acceded to President Eliot's request, and served in Cam- 
bridge as interpreter for the visiting Cuban schoolteachers. 
She was firmly intrenched in our faith, and translated Heaven 
and Hell into Spanish. 

An unusual opportunity came to her in 1903-4 when she 
went to Palestine under the auspices of Pere Hyacinthe to 
examine the ground for establishing a non-sectarian school 
for girls. Moslem influence was too strong, but she came into 
acquaintance — through her polyglot tongue — with Oriental 
Patriarchs, Arab officials, and foreign consuls. 

In vain Sarah Alice's grandfather Jesse Worcester, of the 
elder branch in the 1750 Hollis homestead, declared, accord- 
ing to one of his grandsons, that he would burn every page 
of Swedenborg that came into his house. His fourth son, 
Gilman, of Harvard and Andover, translated Swedenborg 
diligently, and became the father of Sarah Alice herself, and 
of Judge Francis J. Worcester of Harvard, Columbia, and 
the New York New-Church Society; Gilman was father also 
of Henry of Maiden, Civil War officer, and public-spirited 
benefactor of his town. He left a devoted wife and a history- 
loving daughter. Jesse's sixth son Henry of Yale entered 
our ministry and left twelve Worcester and Swanton descend- 
ants in the church fold, from Portland and Westport Island, 
Maine, to Washington, D.C. Jesse of Hollis might shake 
his head, but his darling fifteenth child, David of Bangor, who 

A comer of U orcester House (it Hollts. \en' Hamjishire 


loved Greek and Latin, included also the study of Sweden- 
borg. And David's son George, loving laboratory work, and 
delighting in Moliere, found time to trim his Jamp of spiritual 
truth and hand it down to his Diephuis grandchildren at 
Waltham. The indictment of Swedenborg by the conscien- 
tious Jesse of Mollis was followed by New-Church baptism 
on the head of twenty-five of his descendants. 

Miss Abby McGlean, a veritable princess among school- 
teachers, was the daughter of Captain McGlean of Ports- 
mouth, N.H. The child was reared at an Episcopal hearth- 
stone, and came under the sheltering care of Rev. Charles 
Burroughs, officiating from 1812 to 1857 at St. John's Church 
— an edifice abounding in historical relics- The little Abby 
was summoned to church by a belfry bell captured at Louis- 
burg in 1745, and recast by Paul Revere. Her parents carried 
her to the font of porphyritic marble captured at Senegal, 
Africa, in 1758; her baptism vms administered from a 
christening bowl of silver presented to the parish in 1732 
by Queen Caroline, wife of George II; the rector could use 
a copy of the Vinegar Bible, printed in 1717, and could read 
from the Revolutionary War Prayer Book, where a petition 
for the President was pasted over the prayer for the King. 
History was in the air; the edifice was redolent with it. 

One day Captain McGlean sailed away from Portsmouth 
as was his custom; the ship was lost, and left no discoverable 
trace. The tragedy soon carried off the mother, leaving four 
little McCleans to the care of two warm-hearted Irish aunts — 
quaint little old ladies as I remember them. The child Abby 
was fed on Scripture stories, and knew her Bible as few know 
it. Education for girls was meagre, and she was sent to the 
Exeter Female Academy. This was supplemented by private 
instruction from a scholarly uncle, under whose roof she 
became an excellent Latin and French scholar. With her 
intense power of mental application, her whole life became 
a school for self-instruction. She held a private day school 
for girls at Wilmington, Del., in her own spacious house. 
Out of it had graduated sisters of Thomas Bayard, and 
daughters of Judge Milligan. I place her as a peer among 


great teachers from Alcuin, to Arnold, and Agassiz. She did not 
teach a forty-year-old Emperor how to write as Alcuin taught 
Charlemagne; but she did lead group after group of girls 
into the beautiful world of ancient Greece, and made us love 
it passionately through life. Her school was like Rugby where 
Donald Hankey in A Student in Anns tells us that he learned 
that " the classics are literature, not torture." 

She began with Sappho, and came down. The recitations 
were held on alternate days and were two hours long, but not 
too long for us. Miss McClean was not familiar with the 
Greek language, and also had another limitation, she desig- 
nated Greek divinities by their Latin names. Somehow, 
Jupiter sounds vastly less classic than Zeus, Mercury than 
Hermes, Venus than Aprodite. She was never afraid of them, 
under any guise, and would exclaim : 

" Observe the difference in the temper of these two goddes- 
ses: Minerva would get so mad she could not speak, Juno so 
mad she could not hold her tongue." Miss McClean, fiery- 
tempered at times, was like Jove's noble daughter — face scar- 
let, lips effectually compressed. Our teacher had the his- 
toric spirit, just like John Fiske in his Athenian and American 
Life — she made us fairly live, and live vividly, in those 
days. I found great comfort in studying the Greek deities. 
They are the only persons about whom I can express my mind 
freely. The New England conscience prevents unlimited 
condemnation of living individuals; but when all possible 
evidence is gathered and weighed, I can be the veritable Day 
of Judgment over these gods and goddesses. They never 
existed, anyway; and moreover, they have no relations living 
whose feelings can be hurt. We all loved Minerva, who was 
the nearest to a guardian angel of anyone in Greek mythology; 
she watched over Ulysses and Telemachus, quickening their 
conscience, and stirring their memory to good deeds. One 
college president objects to her because she was a celibate: 
but she secretly loved romance, and brought about mutual 
recognition and understanding between the long-separated 
Ulysses and Penelope. It is well to fight shy of some of the 
gods, but an honor to have Minerva on your visiting list. 

Miss McClean added to her instruction a gratuitous weekly 


evening for Greek dramatic literature, to which attendance 
was voluntary. '" The play to-night," she would say, " is The 
Seven Chiefs before Thebes, and you need not come unless you 
are prepared to tell me the relation of each person in the 
drama to every one else." Various playwrights are included 
in the course; we are indignant when our dear Socrates is 
incarcerated in a basket and hung up in the sky, in The Clouds 
by Aristophanes — what way was that to treat a philosopher! 
And, swinging back to Homer, we were equally indignant 
when Jupiter hung Juno up in the clouds by her wrists, and 
attached anvils to her feet — what way was that to treat a 

Miss McClean's school was probably a typical Southern 
one. I do not recall any classes in natural science; and 
mathematics stopped at aritlmietic. But the Humanities with 
her were emphasized, and included good manners, good 
epistolary and conversational English, graceful, familiar, 
and yet scholarly knowledge of literature and history. Not 
only seriousness of spirit, but warm-heartedness, character- 
ized her relation to her pupils, whom she held through life 
by an invisible tether. Her line of ancestry on one side was 
that of Goldsmith, Burke and Sheridan, and she possessed 
wit and imagination through her Irish blood. An amuse- 
ment called Mental Photographs was in vogue in her day, 
wherein persons recorded in their friends' albums their 
preferences regarding persons or things. Most of us gave 
unimaginative, prosaic, monosyllabic answers — "red," 
" blue," " green," to the question, " What is your favorite 
color? " But she replied: 

"White for infancy, purple for royalty, and the rest for 
the rainbow of circumstance." 

To the question of her favorite diversion, she replied: 
" Gossip, not scandal, with my friends." At this, my reader 
instantly protests. But let us pause a moment. Samuel 
Pepys records in his nine years' diary much egotistical gossip 
about himself addressed secretly to himself, and revealing 
insatiable curiosity about others. And yet the world prizes 
it as material for contemporaneous history. Plutarch, priest 
of Apollo, biographer, and essayist, is the prince of gossips. 


If he had not walked the streets of Rome, gathering personal 
anecdotes, small rumors, and trivial items, about Antony and 
Cleopatra, where would Shakespeare's immortal drama have 
been? Miss McClean used her observations and comments 
on human nature in a large way, and without malice, and 
her conversation had color and pungency. Abroad one year, 
I observed the increased enjoyment of those who, through 
academic training, had an extended knowledge of mythology: 
the gods and goddesses were as familiar as one's uncles, cous- 
ins and aunts. On my return, I said to Miss McClean: 

" I cannot take classical studies at Harvard, but my mother 
will devote an entire year's leisure in reading aloud to me 
about Greece." 

Miss McClean offered to lay out the course, and prescribed 
Mahalfy and Felton leading up to a leisurely, sympathetic 
study of Homer. It was practically a post-graduate year 
under a teacher who vivified the atmosphere about her, and 
transferred mental images from her mind to other minds by 
means of vivid, telling English. We saiv Greece together a 
thousand years before Christ. 

I recall her membership, when fifty-seven years of age, of 
the Roxbury Society of the New Jerusalem. Having many 
preconceived notions to combat, she belonged characteristic- 
ally to the Church Militant. She found delight in the Hebrew 
prophets with their sublime imagery, wide horizon, and 
pathetic aspirations; indeed, her knowledge of Holy Writ 
was exceptional even among life-long readers. She recog- 
nized its parable structure and enclosed jewels, and loved 
Swedenborg's method of Scripture interpretation. She was 
nearing her ninetieth year when called hence in 1905. She 
was practically blind for years before her transition, her be- 
loved books Y/ere beyond her immediate reach, but her re- 
ligious fortitude carried her through. Having left the dark- 
ened windows of her tenement of clay, she is now enjoying 
the radiance which emanates from Him who is the Light of 
the higher world. 

Anne L. Page loved human flowers, the Immortelles; — 
and her life's work — gathering them into kindergartens and 


training them — has been memorialized by Wellesley College. 
Her birthplace at Danvers, Massachusetts, is interesting, and 
the quaint house is preserved to the public by the Daughters 
of the American Revolution. 

Its builder, Col. Jeremiah Page — Anne's grandfather — 
who was to fight in the American Revolution, already showed 
his belligerent tendencies by sympathizing with the famous 
American tea-party of 1773, and by forbidding the further 
brewing of the beverage under his Danvers roof. 

But Mrs. Jeremiah Page could also be bellicose in her 
quick-witted way in a spirit of fun. She had already in- 
vited neighbors to a tea-drinking, and she evaded the letter 
of the marital law by ordering Mistress Audrey Dill, the 
black house servant and slave, to brew the tea on — not under 
— the roof, whose flat deck made an excellent rendezvous 
for these defiant ladies, who would have scorned the idea 
that there was any flavor of toryism in their cups. Lucy 
Larcom immortalizes the event, beginning as follows: 

In this old house, even then not new, 
A Continental Colonel true 
Dwelt with a blithe and wilful wife, 
The sparkle in his cup of life. 

The piety of Anne Page's other grandmother named Fowler 
is evident in her use of the old English Bible which I have 
often seen. It was issued in 1769 by John Archdeacon, 
printer to Cambridge University. This volume was read 
through faithfully every year by grandmother Fowler. 

The oldest portion of the house built by grandfather Page 
about 1750 includes the spacious eastern room with its quaint 
woodcarving on cornice, wainscot and mantel; and the cosy 
western room, its fireplace encircled by blue tiles bearing 
pictures varied in import: romantic, satirical, descriptive, 
pastoral, and Scriptural. 

Jeremiah Page's son John went wooing in the house of 
the Bible-reading lady, marrying her daughter, Mary Fowler, 
and bringing her into the architecturally attractive and his- 
torically interesting Page house, where she found a happy 
home for nearly seventy years. You should see her as I saw 


her in 1864, sitting by the happy-faced fireplace in which 
danced wood flames, its tiled border surrounded by a mantel- 
piece of acanthus-leaf design with delicate mouldings. 

In this Danvers home of Mrs. Mary Fowler Page, her 
daughter Anne, the New-Church kindergartner, used to gather 
her neighbors, and invite tiie Rev. Abiel Silver from his 
neighboring parish at Salem to set forth in simple fashion 
some tenet of our faith, or draw forth the spiritual message 
of Scripture. Questions or interchange of religious senti- 
ment would follow. Those were hallowed and reverent Sun- 
day afternoons. 

Miss Page was not petite, zephyrlike, and spirituelle, like 
her mother, born in the eighteenth century. No cap with 
flowing strings rested, even at seventy-three, on her capa- 
cious head, which was well-filled with twentieth-century ideas, 
including equal suffrage. No quaint kerchief was crossed 
over her heart, as capacious as her head, and with room 
for a vast deal of love for little children. She had a vigorous 
mind requiring sustained thought, and accepted the New- 
Church faith with a high degree of intelligence. She never 
wavered from her convictions. Aside from the Church, her 
life work was filial devotion to her mother, and unwavering 
allegiance to kindergartening. She founded a successful nor- 
mal school in Boston, and administered for long years to a 
group of little Danverites after the Froebel fashion. 

For her sake I have made a special pilgrimage to Wellesley 
College, because the Department of Education there has 
erected a building on the campus in honor of Miss Page, as 
" one of the great pioneer kindergartners." Here Froebel's 
system will be maintained free to all Wellesley children — 
the college and the town cooperating in its administration. 


As well the singers as the players on instruments shall be there. 

George James Webb (1803-1889) was born in Rushmore, 
Wiltshire, in Southern England. His niece, Mrs. Thomas 
Reed, told me that he was reared in a highly musical family; 
his father played the piano, and his sisters the violin, thus 

Miss Caroline, younger daughter of Mr. George 
James Webb, whom she resembles 


forming a home orchestra. The New Jerusalem Magazine, 
March, 1888, tells us of the family's financial ease and culti- 
vated tastes; of the lad's voice, and strong musical leanings; 
of his receiving instruction under Professor Alexander Lucas 
at Salisbury; of his acquiring a knowledge of piano, violin, 
harmony, and musical theory; and of especial attention to 
the organ. A larger opportunity came to young Webb through 
the arrival in London in 1824 of Manuel Garcia, who had 
been chorister at Seville, opera singer in Cadiz, Madrid, and 
Paris, merging into a composer. Webb now gained the 
Italian method of vocalism from Garcia himself. 

We know of the young musician's arrival in 1830 in Bos- 
ton, and of his large work in the devotional Sunday services 
of the Boston Society. 

Mr. Webb led his musical forces into a wide field in his 
week-day amateur concerts. Mrs. Augusta Fernald Faxon 
has lent me the programmes covering fourteen years under 
him. Among operatic composers are Beethoven, Bellini, 
Donizetti, Gluck, Mendelssohn, Meyerbeer, Rossini, and 
Verdi. Among his choice of composers of sacred music are 
Bach, Handel, Haydn, Hummel, Mendelssohn, Novello, 
Palestrina and Sphor; with many admirable song writers. 
Imagine the musical opportunities for our young people in 
the fifties and sixties! 

I asked Miss Edith Abell for a musical analysis of Pro- 
fessor Webb. She writes: 

"Mr. Webb's taste was impeccable, and its attitude to 
church music profoundly reverential. The study of ecclesi- 
astical composers like Palestrina, and Bach, and Handel, 
and of the real English Church musicians, the use of the Gre- 
gorian chants and their incorporation into our earlier Book 
of Worship, made the musical form of our Church Service 
dignified, lofty, serious, and spiritual." 

How well is Miss Abell qualified to judge of Mr. Webb's 
double range of musical work? She was his pupil, study- 
ing later under Lamperti, and other instructors abroad. She 
has memorized eighty operas, and has sung abroad in forty. 
Consequently, when she took lessons of Jenny Lind, neither 
needed any printed music, and she describes the Swedish 


singer as playing the accompaniments magnificently. Large 
opportunities came to Miss Abell during her eight years, 
studying and singing professionally in Europe; and she was 
musical director of the Boston Society's choir for seven years 
after Mr. Webb's departure. I recall especially her singing 
in a public performance of Bach's Passion Music when her 
intelligent rendering and her depth of devotional interpre- 
tation far excelled that of the other professional soloists. 
Miss Abell continues: 

"Among the many organists and conductors under whom 
I have sung in my professional life, I can remember none 
more able, serious, musicianly, and thorough, than Mr. Webb. 
Fortunate in being admitted into the Boston choir at a very 
early age, his choral teaching gave me so sure a compre- 
hension of the best in the fine compositions he used, that I 
had nothing to learn from subsequent teachers however fine. 
Mr. Webb had said everything." 

William Mason (1829-1908), pianist, New-Church or- 
ganist, and son-in-law of Mr. Webb, was born in Boston. 
Ascending the ancestral line five generations we come to 
Barachias, who is the first recorded instance where the Mason 
line has a vibratory musical sound. He was a teacher of 
singing, a performer on the 'cello, and a Harvard graduate 
of 1742; making a valuable academic and musical great- 
grandfather to William Mason, the New Churchman. Will- 
iam's father, Lowell Mason, is widely known. Webb assisted 
him a little in his twenty sacred music books, and a great deal 
in his seven glee books. Together they founded the Boston 
Academy of Music, Mason representing church music, Webb 
devoted to voice culture and secular music. 

William Mason was trained for the piano by Henry 
Schmidt, Symphony conductor, and by the pianoforte virt- 
uoso, Leopold de Meyer. At twenty, he went abroad for 
five years' study, where he met a sufficient number of great 
musicians to fill a biographical cyclopaedia. In Mason's 
Memories of a Musical Life are many distinguished auto- 
graphs, often with notation, the most noticeable those of the 
Kneisel Quartet, on a four-leaved clover. Richard Wagner 


gave him his autograph with the dragon motive in The Ring 
of the Nibelimg appended. This was June 5, 1852. Haupt- 
man, who was Mason's teacher abroad, was skilled in church 
music, and held the place in the Leipsic Thomas-schule for- 
merly filled by Sebastian Bach. 

Liszt — that strange child of genius, child of the world, 
and child of the Church — had the pick from all the young 
musicians in Europe for his pupils. His home in 1853 was 
in Weimar. Mason's real test was after he had been accepted 
as a pupil. His ordeal on the piano was two or three hours 
long. Liszt incited enthusiasm, but drew on the vitality of 
young Mason until he was tired and actually stiff from nerve 

Returning to America in 1854, Mr. Mason soon settled in 
New York City, and opened a thirteen years' series of chamber 
concerts. We knew him there, and he always sent us tickets. 
His string quartet included Theodore Thomas as first violin. 
The latter, only twenty at the beginning, soon showed genius 
for conductorship, and finally rose to be the head of the con- 
certs, cordially and handsomely recognized by Mason. 

William Mason was reared in Orthodoxy, and followed 
his father as organist in Boston Congregational churches. 
When seventeen years of age, on entering the drawing-room 
of Mr. Webb, he saw for the first time Mary, his oldest 
daughter, aged thirteen. He says: 

" I had not been in the room half an hour before I was 
deeply in love with her. She and I grew to be good friends, 
but the idea of an engagement between us was not to be 
thought of at that time, and while I lived in Germany we were 
not permitted to correspond. For five years I did not see her, 
but when I came back, I hastened to her father's house. This 
had been my constant purpose ever since the time that I left 
America." They were married on March 12, 1857. 

William Mason, ten years after his marriage, made public 
confession of his faith in the New Church; but he had pre- 
viously presided over the church music in New York in my 
father's day, and his wife was soprano in the Church quar- 
tette. As a girl she was the leading voice in one of Mr. 
Webb's large antiphonal choruses in the Boston Society. His 


organ playing is described by Rev. Charles H. Mann in the 
New-Church Messenger of July 29, 1908: 

" Mason's improvisations were never a wandering about in 
the realm of musical harmony, like a kind of aimless saunter- 
ing, ready either to continue indefinitely, or to stop at any 
moment. Rather Mr. Mason's improvisations were organic 
imits. They had distinct themes, with beginnings, middle 
points, and ends." 

Mr. Mason's life was like his playing — a well-ordered 
purpose: shown in his silent love of the unbethrothed maiden 
for long years when away; in his fixity of aim expressed in 
his vocation. He kept a high standard in music, and brought 
the public up to it successfully; never catering to popularity 
by the use of superficial and showy material. 

Build thee more stately mansions, my soul. 
As the swift seasons roll! 

— Holmes's Chambered Nautilus. 

Here is a touch; Is't good? " 

rU say of it 
It tutors nature. 

— Timon of Athens, I. i, 44. 

Daniel H. Burnham (1846-1912) spent his boyhood in 
Chicago — a lusty young city which lies on a four-thousand- 
mile water line, both ends of which touch the sea: not being 
content with reaching the Atlantic through great lakes and a 
big river, it must needs build a canal to reach the Atlantic 
through a bigger river and a great gulf; it is also the point 
from which radiate myriad freight car lines. We should 
expect an ambitious and well-endowed boy growing up in a 
seething centre like that to become a commercial magnate, a 
railroad president, or a gigantic promoter in other fields. We 
will watch the lad and see. 

The Burnham household moved eastward that their flock 
might profit by the Waltham New-Church School, and Daniel 
breathed for four years the academic atmosphere of Harvard. 
The latter was not necessary to neutralize the commercial 
atmosphere of Chicago, because a city is not all commercial- 

Daniel H. Bunihai 


Mrs. Eduin Burnham mother of the architect 


ism if it has the elements which can set up a St. Gaudens 
Lincohi, a Theodore Thomas orchestra, and a Jane Addams 
Hull House. Mr. Burnham returned to Chicago, and after 
a course of study in the art of building, he did become the 
architectural expression of secular industries, and was called 
" the father of the skyscraper." His Rand-McNally building 
in 1889 was evolved on a new plan. Unprogressive pessimists 
prophesied that plaster placed upon a skeleton of welded 
steel beams would disintegrate, and the building go to pieces 
at the first jar of the machinery inside. Imagine their dis- 
comfiture at its failure "to crumple into twisted beams and 
shattered masonry" years after it was put to the test! So 
much for the utilitarian Daniel Burnham, represented by 
scores of banks and stores scattered from New York to the 
Pacific. The highly practical expressed artistically is found 
in his Railway Station at Washington. 

It was a long step to idealism from the utilitarian needs 
of commerce, when Daniel Burnham and John W. Root, his 
partner, were instrumental in bringing into being that dream 
of beauty, the White City of the Columbian Exposition at 
Chicago in 1893. Mr. Bumham's next step was less purely 
idealistic and more tangibly altruistic — from the erection 
of an evanescent city of glorified staff, to the beautifying of 
prosaic cities in real life, that they might be well-ordered 
in sites and groupings of buildings, pleasing to the lover 
of harmony, healthy-toned, and hygienic. President Roose- 
velt appreciated Daniel Burnham's ability, and in 1905 made 
him one of a Commission on Public Buildings and Grounds 
which included expert geniuses — Augustus St. Gaudens, 
Charles F. McKim, and Frederick Law Olmstead. 

A marked element in Burnham's career is the fact that 
he was trained and ripened in this country. In 1911, he, 
with his wife, son and daughter, went abroad for an auto- 
mobile trip through France, Germany and Italy. Within a 
year, he passed away suddenly at Heidelberg, cutting short 
his observations of old-world art. 

Mr. Burnham was for forty years a member of the Chicago 
Church of the New Jerusalem, and had much of the quiet 
decisiveness to be expected of a man whose grandfather 


stood by his colors when excommunicated for Swedenborgian 
heresy. Rev. Frank Sewall in the Messenger of July 3, 1912, 
pays tribute to Bumham's consecrated civic spirit as shown 
in his attitude toward the Lincoln Memorial, and its site, 

"The fine analysis of the subject from all its more hidden 
bearings — the relation of publicity to retirement, of soltitude 
to noise and bustle, of thought and memory to trade and 
cunning, of distance and reverence to nearness and famili- 
arity — was clearly presented, and, side by side with these, 
those severely practical questions which are sure to be fore- 
most in the mind of the ordinary committeeman, and to 
which Mr. Burnham knew how to pay proper deference." 

Miss Adelia Gates (1825-1912) became at fifty years of 
age an itinerant artist who loved to paint living flowers grow- 
ing on the stem. She had the wanderlust in her veins, and 
saw and heard much of the world; from the lusty birth cry 
of a struggling Kansas, to the plaintive requiem of a dead 
Carthage; from the stirring modem note of San Francisco, 
to the mute immobile antiquity of Abu-Simbel; from the 
intensive midday sun of Sahara, to the gentle midnight sun 
of Norway; from the quiescent volcanoes of Lipari, to the 
active geysers of Iceland. 

Adelia Gates was born among the pine-clad Otsego hills 
of New York. Her father was widely beloved, and poor. 
His wife was rich in the quaint old folk-songs of England 
which she gave while turning the great spinning wheel. Sugar- 
making in the primeval forests of the estate was picturesque, 
with gypsy fires under the huge cauldrons of seething, bub- 
bling sap, and Adelia's only brother playing the flute. 

Adelia's home education was practical: driving the cows 
home, looking after the bees in the swarming season, and 
"minding the crows," i.e., fending off" the black marauders 
from the growing Indian com; and nothing could be more 
felicitous for the crows than the absent-mindedness of their 
young sentinel, who loved to sit "on the sunny side of an 
old stump " with a book in her lap, and her thoughts in ancient 
Greece or Rome. 


At twenty-two years of age, Adelia, eager for a college 
education, entered a cotton mill at Lowell, Massachusetts, at 
thirteen and a half hours a day. Having, after years of vicis- 
situde, laid by two hundred dollars, it was at this juncture 
that she learned of the utter financial failure of a valued 
friend. Her little fortune would secure a quarter section 
of Wisconsin government land, and give him a footing; but 
man after man refused to lend money without guarantee. 
Then came Adelia Gates with her precious offering. 

" I'll not touch your poor little two hundred dollars," he 
cried. "Haven't I seen you save it painfully, dollar by 
dollar, by hard work, and don't I know that it is to pay your 
fees in college? No. I can't take it, though your offer has 
touched me to the very heart." 

"But," she replied, "you must and you shall take it. I 
can work, and lay by another two hundred. To me the delay 
is brief. To you it means a whole lifetime. If you can 
start afresh now, you will pick up the broken threads of your 

She prevailed, he prospered. In a few years he sold his 
two-hundred-dollar farm for four thousand, and repaid her. 
This is one of her eminently unbusinesslike proceedings in 
lending money "upon no other security than the exceeding 
need of the borrowers "; but they always made good. 

With her second earnings, Adelia, in 1855, entered the 
new Antioch College under Horace Mann, but she succumbed 
in two years from overdrafts upon strength and vitality. 
Soon after she was called upon by Mr. Richards — of Nor- 
man-Celtic origin — to become instructress to his two mother- 
less little girls. He took them abroad in 1867, for long 
summers at his Irish estate at Enniscorthy, Wexford County. 
To Miss Gates these outings were fresh, and the winters in 
great cities a magnificent course of study. Parting with this 
beloved family after fourteen years, she studied painting 
systematically under Madame Vouga at Geneva. 

In 1888 Miss Gates went to Algiers, where she had very 
little money, but she had Thoreau's indifference to luxury, 
and she could get ample nutrition at infinitesimal cost. Visit- 
ing early in the morning the goats that had been sleeping on 


the sidewalk, she filled her bowl with pure milk; a bit of 
bread brought her Arcadian breakfast up to twopence. Sup- 
per at less price was sumptuous — sardines, figs and bread. 
For dinner she bought a large boiled yam piping hot from 
the charcoal oven, to which she added bread and a half-pound 
of grapes. This menu might be varied through exchange for 
peas, beans, onions, cucumbers, lettuce, or tomatoes. She 
successfully maintained this ten-cents-a-day diet for months. 
She cared chiefly for people. She was kind to the blind 
Frenchman, and the lame beggar, the cheese woman, and 
the roast-chestnut man ; she had pleasant chats with students, 
and antiquarians. She now wished to travel in the desert, 
and her Gallic landlord employed the dramatic expressive- 
ness of his race to dissuade her from going into the Sahara. 
"What if you are massacred, mademoiselle? Catastro- 
phies as shuddering sometimes accomplish themselves in the 

" That would certainly put an end to all my travels, but 
old women are seldom murdered. I don't fear anything of 
the sort." 

"Ah! but mademoiselle knows not the Arab. He is a 

creature most depraved. He is eager for plunder. He fears 

not the police. The Government reaches him not in the 

distant oasis. I have fear I see you never again." 

"Yes, you will. I shall come out of the Desert all the 

browner and better for my trip." 

Another friend, knowing how strikingly small was her 

income, urged in vain the prohibitive cost of the contemplated 


How did happy fortune save her in this dilemma? In 

answer to this question, let me say that the little six-year-old 

Adela Richards, brought up by Miss Gates, married Mr. 

Orpen, a cousin of the famous Irish painter, William Orpen, 

and to her book I am enormously indebted.* 

Thanks to the paternal French-Algerian government, Miss 

Gates, called "the Sid," traveled without cost, except three 

* The Chronicles of the Sid, or the Life and Travels of Adelia Gates by 
Adela E. Orpen, 403 pp., London, The Religious Tract Society, 1893. (By the 
title of " Sid," meaning lady or mistress. Miss Gates was constantly known in 
the Algerian desert during her journey.) 


francs a day for her own horse, including its caretaker, 
El Ebib, an indefatigable negro, '" who trotted along beside 
her on his never-tiring bare feet." At this time, December, 
1888, the Sid is sixty-three, with a camel-like facility for 
going without food during long desert stretches, and a tran- 
quillity of spirit that never worries. Miss Gates had twenty 
years' biowledge of the French language, Algiers was 
strongly dominated by France, she won the favor of the 
Governor-General appointed from Paris. He gave her a letter 
of introduction requesting for her the hospitality of all the 
military commanders; the American Consul also furnished 
letters, and the chief of the Arab bureau gave his letter to 
be presented to the ca'id or chief man of each village, re- 
questing him to furnish food and lodging gratuitously. The 
government furnished her an armed escort without cost, Bel- 
Ouari by name, as her guide, guard, and interpreter; thus 
described in the Orpen chronicle: 

"He was a splendid example of the finest type of Arab, 
and the soul of loyalty to his French rulers. He was a well- 
set-up officer on whose breast glittered a medal won by brave 
exploits, and he possessed a good horse, good saddle, and 
good rifle, all his accoutrements being in faukless order. 
When this imposing creature was presented to the Sid she 
was greatly struck by his fine bearing, he was so tall, so 
straight, so manly." The commandant said: 

" This is your escort, Madame. This man will guide you 
safely to Aflou!" 

"And," the narrator continues, "the Sid nodded to him 
in a cheerful, friendly way; and he made her a dignified 
bow in perfect silence, and then stood looking down at her 
with his earnest Arab eyes. The perfect grace and stately 
dignity of that soldier would make the fortune of an actor 
who aspired to play the role of king." 

As she approached Stettin, t^vo hundred and fifty miles 
from Algiers, Bel-Ouari the Magnificent hastened in advance 
to announce the coming of the Sid. The caid or village chief, 
noting the official nature of the escort, and wishing to please 
the government, treated her with distinction. At Bou-Alem, 
she was the first white woman who had ever entered this 


village. The handsomest of the chief's three wives, in a 
gown of red and blacky with divers circles of silver on her 
swarthy arms and ankles, made for her American guest 
some cakes kneaded very thin, and fried in oil, after which, 
honey was poured over them from a leathern bottle hung 
from a tent-pole. 

The Sid spent three days at Aflou, lodging at the fort, 
and dining at the mess. The soldiers were delighted at 
their guest. They were buried alive in that eventless remote 
garrison, with the burning fiery desert around them. Dr. 
Clery, one of their number, had made himself a capital 
botanist, and the Sid was most happy in talking with him 
and sharing his floral treasures. 

"You have a magnificent hoard of things here. It must 
be a delight to thus gather and collect around you." 

"Yes, madame; it preserves the mind from despair. My 
flower collections have saved me from going mad." And 
years later, he wrote her: 

" It was only a few days' rest in the midst of a long jour- 
ney to you, madame; perhaps you have forgotten it, but we 
have not. To us it was a breath of fresh air amidst the hot 
sirocco, a glimpse of the fair outside world to a prisoner 
in a gloomy cell." 

The Sid next visited the Grand Marabout of Kurdane, 
who lived in splendor and glory. "He was the richest man 
in the desert. He was a king commanding heartfelt homage. 
He was a so-called saint, absorbing the veneration of the 
Arabs who have no authorized priesthood. He was a rebel, 
secretly watched from afar by the government," because 
capable of setting the whole Sahara on fire with a "holy 
war." The Sid found the Marabout's home a veritable Ver- 
sailles, with its gardens, shaded walks, and flashing foun- 
tains; his palace spacious and airy; his dinners elegant and 
elaborate. Clad in his robe of royal blue edged with gold 
fringe, there was about him an imposing air which impressed 
her as more kinglike than that of anyone she had ever seen. 
She enjoyed also the hospitality of the Maraboutess. 

And the Marabout sent our friend on to Laghouat in his 
own royal carriage, and gave her a letter bearing a great red 


seal — a most sacred shield ensuring perfect protection. And 
now, in a large procession including a hundred soldiers, and 
sixty camels bearing water-barrels and food-stuffs, she con- 
tinued from Gardaia to Ouargla, nearing her journey's 
end. She had sometimes ridden eight hours a day on horse- 
back; she had sometimes ridden a cacolet on the camel — in 
a pannier or wicker basket hanging on one side of the animal; 
with an Arab balancing her in a pannier on the other side. 
(I have seen a pair of little English twins riding on a white 
mule after this manner in Palestine.) Miss Gates, while 
in the Sahara, had slept on the ground, in a tent, in a hut, 
in a palace. She had traveled in a circuit from Algiers to 
Algiers, touching Tunis territory on the way. 

For the sake of flower lovers and botanists, a few blossoms 
shall be recorded which stood on their stems for their like- 
nesses by Miss Gates, both here and during her twenty-four 
years abroad. She stood on the rung of a step-ladder in a 
California millionaire's hothouse that she might transfer to 
paper a lofty blossoming ginger; she sat before a Sahara 
thistle for the same purpose. She scaled Colorado heights 
that she might reach the alluring Riibus deliciosus; she made 
acquaintance with asphodels in ancient Carthage. She found 
pretty nicotianum in the valley of Jehoshaphat, and asperula 
in the fields of Boaz. And " in the presence of kingly 
Hermon " grew a splendid arum, and two pretty varieties of 

Iceland was the last country visited — in 1891. Beyond 
the great geysers, on the black shore of a boiling lake lay 
fine lava sand, upon which rested " a perfectly beautiful 
network of the Potentilla anserina. The plants were little, 
but most beautiful, with a good touch of red in them, and 
some yellow. The tendrils were wonderful for length and 
brilliance of color, and so long as never were seen anywhere 
else, I think." 

I have met Miss Gates three times. In Michigan, where 
she heard the Rev. Abiel Silver preach many times when 
she was a guest of his New-Church brother, Jacob Silver. 
Her path crossed mine again in West Newton in 1894. Her 
hostess, Mrs. James Richard Carter, gave us an opportunity 


to see her delightful paintings. Happy and rich the Sunday- 
School which could have had on its walls all the likenesses 
of her Holy Land flora! Her last twenty years were spent 
largely in San Francisco, and my final interview with her 
was on Sunday morning, July 21, 1901, at the Rev. Joseph 
Worcester's church. It was to me a distinct loss of her vital- 
izing companionship that her proffered invitation to dine 
must be declined! 

Mrs. Theodore F. Wright, who always considered it a 
great privilege to have been one of her many hostesses, writes 
of this " remarkable woman " : 

"Miss Gates was everywhere scattering seeds of New- 
Church truth unostentatiously, and living the life of religion 
in doing good." 

Mrs. Charles H. Mann became profoundly interested in 
her and her work, and was ready to receive her with open 
arms, saying of her: 

" It has always done me good to think of her deep sincerity, 
and genuine simplicity, and she was really a great inspiration 
in my life." 

In the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, Miss 
Gates characteristically encroached upon her strength and 
her substance in aiding the sufferers. She gradually lost 
her sight, the remote resuh, perhaps, of the blinding sand 
and sunlight of Sahara. Her last years were spent in the 
Crocker Old People's Home. Mrs. Olivia Edmunds Turner 
wrote me that Miss Gates, on her card of application to this 
institution expressed herself in this manner: "Protestant — 
of no external church, but with a marked preference for 
Swedenborgianism." She frequently attended New-Church 
services until a gradual decline incapacitated her; and Mrs. 
David wrote me of her strong religious faith and trust in 
no degree weakened by her blindness. She prized visits from 
the Rev. Joseph Worcester and the Rev. Joseph David, both 
of whom had part in her obsequies in 1912. She had quitted 
the darkened windows of her house of clay, and had opened 
her eyes to the visible light of the Lord's countenance. 

Her affirmative and receptive attitude toward this spiritual 
light is revealed in The Medium, vol. iv, pp. 268-270. 



He reads much; 
He is a great observer, and he looks 
Quite through the deeds of men. 

— Julius Caesar, I. 2. 

John Bigelow (1817-1911), journalist, diplomat, and 
student of mankind, was bom on his father's well-stocked 
and fruitful farm of 150 acres on the Hudson, whence the 
commodities were sent to the great metropolis in his own 
sloops. The lad's suit of homespun for higher education 
was woven under the paternal roof from one of his father's 
fifty sheep, and was made up by Mr, Snip, the village tailor. 
This made young John a subject of derision by the aristo- 
cratic students of the Troy Academy, but respect followed the 
discovery that he could coach them in their studies, and 
outdo them as a clever pitcher in baseball. After the Acad- 
emy, young Bigelow attended for three years Trinity College 
at Hartford, transferring later to Union College, Schenec- 
tady. In New York City he took his degree in 1838 as attor- 
ney at law, following the profession ten years. As a writer, 
pungent criticism spiced with caustic wit and softened with 
playful humor flowed from Mr. Bigelow's pen. He writes 
in 1841: 

" I was of an age when the combative principle is most 
active, and when the love of the neighbor as one's self had 
not come very far to the front. ... I was animated by the 
spirit of school-boys out on a squirrel hunt." 

Mr, Bigelow's twelve years' editorship and ownership 
with William Cullen Bryant of the New York Evening Post 
enabled him to know other big men in the same line — Ray- 
mond, Greeley, Dana, Godkin, and George William Curtis; 
and enables us to know his owti excellent standards in his work 
regarding the " Uses and Abuses of Journalism." But he 
was an idealist tempered with practical good sense. In 1848, 
when he took a share with Bryant, the Post's printing press 
was worked by hand, and its circulation fifteen hundred. In 
1861 Bigelow left it with an income of $75,000. 


I draw from Mr. Bigelow's Retrospections of an Active 
Life in five volumes, written in his ninety-second year. He 
was first sent abroad by President Lincobi, officially as a con- 
sul, but really as a journalist. His pen was to prevent the rec- 
ognition of the Southern Confederacy, to influence public 
opinion, to deflect the tide when running hostile, to outma- 
neuvre the French Emperor. His secret correspondence with 
statesmen in various countries is mighty interesting reading. 
His great work was as Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Ex- 
traordinary to Paris during the period of our Civil War and 
the French-Mexican imbroglio. To this was added his ambas- 
sadorship at the court of Berlin during the Franco-Prussian 

" Napoleon HI," he said, " had three good political reasons 
for putting Maximilian on the throne of Mexico: (i) To 
conciliate the Austrian government which he had embittered 
by driving die Austrians out of Italy in Victor Emmanuel's 
day; (ii) To conciliate the Church by exalting a brother 
of Francis Joseph, the most Catholic of sovereigns; (iii) To 
take advantage of our Civil War troubles, and thereby check 
the advance of the Anglo-Saxon race over the Latin. And," 
he adds prophetically, in 1863, " it looks as if his Majesty 
was going to follow his uncle to the end of his career." 

The theological crisis with marked spiritual results for 
Mr. Bigelow came in 1853 when he was thirty-six. Quaran- 
tined on one of the W. I. Islands, he criticized the letter of 
Scripture within hearing of a traveling Danish acquaintance, 
Mr. Kierolf , who lent him New-Church books, which were read 
at first with curiosity, and the certainty of refutation. He 
followed the Arcana with increased avidity, and studied 
Swedenborg's personality through authentic "Documents" 
compiled by Professor George Bush, for whose scholarship 
he had long had the profoundest respect. He read this new 
spiritual interpretation of Scripture ten hours a day with in- 
creasing belief that Swedenborg was "a scribe instructed 
unto the kingdom of heaven." And he writes in 1909, that 
every one of the past fifty years has increased his sense of 
obligation with fervent gratitude for his discovery, which is 
embodied in his book. The Bible ivhich was Lost and is 


Found, 120 pp., New York, New-Church Board of Publica- 
tion, 1912. 

Mr. Bigelow was for years a familiar figure in his New 
York pew under Rev. Julian K. Smyth. Called hence at 
ninety-four he received honor from the Evening Post, the 
Sun, and Harper s Weekly. In the latter, for March 31, 
1912, Rev. Henry Van Dyke says: 

"It was during his journalistic period that three great 
good fortunes came to Mr. Bigelow: first the beginning of 
his happy domestic life by his marriage with Miss Jane Poul- 
teney in 1850; second, the commencement of his life as an 
author in 1852 . . . ; third, the recovery of his faith in the 
Bible through an acquaintance in 1853 with the works of 
that wondrous interpreter, Emanuel Swedenborg." 

" Thus he waited, not idly but busily, not fearfully but 
bravely, in the confidence of a certain faith, in the comfort 
of a reasonably religious and holy hope, for the coming of 
the great change, the great liberation, the great promotion 
from an active life to a redeemed immortality of service. 
So John Bigelow passed away on December 19, 1911." 

Howard Pyle (1853-1911) was bom of a devoted woman 
who stood for the consecration of motherhood. Her idea of 
perfect happiness was this: "What I have — only if I could 
be a better woman." Her husband, her three sons, and her 
only daughter were with her at the last, and she told them 
that in the other world she should ask the Lord to teach her 
how to make for them a finer home than the one here. Eman- 
uel Swedenborg, writing of the relationship of different facul- 
ties of the soul, makes this statement: 

" Love, or the will, prepares a house or bridal apartment 
for a future spouse, which is wisdom or the understanding." 
— Divine Love and Wisdom, No. 402. 

Picture the little Howard stretched on a rug before a snap- 
ping and crackling hickory fire enjoying the pictures in Old 
Curiosity Shop and The Newcomes, as his mother read the 
stories. Growing in literary culture, and gaining years of 
careful art training in Philadelphia, he was called by Har- 
per s to New York, became one of a group of active illus- 


trators including Joseph Pennell and Edwin A. Abbey, and 
formed with the latter a warm friendship. 

We turn from the sumptuous coloring of Abbey's Quest 
of the Holy Grail to Pyle's masterpiece, the Story of the 
Champions of the Round Table in four large books. His 
illustrations are powerful. Sir Lionel of Britain with an 
expression steady, dark and fierce, bears upon his shield the 
figure of a red gryphon, a thing of terror, with open mouth, 
extended tongue, and uplifted paw. When the Black Knight 
meets in conflict the noble and stately Sir Launcelot, it was 
with such wrath that " it appeared as though their fierce eyes 
shot sparks of fire through the occulariams of their helmets." 
In contrast we have Lady Yvette the Fair, lily in hand, tran- 
quil and contemplative, as if pondering the meaning of life. 
Harper's paid their tribute in January, 1912, to Pyle's humor, 
at once quaint and antique, to his written style, virile, sig- 
nificant, and charmingly idiomatic, to his general work as a 
fresh revival of the Romantic, occupying the field of wonder 
without Rossetti's vagueness. Of his spirit and aim they v/rite: 

" Of Quaker parentage, and an enthusiastic disciple of 
Swedenborg, it was natural that he should listen to the inner 
voice and reject the traditions of men, and the authority 
of the schools — also that he should seek the inward and spirit- 
ual meaning of things." Observe Pyle in his art instruction 
to classes in Wilmington, Delaware, often gratuitous, and 
limited to students of marked ability. Look at Maxfield 
Parrish's fascinating Dream of Youth, and ask yourself if a 
teacher might not well be proud of such work; and yet Pyle's 
own dream of youth did not prove an evanescent bubble in 
the air. Study one of his favorite pupils in Miss Olive 
Rush, whose soft-toned water color picture of a beautiful 
girl was reproduced in the Woman s Home Companion of 
April, 1912. It rebukes our comic colored Sunday Supple- 
ments whose crude, fierce tints scorch the eyeballs! 

Elsie Roeder, fine-grained in nature, artistic in tempera- 
ment, ethereal in spirit, won high praise from Pyle, and 
demonstrated her capacity " to express with decided boldness 
and power, the moods of an imagination that was always 
penetrating and original." She continued study under Ed- 


ward PenfieJd and at the Chase School in New York, and 
contributed to high-class magazines. For illustrating " Love's 
Young Dream " she was awarded $250.00 as a prize, but, 
short-lived, she was not to realize in this world any romantic 
maidenly vision. Her father, the Rev. Adolph Roeder, whose 
Sea-Pictures she had fitly illustrated, contributed to the 
Messenger of May 13, 1914, a little after her transition, a 
tribute, beginning: 

On God's palette, where angels inix their colors, 

And where deep, mystic shades harmonious blend : 
Dip thou thy brush, thou artist-soul, and revel 

In that creative joy, that knows no end. 

Another pupil was Pyle's sister Margaret. Her charming 
books elude you at the public libraries; the children love 
them and they are always out. A third New-Church pupil, 
Jessie Wilcox Smith of Philadelphia, is known to us by her 
apt Cradle Roll picture, and her "Cinderella," where the 
firelight brings out the character in her beautiful face. 

Howard Pyle, the story-writer, should have large mention. 
In his Rejected of Men was an effort born of conviction to 
bring into modern life the Christ standard, also attempted 
in articles by Stead, Hale, and others. Pyle's In Tenebras 
(Harper's, February, 1894) takes the field entered by Henry 
Van Dyke in The Mansion. He follows two men into the 
other world, and reveals their inner selves. 

I knew Howard Pyle (i) as a handsome, manly lad, recit- 
ing S. S. poems with effective emphasis and fervent spirit, 
(ii) At forty-eight, he was erect, vigorous, tall, a gracious 
host in his beautiful studio which lay behind a garden, 
(iii) On December, 1903, all his family, despite a furious 
rainfall, were in their Wilmington Church pew. In 1910 
they held a little religious home service to consecrate their 
journey abroad — a journey culminating for him in heaven. 

Adeline Knapp made a sojourn in the Philippines, and 
published in 1902 a descriptive work. She made a sojourn 
in Arizona, and wrote a novel of dramatic power and spiritual 
interpretation of life. She paid a tribute at the Massachusetts 
New-Church Woman's Alliance to the Lyons Street San Fran- 


cisco Church and the Rev. Joseph Worcester; and she has- 
tened back for his closing blessing just before her death in 
1909. She told me of her love of life; but she made the 
supreme sacrifice willingly at last. 

She knew the mining region of Arizona which presented 
a good deal to shock the fine-grained person in its wild and 
sometimes lawless camp life emphasized by profanity, gam- 
bling, and quick revenge with the pistol. But if the habitues 
of this region were rightly touched there would appear just 
as suddenly a big generosity warm from the heart. This 
is powerfully illustrated in Bret Harte's Luck of the Roaring 
Camp. Could this element be made more than evanescent? 
When early manhood came into contact with evil, cherished 
the growing doubt, and harbored revenge in the heart, how 
could God bring out the sweet elements of childhood — hid- 
den and carefully guarded — and make these elements instru- 
mental for salvation, as declared in Swedenborg's Arcana, 
No. 5135? 

This is the problem handled by Miss Knapp in her book, 
A Well in the Desert. Gabriel Gard, the central figure of 
Miss Knapp's story, had lived in the atmosphere of camp life, 
had been betrayed in a business transaction by a trusted 
friend, and again betrayed by his lawyer of defence. Forced 
to flee to the desert, he carried with him a heart full of bitter 
gall. The very fauna, and flora, and contour of Arizona at 
its worst were startlingly symbolic of his state of mind. The 
Gila monster — a huge lizard with venomous teeth — lurked 
in the sand; the scream of the wild cat, the howl of the 
coyote, the screech of the owl, remind us of Bible imagery 
over wicked Babylon inhabited by " doleful creatures " of 
the desert (Isa. xiii, 21). The place where Gard lived 
was unproductive, recalling the region as we approach the 
Dead Sea, where we see bushes that are all thorn and no 
verdure. The dreary and forbidding barrenness of the Ari- 
zona levels was gashed by yawning ravines; the cinder cones 
indicated extinct volcanoes. With the mercury reaching 
130°, the ground was "smitten and withered like grass," 
as the Psalmist describes the human heart (cii, 4). 

Gard was entirely alone in the desert. There were long 


days of hatred, and long days of despair. Then began the 
dawning of a better period. During his Robinson Crusoe 
life he gradually learned to fashion utensils in clay. Upon 
them he put inscriptions which came to be " a sort of com- 
mentary, seen by no eyes save his own, of his moods, and 
their longing for expression." 

"He put them down upon whatever served, for the mere 
comfort of seeing them . . . lines from half-remembered 
poems and hymns; familiar Bible verses that his mother had 
taught him. They came back to him bit by bit, in his solti- 
tude. And one and all his soul found them camps by the 
way on its long journey up from despair." 

There were other boyish memories: "the white Church at 
'The Centre' Avhere he had gone to Sunday School; the little 
shed chamber with its creaking stairs that his mother had 
climbed, how many cold nights! to see if he were warmly 
covered. She was gone from earth now, but the old bovhood 
places were left, and he yearned for them all, with yearning 
unspeakable. There were a few small pretty creatures which 
filled all this grim place with an ineffable grace. ... 'To 
think of it,' the man murmured, 'the little, little things, so 
fearless up here in this — this — secret — place — of — the 
— Most — High!'" 

He stopped in vague surprise at his own speech. He had 
not meant to say that, but from some neglected recess of 
his boyhood's memory the words had sprung, vital with 

Reaction followed, with a sense of the bitterness of his 
desolation. Then the ache of his spirit's yearning drew his 
clenched hands up toward the blue vault. 

"I wish," he breathed, his heart pounding, his brain 
awhirl with a sudden vision of the infinite wonder of things, 
" I wish that — if there is such a thing as God in the world 
I might come to know it." 

Card needed something outside of himself upon which 
to expend the childhood's love reawakening in his heart. 
And God sent a stray burro that very night to his hearthstone. 
"The creature had been wounded by a crucifixion-thorn; 
Gard drew out the cruel spike and soothed the hurt with a 


poultice of prickly pear. Later in the night he was awak- 
ened. His grateful little patient was licking his hands." 
Greeting her colloquially, " he slipped an arm over the rough 
little neck and the two watched the fire till dawii." 

He would grant all except the relinquishment of his ven- 
geance. The battle ground of his soul fairly trembled under 
the conflict. One day there rose " an agonized wail as his 
spirit recognized the inexorableness of this demand upon its 
powers — the forgiveness of his enemies." 

"I've got to! I've got to! If I'd sensed it," he said in a 
voice tense with his soul's pain, " If I'd sensed that this is 
what comes of knowing there's a God, I guess I wouldn't have 
dared wish that." 

"Viciously he had torn and kneaded the clay which formed 
the utensil in his hands; slowly he now engraved on it The 
Cup of Forgiveness; peacefully he thrust it forward for its 
final perfecting in the fire. 

"We'll see how it comes out," he muttered, grimly, but 
already the hope grew in his heart that the clay would stand 
the test (pp. 61-63). 

The victory came. "He had learned the futility of hate 
in the nights when he watched the great stars wheel by, mark- 
ing the march of the year. 

"There's nothing in it! there's nothing in it!" he finally 
said to himself, " It ain't a man's job to be staking out claims 
on hell for another fellow" (pp. 73, 74). 

Gard went back to civilization and to his friends, and he 
turned to the life of humanity so much larger than his own 
little needs. His own affairs desperately needed readjusting, 
but he strove to reinstate justice in the affairs of Mrs. Hallard, 
an old neighbor. God seemed real and near. The twenty- 
third Psalm, taught by his mother in infancy, was engraved 
on his mind; and now, the verse came surging in his brain: 
" Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days 
of my life." Then the problem of Divine Providence pre- 
sented itself — a growing sense of the breadth of God's de- 

" If you've ever noticed it," Gard said, " there's a kind of 
reasonableness in the way things happen, even when they 


look black. They happen out of each other; and there's 
Something managing them, no matter how it looks, sometimes. 
I've found that out." 

"I'd like to help in the managin'," Mrs. Hallard said, 

"You couldn't." Gard shook his head thoughtfully. " You 
couldn't see the whole scheme. And we don't need to want 
to. Whoever's doing it is making up a whole piece out of 'em. 
That's this world we're in. It's our world. We belong in it; 
and there ain't anything in it for us to be afraid of but just 
ourselves." (P. 2i4.) 

In this novel, the spiritual evolution of Gabriel Gard is 
the story within the story. The dominant instrumentality 
for this end is the power of the Good Book: the reviving of 
infantile Bible memories which proved a " well in the desert " 
to the arid soul. "When I got out on the big desert," Gard 
says, "I found God there, same's I'd believed when I was 
a iDoy back on the prairie." 


William Cooper Howells (father of William Dean Howells, 
the novelist) was editor, prinler and publisher of a New- 
Church periodical in Ohio in the early forties. He had dis- 
covered our faith in 1839, together with his brothers, Dr. 
Joseph Howells and Dr. Henry C. Howells, all loyal disciples. 

The grandfather of this trio of brothers sailed for America 
with a stock of his Welsh flannels, sold them advantageously, 
but refused President Washington's appeal that he stay and 
help our country industrially through his vocation. The 
Welshman's son came to stay, landing at Boston in 1808. 
He soon turned his face toward the middle West, taking his 
family with him. He slowly made his way toward the set- 
ting sun, crossing the state of Pennsylvania in 1813 in a huge 
wagon drawn by five horses. The wife and children, having 
been previously weighed, were carried as freight, the owner 
of the wagon charging Mr. Howells by the pound for their 
transportation.* Exchanging the vehicle for a flat-boat, the 

* This incident is related many years later by William Cooper Howells him- 
self in HistoricMl Collections of Ohio, vol. i, p. 967, published at Norwalk, Ohio. 


sturdy pioneer went down the Ohio to Steubenville. 

The eldest child, William Cooper Howells, grew up, mar- 
ried the sweet-spirited Mary Dean, settled in 1840 in Hamil- 
ton, Ohio, and became editor of the Hamilton Intelligencer. 
In 1843 he founded a New-Church quarto weekly, The 
Retina, choosing the title for its " brevity and expressiveness," 
and defining it as follows: 

" The Retina is the expansion of the optic nerve that sur- 
rounds the interior of the eye-ball; and its use is to convey 
to the mind the images of objects in the material world with- 
out and beneath us. It is thus that we wish to use our Retina 
— to impress upon it the forms of things within the range 
of the soul's vision; and we hope that it may be so illumi- 
nated by the light of Truth as to present them correctly." 

The second son of Howells the Editor was William D. 
Howells the novelist. The latter, in his book, A Boys Town, 
p. 12, speaks of his father's parental training. The Rise of 
Silas Laphani presents the hero in temptation as "trying to 
get a fresh clutch on his underlying principles." Mr. Howells 
writes vividly in the Editor's Easy Chair of Harper s for 
November, 1917, in comment on Sir Oliver Lodge's Ray- 
mond, and says: 

"What is a little odd about such interviewing of immor- 
tality as Sir Oliver Lodge's book records is that he takes no 
note of the great, full, and most explicit affirmations of 
spiritual life by a most eminent scientific man who observed 
it a century and a half ago, and Avho has in these later days 
come into such satisfaction as his immortal spirit may enjoy 
from the recognition of his scientific forecast of the great 
principles supposed to be the discovery of much more mod- 
em inquiry." 

Then follow allusions to Swedenborg's Heaven and Hell, 
laudatory and questioning by turns. 

Regarding editorials by William Cooper Howells, we find 
his Retina happy on pp. 86, 110, under the heading Univer- 
salism in his treatment of free-will and the conditions of 
genuine happiness; on p. 205 he gives judicious warning 
regarding Fourierism, that New Churchmen should discrimi- 
nate sharply between the secular and the moral factors in it; 


on p. 234 he writes reverently of the sacraments, and wisely 
on tlieir administration only by an ordained clergy; and on 
p. 119, under the title Campbell and Rice-Baptism, he al- 
ludes to a recent public controversy, and writes delightfully 
on the attitude we should hold toward religionists who differ 
from us. But he is at his best on pp. 391, 392, on Mesmeric 
Revelation in his answer to an article of the same name on 
pp. 387, 388, by Edgar Allen Poe. Present day laymen, with 
Potts's Concordance as an aid, will do well if they can lead 
their readers in as clear-minded a manner along the paths 
of safety as, on the whole, was achieved by the slightly 
equipped, sincere, and fearless Howells. 

Horace Parker Chandler (1842-1919) edited an Anthol- 
ogy in three volumes entitled The Lovers' Year Book; a fort- 
nightly periodical called Every Other Saturday; and, through 
The Mariner s Advocate, he helped guard, until almost the 
very last of his life, the welfare of sailors. He was an early 
and earnest instrumentality in the movement for photolitho- 
graphing the unpublished works of Swedenborg, and warmly 
supported Professor Rudolph Tafel in his work. 

Horace Chandler's life was singularly rounded out. He 
was a Harvard graduate of 1865, proud on his classday of 
his betrothed, Miss Grace Mitchell — a beautiful girl in 
white — warm-hearted, gay-spirited, and radiant in happi- 
ness, who became his bride the same year. He loved chil- 
dren, and heaven sent them six, with flocks of grandchildren. 
Baptisms among the latter brought the fifth generation, from 
Mrs. Esther Parsons Chandler, into testimony to our faith. 
Horace loved architecture, had aptitude for it, and made 
his own home no duplicate, but rich in his own ideas, and 
individual in expression. He rescued a rare hand-carved 
Colonial mantelpiece, with chimney-front above, from debris 
in the cellar of a Tremont Street house undergoing demoli- 
tion. From this noble note he built up a symphony of quiet, 
restrained design. His library windows were copied from 
Haddon Hall, and a pleasure in color and form. He loved 
books, and left about ten thousand carefully selected volumes, 
including rare editions of Swedenborg. He loved decora- 


live art, and adorned his harmoniously tinted walls with 
delightful Caproni bas-reliefs. He loved travel, revisited 
many places, observed appreciatively, and knew England 
far jjeyond most tourists. He loved social companionship, 
and entertained many guests. His household was large, 
sometimes including three generations, but the menage was 
so administered that the machinery was noiseless. 

He belonged for forty-nine years to the Roxbury Society, 
he and his wife being charter members. We recall him as 
Sunday-school superintendent, holding teachers' meetings 
in his picturesque attic,, rich in travel treasures. His quiet 
home Christmas gatherings of near friends were several times 
sanctified by an infant baptism. Recreation was not absent. 
Picture a small metallic Christmas tree, revolving, foreign- 
fashion, on its base — ablaze with lights, and surrounded 
with gifts. Or picture a tall spruce, crowned with a little 
winged figure, and sheltering below a little seated Chandler 
maiden; and grandfather Peleg Chandler fervently exclaim- 
ing: "An angel at the head, and an angel at the foot!" Or 
picture their little Grace in a small recess-opening, seated 
in a tiny chair, by a miniature table, lighted by a toy lamp, 
reading from a diminutive volume a petite story in a child's 
musical voice. 

Mr. Chandler's wife went first to the other life. He was 
never away from her for many hours during her last twenty- 
eight months. In his little absences she watched his goodbye 
gesture, and watched his return, after the rose-colored fashion 
of the old betrothal days almost fifty years before. His 
physical disabilities increased, but, with extraordinary powers 
of silence and reserve, he bent graciously to the loss. When 
his sun was almost set, another blessed light came to him 
in a visit from his newest grandchild and namesake. 

At his obsequies, his beloved friend, Rev. Julian K. Smyth, 
paid fitting and heartfelt testimony. It was a rare tribute to 
a layman that there were six other New-Church clergymen 
— Revs. Eaton, Hite, Sperry, Whitehead, Worcester, and 
Wunsch — among the many friends present. He himself was 
a friend true as steel. To him you instinctively went when 
in trouble. 



How far that little candle throws his beams! 
So shines a good deed in a naughty world. 

— Portia to Nerissa. Merchant of Venice, V, i, 90. 

Miss Maria Crosby Moulton (1819-1904) was our Sister 
Dora. I know of no one in the New Church who gave so 
prodigally her vitality, her very life. She chose to be light 
and warmth to the blind during long decades of self -exacting 

Our first glimpse of her was as our guest at our New 
Hampshire home. During her stay we gave a party for the 
Contoocook Academy students — sixty perhaps — and she 
at once started games with the greatest spontaneity, games 
not too exacting mentally, games in which all could join; and 
her warm-hearted enthusiasm melted the shyest, quickened 
the slowest, and brought out the most reserved. Everybody 
loved her at once. 

Her subsequent life-work was under Dr. Samuel G. Howe, 
that "Cadmus for the Blind," who deserves a lofty niche 
in our Walhalla for his ten years' effort in inventing an 
alphabet for the blind-deaf mute, Laura Bridgman. On our 
visits, if the latter was seen sitting alone in the corridor, she 
was invariably brought along in our walk, and Miss Moul- 
ton's kind fingers talked on her hand. She was called "Dear 
Saint Moulton "; and I fek that she was Shakespeare's " little 
candle," and that it was lighted by the Lord (Psalm, xviii, 28) . 

Sir Francis Joseph Campbell (1832-1914) was a Ten- 
nessee lad who became blind, who studied abroad, especially 
at Leipsic, where Mendelssohn was making an inspiring musi- 
cal center, and who became a musical force under Dr. Howe. 
He was a co-worker with Miss MouUon and a co-disciple in 
the New Church. 

After eleven years with Dr. Howe Mr. Campbell went to 
England in 1869 to enlarge his field of usefulness. For the 
blind must no longer be beggars, but self-supporting and 
self-respecting. In his own school-life he was the best player, 


and became a teacher at twenty. Two tutors alternated to 
read to him the classics. Although sightless, he clambered 
up the Tennessee mountains, and afterwards climbed Mont 
Blanc and won a fellowship. The number of the blind in 
England dependent upon charity appalled him. After two 
years of herculean effort to obtain funds and co-workers, with 
prospects sometimes as black as his own bodily vision, but 
lighted up by an inward faith as true as the sun, he succeeded. 

In 1871 was founded the Royal Normal College and Acad- 
emy of Music for the Blind at Upper Norwood, a pleasant 
suburb just south of London. The sixteen acres surround- 
ing the magnificent buildings give opportunity for athletics 
of many kinds, and the multicycles, for a dozen or more 
riders each, are a familiar sight on the rural roads. The 
curriculum for self-supporting industries is very wide. Dr. 
Howe sent over the Misses Knight, Greene, Faulkner, 
Howes and Dawson as assistants. Englishmen subscribed 
$1,200,000; the Duke of Westminster, the largest landholder 
in England, became President of the Board of Trustees, sub- 
scribing fifteen thousand dollars; the Duke of Argyle, and 
the Rothschilds were sympathetic patrons; King Edward VII, 
who was one of Campbell's strong admirers, knighted him 
in 1909. I knew one of the teachers, who showed us how 
Campbell's American head was still firm on his shoulders in 
spite of royal patronage; and how the blind children of the 
nobility at Upper Norwood were subject to the same regu- 
lations as the children of the commoner. She also described 
her Christmas visits at the ancestral homes of some of her 
blue-blooded pupils. 

Sir Francis Campbell completed his forty-one years' service 
at Norwood in 1912. His wife, Sophia Faulkner Campbell, 
truly his helpmeet, shared the beautiful farewell gifts of 
gold and silver, and was proud of " The Grand Old Man of 
the Blind." 

Swedenborg says in the Arcana, No. 994: "The sight of 
the eye exists from an interior sight, wherefore . . . they 
who were blind in the life of the body see in another life 
equally well with those who were quick-sighted." 


Professor Thomas Reeves (1843-1895) was another happy 
note in Dr. Howe's harmonious Akruria, and formed, with 
Miss Mouhon and Mr. Campbell, a trio of New Churchmen. 

Little Thomas was bom in the Green Isle, the land of 
Erin's harp, the land of imagination and song. Heaven sur- 
rounded the child with five apertures through which he 
could enjoy the material universe, but on the way over from 
Ireland to America the windows of his house of clay became 
closed through some untoward accident, and the little father- 
less boy of six living inside could never look out again upon 
this beautiful world. 

Was the accident untoward? In 1853 Thomas was taken 
to South Boston, and he was shepherded by Dr. Howe, and 
mothered by "Dear Saint Moulton," and educated by the 
Institution, and trained musically by Mr. Campbell, and 
strongly eulogized by Mr. Anagnos. And he studied under 
Arthur Foote and B. J. Lang, and succeeded Mr. Campbell 
as musical director. And he married, in 1881, Miss Sarah 
Newhall, who was quite as altruistic as he; and it was a 
pleasure to know these noble New-Church co-workers. 

During an interval of organ playing at Bangor, Professor 
Reeves greatly enjoyed sermons by the Rev. George H. Mars- 
ton, and he had an admirable friend in Mr. Darling (after- 
wards of Providence, Rhode Island) who read aloud to him 
the big volumes of Swedenborg, so that he became an in- 
telligent and well-read receiver of our faith. 

A sketch of Helen Keller fits in obviously with the followers 
of the "Cadmus of the Blind." In her autobiography at 
twenty-three observe her poetic sense: I was born in an Ala- 
bama home among " heart-satisfying roses and flickering leaf- 
shadows dancing in the sun." Read of her calamity: "My 
deprivation of sight and hearing at nineteen months had 
taken all the light and music and gladness out of my little 
life." Here is her obligation for Miss Sullivan's training: 

" Thus I came up out of Egypt and stood before Sinai, and 
a power divine touched my spirit and gave it sight, so that 
I iDeheld many wonders. And from the sacred mountain I 
heard a voice which said, Knowledge is love, and light, and 


vision." As a Radcliffe alumna, observe her pictorial imagi- 
nation, literary style, and perspicacity in estimating books: 

" Virgil is serene and lovely, like a marble Apollo in the 
moonlight; Homer is a beautiful animated youth in the full 
sunlight with the wind in his hair. ... I like Carlyle for 
his ruggedness, and scorn of shams; Whittier for his en- 
thusiasms, and moral rectitude; Scott for his freshness, dash, 
and large honesty." Macaulay's brilliancy does not dazzle 
her; she says: "His frequent sacrifice of truth to effect kept 
me in a questioning attitude." 

Helen had the world at her feet. Graham Bell told her 
of messages on wire, which she said, "mock space and out- 
run time." Unparalleled privileges were accorded her at 
the Chicago World's Fair, which she called "a tangible kalei- 
doscope." Dr. Greer, at his St. Bartholomew's service, read 
the Scripture slowly that it might be repeated into her hand. 
Phillips Brooks wrote her from London of the love of God. 
She grew to be an interrogation point. Analyzing David's 
words, " He leadeth my soul," she asked, " Has it feet? Can 
it walk? " 

John Hitz, Superintendent of the Volta Bureau at Wash- 
ington, was Helen's first New-Church teacher. He was aided 
by Rev. J. E. Werren in getting our faith put into braille. The 
latter has corresponded with her for ten years and instructed 
her in Hebrew. She had learned that the bodily eye is only 
a window to see through, and the earthly ear only a trumpet 
to hear through, and that she is now a spiritual being with a 
five-fold equipment like the angels, and that she is handi- 
capped only for this life. She addressed verbally nearly 
six hundred people at our General Convention gathering in 
Washington in May, 1919. Her topic was " Swedenborg's 
Message of Comfort." She says in our Messenger, December 
31, 1919: 

"I met the greatest living friend for the sightless. Sir 
Arthur Pearson, last spring, and he made my cup of joy over- 
flow by offering to have put into braille any book I wanted. 
That is how I happen to be able to obtain such long books as 
' The True Christian Religion.' I also have ' The Divine Love 
and Wisdom,' ' The Divine Providence,' ' Intercourse between 


the Body and the Soul,' 'The New Jerusalem and Its Heavenly 
Doctrine.' . . . But I yearn to share my dearest treasures 
with others. If you ever find a blind person who wants to 
read any of Swedenborg's works through, will you kindly let 
me know, so that I may lend him or her some of my books?" 


I would rather entreat thy company 
To see the wonders of the world abroad. 

— Two Gentlemen of Verona, I, i, 47. 

Early in 1892 Mrs. Henry Nichols invited me to be her 
guest in a European trip. Our household treasures had been 
transferred to the other world ; we were both left a bit isolated, 
and were much to each other. We sailed via Gibraltar for 
Genoa, and crossed the continent to the North Sea. She en- 
joyed Europe, and I enjoyed her. In Italy, she was much 
occupied with the vivacious, voluble, quick-witted natives — 
having deference without servility, and ignorance without 
stolidity. We were interested in the stratification of society 
in Rome, one party for the Vatican and the Pope, the other 
for the Quirinal and the King. 

At Florence, we were at the pension of Miss Godkin, whose 
brother was the famous editor of the New York Evening 
Post and the Nation. She was the daughter of James Godkin 
of Ireland, a Presbyterian minister and journalist, and her 
opinions, like those of her brother, were clear-cut, which 
pleased Mrs. Nichols. Twice we visited Signor Loreta Scocia, 
our New-Church translator of Swedenborg's Latin into Italian, 
continuing this consecrated work during the last twenty-nine 
years of his life. He and his wife were a child-like, demon- 
strative, kindly, and eminently social couple, with a charming 
little Pomeranian dog for a pet, and nightingales in the neigh- 
boring trees for music. 

Mrs. Nichols, in Venice, as elsewhere, was original and 
unexpected. She largely ignored Baedeker, and we visited 
art galleries little, rode very much in gondolas during these 
last three weeks in June, and saw the city a good deal on 
foot, over bridges, and through back alleys, where mightily 
interesting little folk clustered around the back doors. St. 


Mark's Church was our delight beyond all words. Mrs. 
Nichols had an eye for color, and from our hotel balcony 
looking out on the lagoon we watched the boats, picturesque 
with sails of old gold, old rose, and subdued brown. They 
grew dim as the shadows deepened ; the black gondolas faded 
from sight, and the gondoliers became shadowy white figures 
gracefully swaying on the water. Soon, nothing was visible 
but the lamps in the prow- — -ruby, emerald, topaz, or white 
— mysterious floating stars of light. 

Mrs. Nichols loved Scotch people, hence she sought out the 
Church services of the Presbyterian Rev. Alexander Robert- 
son. He gave us this advice : to traverse the Dolomite region 
before the extinction of stage-coach travel, — and this was 
our happy experience. Pieve di Cadore is the most beauti- 
ful village in the whole world, with its smiling Italian hills 
on a background of stern Austrian Dolomites, the latter capa- 
ble, however, of transformation by sunlight into molten silver 
or ethereal rose tints. Mrs. Nichols loved flowers, and proved 
a veritable chamois, as we clambered among graceful larches 
to gather pink lupines, magenta thistles, corn-colored spirea, 
and spiked orchids. 

Mrs. Nichols loved children, and, in the Austrian Tyrol, 
at Gossensass, we lodged in a quaint old house with a 
mediaeval kitchen, and centuries-old ways of living. And 
on quitting, she left six sealed envelopes, each containing a 
coin, to be opened at Christmas by the widowed mother 
Hirber, and the '^ fiinf kleine Kinder," whose names were 
Alois, Elizabeth, Anna, Heinrich, and Carl. 

Mrs. Nichols loved peasants, and we went to Oberam- 
mergau for five days. It was an off year for the Passion 
Play, but we lodged with the Nicodemus of the play, with 
Pontius Pilate on one side, and Judas Iscariot on the other; 
and we saw the lad of eighteen who had represented the 
Apostle John in 1890, whose picture had been on screens 
all over the world, but who was not self-conscious, nor shy, 
nor vain. 

Having traversed the picturesque Italian, Austrian, and 
German Tyrols and the Martin Luther country visiting Wart- 
burg Castle, we sailed from Bremen, August 31, 1892. I 

Mr. Henry H. Nichols, book publisher 




Mrs. Henry H. Nichols, travel-hostess 


had learned that my friend loved children, peasants, and 

She had loved the Church since her childhood school days 
with little James Reed, aged two and a half. The site of the 
school building is now occupied by the Club of Odd Vol- 
umes on Mt. Vernon Street. Mrs. Nichols survived her 
husband twenty-one years. In her last illness she often told 
the nurse to open the door, that he and her mother were 
waiting for her; and many a time during our journey she 
said, " I am just as much married to my husband as if he 
were here." 

" By the street called Straight, he reached the city called Beautiful." 

Robert L. Smith (1799-1869) was the White Knight of 
commerce, who, in settling with creditors, ignored the letter 
of the law, and observed its spirit. Born in New Bruns- 
wick, New Jersey, he early became the lad of affairs. When 
thirteen years of age, he made his first boyish venture. Backed 
financially by an uncle, he bought and sold advantageously 
large quantities of tea in the early part of the War of 1812. 

We find him at twenty-five launched on his mercantile 
career in New York City in partnership with a brother-in-law 
as importers of India shawls, and Leghorn hats. In 1826 
he married Miss Mary Northrup, and their home was always 
an attractive social centre. Tall in stature, courtly in man- 
ner, urbane in spirit, prosperous in affairs, and open-handed 
as a host, he tasted the sweets of popularity. 

Current theology turned the footsteps of his wife and him- 
self in a new direction. Their two dear little children had 
been called to the other life, when, on a certain Sunday, the 
religion in which they had been reared presented a startling 
aspect. They were in their accustomed pew in a famous 
church on Fifth Avenue, when the clergyman declared in 
his sermon that hell was paved with the bones of unredeemed 
infants not a span long. Mr. and Mrs. Smith were sore- 
hearted over the loss of their little ones, and the enunciation 
of this dreadful dogma was a cruel blow unconsciously ap- 


plied to an open wound. They quitted the Church, never to 
enter it again. 

This incredible doctrine really did exist. Canon Farrar 
of the Church of England, in his What Heaven Is, traces the 
teaching to a fifty century Church Father who tried to soften 
it by calling it a levissama damnatio; the Protestant Church 
Council of Dort reaffirmed it in the seventeenth century; the 
Rev. Michael Wigglesworth, fellow and tutor of Harvard, 
issued from Maiden in his Day of Doom the same dogma 
in crude but vivid verse. He died in June, 1705. 

Spiritual comfort came to Mr. and Mrs. Robert L. Smith 
through Swedenborg's Heaven and Hell. They read it with 
avidity, and accepted its teachings at once. They sealed 
their faith by receiving baptism in 1831, at the hands of 
Rev. Charles Doughty — a man strong and resolute, but 
kindly and conscientious, who had represented the New 
Church in New York since 1816. 

To espouse an unpopular cause for life required tenacity 
of fibre, unworldliness of soul, and a conviction that knows 
no turning. The Smiths, who had been socially identified 
with New York life for many years, were made to feel a 
heavy loss of prestige upon their openly avowing allegiance 
to our faith. The woman not infrequently flinches at this 
point, as social life is at once her special field, and her 
vulnerable point. But Mrs. Smith was quite her husband's 
equal in this matter. They received many a sharp chill 
from many an old friend who felt that they had gone daft, 
and were wandering astray in an unaccountable manner. 
The closed door was often their only welcome, but this had 
no deterrent effect upon their course of action. 

Mr. Smith, finding himself, after long years of commercial 
success, severely straitened financially through generous 
though unwise endorsement of paper, made a settlement at 
a fraction on a dollar with his creditors. After this arrange- 
ment, a finality as they supposed, he betook himself to Cali- 
fornia, with, as some one has said, " a very small venture in 
money, and a very large capital in good and true principles." 
With 800 passengers, he sailed March 1, 1849, and en- 
countered long delay at the Isthmus. Having been educated 


medically, and equipped spiritually, he became an y^scula- 
pius to the sick with his Lilliputian pellets, and a missionary 
to the sad with his little tracts. 

Arrived in San Francisco in June, 1849, he became at once 
a Midas, turning into gold everything that he touched. With 
business acumen, he avoided prospecting, but purchased land, 
and erected buildings which were rented before completion. 
When terribly destructive fires threatened everything, they 
veered just before they reached his property — just like the 
spears in the hands of Penelope's suitors, which were always 
deflected before they reached Ulysses. But Mr. Smith was 
by no means a Plutus. He never loved gold for its own 
sake, nor forgot his dear religion; and very soon after his 
arrival he erected a neat little chapel for worship in connec- 
tion with his office {Netv Jerusalem Magazine, vol. xxxvi, 
p.25-27, July, 1863). 

Robert L. Smith, the White Knight, returned to New York 
in 1853, and, without a scrap of technical or legal obliga- 
tion, made good his original business indebtedness to the 
extent of one hundred cents on a dollar, to the astonishment 
of his creditors, and in defiance of the letter that killeth. 

After long years as treasurer of the General Convention, 
he was called hence. And we renewed a dear old friendship 
when the Roxbury Society was enriched by the removal here 
of his widow, and two daughters — Mrs. John A. Thompson 
and Mrs. Charlotte Hebbard. 

Simon Henry Greene (1799-1885), Rhode Island manu- 
facturer, built a New-Church Chapel on his own grounds 
after the manner of Robert L. Smith. Greene was a man 
of affairs, with a capacity for idealism, and a wide sense 
of justice. Where did he get his moral courage, public 
spirit, and vocational activity? Observe his great-great-great- 

*Dr. John Greene (1590-1659), an English surgeon, ar- 
rived with his family in 1635 at Salem, Mass. Heresy was 
in the air; Winthrop tells us that a synod in Cambridge cata- 

* The Greenes of Rhode Island compiled from Greene niss. by Louise 
Brownell Clarke, N. Y. 1903. 


logued "eighty-tvvo opinions, some blasphemous, others er- 
roneous, and all unsafe." Greene shared Roger Williams' 
views, was arrested, and fined for contempt of court, came 
"under the ban of outlawry by name, and was forced to 
submit to interference with, and destruction of, his property." 
Greene soon followed Williams southward, and they became 
two of the tw^elve baptized into the Baptist faith, and formed 
the first Church in Providence of that name. 

From the Narragansett Indian chief, Miantonomu, Dr. 
Greene purchased a large landed estate in Warwick with a 
sonorous, six-syllabled name, Occupasuetuxet. The Doctor's 
grandson. Colonel Christopher Greene (1737-1781) was 
grandfather to Simon the New Churchman, and lived where 
die Chapel for worship now stands. He was a brother of 
Gen. Nathanael Greene, who ranked next to George Washing- 
ton in military ability. Christopher fought bravely, and 
received a sword of honor from Congress which I have often 

Simon H. Greene, after several adult years in Providence, 
spent the last fifty years of his life at River Point, eleven 
miles southward. I introduce the reader to some charac- 
teristic hospitality. 

A Rhode Island clam-bake, originating with the Wam- 
panoag Indians under Chief Massasoit, and perfected by nine- 
teenth century civilization, was given Tuesday, August 20, 
1867. Large oval-shaped stones, pointing downwards, were 
half sunken in the ground, and were heated to a high pitch 
by a wood fire on top. Ashes and embers were swept off, 
and a layer of wet seaweed spread over the heated stones, 
and on these were placed clams in the shell, corn in the 
husk, fish in cloth wrappings, and other edibles. Successive 
layers of edibles were surmounted with more wet seaweed, 
and the whole covered with heavy sailcloth to keep in the 
steam. In forty-five minutes a feast was ready fit for Mount 
Olympus. After this banquet came a little address by the 
Rev. Abiel Silver, happy verses by the Rev. John WestaU, 
the use of croquet and swing for the children, and dancing 
by the young people to the music of harp, violin and comet. 
Three hundred New Churchmen had come down in the boat 


What Cheer to this Halsey Farm, from Providence, Paw- 
tucket, Elmwood, River Point, Mansfield, Bristol, Fall River 
and Foxboro (See New-Church Messenger, September 4, 

Rev. Abiel Silver, on his last visit at River Point in 1880, 
filled the Greene Chapel pulpit for a month. The building 
held seventy-five. Mr. Greene's descendants furnished the 
choir, Miss Susan Greene directing it with oratorio voice and 
kindling spirit. Three of his sons, Henry, William, and 
Christopher, were in River Point, gradually lightening his 
Church and business cares, the former often reading service. 
The factory was devoid of strikes, because of good feeling 
between them and their hundreds of employees. 

Simon Greene's ancestors loved and aided the Colonies 
and the Republic that grew out of them ; therefore, after death, 
they would love the Lord's kingdom as their country. Simon 
himself administered righteously over his operatives; there- 
fore, he would be made ruler in a larger sense hereafter. 


Life is somehow becoming to her. 

— Henry James in The Other House. 

We have met Mrs. Margaretta Lammot du Pont of Nemours 
— wife, mother, and beneficent friend of the Church ; we will 
now meet her as Lady Alfred du Pont of Goodstay, her later 
home nearer Wilmington. I learned from her own lips the 
ancestral story of her husband; therefore I will present his 

Enter with me the spacious Goodstay drawing-room, and 
observe the pedestal surmounted by a life-size bust of Cheva- 
lier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, in peruke, lace 
ruffles, and embroidered waistcoat; on his shoulders rests a 
fur-lined mantle; from a broad ribbon encircling his neck 
depends a medal of the Polish order of Vasa; over his coun- 
tenance spreads an expression of genial urbanity. Another 
bust depicts his wife whose sweeping name it is a pleasure 
to rehearse — Madame Nichol Charlotte Marie Louise Le 
Dee Rencourt du Pont de Nemours. Picture to yourself her 
lofty coiffure after the manner of the Bourbon Court, her 
hair drawn upward from the forehead over a cushion, and 
adorned with feather tips, elaborate with curls and puffs, 
looped with strings of pearls. A long tapering spray bearing 
twelve roses, and terminating in buds, rests gracefully on the 
neck of this grande dame. She never saw America; but her 
husband, who had drunk in liberty from the lips of Franklin 
and Jefferson in France, enjoyed briefly the United States, 
until his death in 1817. 

Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours of Paris, bom in 1739, 
was appointed in 1774 assistant to Turgot, the Controller- 


General of finance. Carlyle tells us that, in 1787, at the royal 
summoning of the Chamber of Notables, du Pont de Nemours 
was chosen secretary in preference to Mirabeau who coveted 
the office, and "glared with flashing sun-glance." 

In 1793 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette lost their heads, 
the party of the Girondists fell from power, and du Pont was 
imprisoned and marked for death. He escaped the guillo- 
tine through the blunder of an official. The turnkey carried 
the list of names in his hand, and marked with chalk the 
outer doors of tomorrow's Tournee (batch of victims for 
the guillotine). The door of Mr. du Pout's cell, as his grand- 
daughter described it to me, revolved on a swivel in the 
center; and, when marked, was wrong side out. On being 
closed for the night, the terribly ominous inscription was on 
the inner side; and when, in 1794, the head of Robespierre 
fell, the head of du Pont was saved. He had long since 
married the lady with the stately costume — Mademoiselle 
Nichol Charlotte Marie Louise Le Dee de Rencourt. 

And now a beautiful young girl comes into the story — 
Gabrielle Josephine de la Fite de Pelleport, the daughter of 
a Marquis. And she became an orphan at twelve, and Ursu- 
line and Benedictine Abbayes were not safe places in these 
troublous times; and for six years she came under the care 
"of Marie Antoinette. And Gabrielle lived at Court, and 
practiced with her Majesty the art of tapisserie (needlework), 
which she called a joli ouvrage. And I have seen at Good- 
stay a piece of embroidery — roses in colors on white satin 
— which was made by the Queen herself, and presented to 
Mademoiselle Gabrielle de Pelleport. 

And then the King and Queen went to the guillotine; and, 
in this frightful year 1793, Chevalier du Font's elder son 
found the hapless Gabrielle; and she called him "/e beau 
Victor" and they married the next year, and came to live 
at Bergen Point, New Jersey, where, under his own roof, he 
entertained Joseph Bonaparte, and he furnished the ship in 
which Jerome Bonaparte and his wife, Elizabeth Patterson 
Bonaparte, sailed for Europe in 1805. The son of Mr. and 
Mrs. Victor du Pont was Rear-Admiral Samuel Francis du 
Pont of the United States Navy, for whom Dupont Circle in 


Washington is named. He was a man of great courtliness, 
and his home a treasure house of rare curios. 

But the younger son, Eleuthere Irenee, bom to Chevalier 
du Pont in 1771, especially claims our attention, as the 
father-in-law of Mrs. Alfred du Pont. In the year 1791, at 
the age of twenty he married a French Protestant demoiselle 
of sixteen, named Sophie Madeleine Dalmas, who was capable 
of romantic fortitude, quick resource, and fine energy, rep- 
resenting power in her personal influence. 

Disguised as a French peasant clad in blue, carrying her 
little daughter, Victorine Elizabeth, a year old, on one arm, 
and a basket of provisions on the other, she mysteriously 
obtained entrance to her husband and to her father-in-law 
in prison, bringing them loving aliment for the soul, and 
nutritious aliment for the bodv. T have seen a copy of her 
picture in this guise painted by the fashionable artist, Jean 
Baptiste Isabey. 

Finally, untoward French conditions and alluring Ameri- 
can ideals led to the exodus of the liberty-loving du Ponts. 
They landed after a tempestuous sailing voyage of three 
months at Newport, Rhode Island, on January the first, 1800. 
Observing the poor quality of the American powder, they 
established in 1802 manufactories for producing that ex- 
plosive on the banks of the Brandywine River near Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. Eleuthere Irenee, head of the younger branch 
of the family, had the French instinct for affairs, and be- 
came widely known as " E. I. du Pont." 

Irenee's son x\lfred married, in 1824, Margaretta Lammot. 
He was called to the other life in 1856; and she wore the 
widow's cap during the forty-seven years that she survived 
him. She was tall, with fine dark eyes. Her character was 
one of much dignity, and her manners expressed reserve. 

Sorrow found entrance into Goodstay at the sudden de- 
parture of Mrs. du Pont's son Lammot to the higher life. 
She writes me of the accident: 

" Indeed, you cannot imagine what a crushing blow it is 
to us all. ... It is all over, I am resigned, and cannot 
question the mysterious Providence. ... Do come, dear, 
and cheer us up. Best love to your mother, I think of her 



Mrs. Margaretta Lummot dii Pont 

A comer of the Jroni i<,nh <</ -(.ootls 


often, wishing we could meet, but that will be for the next 

In order to give a fitting environment to Mrs. du Font's 
daughter Paulina, I have postponed the description of Good- 
stay. Picture to yourself a spacious stone house surrounded 
by about forty acres; partly pastoral, appealing to the love 
of rural life; partly aesthetic, with pink tamarisks, Japanese 
snowballs, Oriental Ginkgo tree, and Camperdown elm; and 
with a multitude of home-loving flowers. 

For eleven years Paulina continued admirably the tradi- 
tions of the family regarding hospitality and Church devo- 
tion. Her maids, when disabled, had special reason to call 
her blessed. She had the du Pont ambition to excel, and 
played games spiritedly. She was accomplished in embroid- 
ery, and her fine needlework reminded us that the spiritual 
raiment of this King's Daughter was of wrought gold. Her 
goodness was not shallow applique, but was interwoven 
through and through the conduct of life. She was one of those 
who do a multitude of kind things known only to the recipient, 
and to the recording angel. 

Mrs. Henry Thompson (Louisa Barnard) was a belle in 
her youth, and a lady of great personal beauty which she 
retained through the years; but the spirit that played over 
her mobile face was more beautiful still. She possessed to 
an exceptional degree the social graces without their limi- 
tations. She lived among people who place distinct value 
on amenities of demeanor; and she deserved entrance to any 
European Court because of her high-bred courtesy. And 
it was a moral triumph that she was able to exercise gracious 
tact without compromising anything genuine, 

I am reminded of a sermon once presented by Rev. Phillips 
Brooks on the subject of untruthfulness. He did not speak 
of the broad lies of which the world accuses the bad boy; 
but expatiated on the indirect, sinuous lie of drawing-room 
life: the insincere manner, the false welcome, the purely 
conventional phrase, the disingenuous compliment. No one 
ever needed that sermon less than Mrs. Thompson. 

Proud of her husband, and devoted to her six children, I 


recall the christening of one of them under her own roof. 
She stood unconscious of all else, bearing on her face the 
rapt expression of a saint, absorbed in the holy solemnity 
of the occasion. 

She was indulgent up to a certain point with her grand- 
children. In their country home, the little naturalist used 
to put soft shell crabs in the washbowl, and hard shell crabs 
in the bathtub, and green worms under glass on the side- 
board; the little folk might go barefoot by day; but at the 
well-appointed dinner table at night they must be little gentle- 
men, properly clad; they might come for a simple dessert 
for the sake of their table manners; and then, as the youngest 
goes off to bed, he kisses his hand to the portrait of the 
absent grandpapa, and says, Good night. 

The very words that fell habitually from Mrs Thompson's 
lips exercised toward each other her unvarying courtesy. 
They showed consideration, by giving each other room; they 
did not, after the modern manner, come tumbling precipitately 
out of her mouth, clipping off each other's tails on the way. 
A certain tranquil leisure was observed by the very letters 
in the words which themselves received courteous enuncia- 
tion; her whole language w^as well-bred. And yet the polite- 
ness of the words and of their constituent letters was, like 
her elegance of manner, a part of her real self. 

The early married life of Mr. and Mrs. Henry Thompson 
was spent in New York, and they were my father's parishion- 
ers. Their dining-room table was always extended as an 
invitation to hospitality; and so frequently were we there, 
that I used to say that the portable Silver family lived on 
wheels. A certain occasion gave Mrs. Thompson a test for 
quick wit. She had had a goodly company there, and she 
invited them all to come again to dinner on a fixed date. 
They decided secretly among themselves to surprise her by 
coming as a Dickens party, each choosing a character from 
David Copperfield, and appearing in appropriate costume. 
The hostess was fully equal to the occasion, knew her Dickens 
quite as well as they, and, during the entire evening, ad- 
dressed each according to his or her own proper character. 

She was bom in South Carolina, and was glad to meet 

Mr. Henry G. Tht 


Mrs. Henry G. Thompson 


here a Charleston school friend — Mrs. Cornelius T. Dun- 
ham — who was herself like a beautiful benediction to the 
Roxbury Society. Mrs. Thompson had at the south warm 
friends, and those dear of kin. One day during the Civil 
War some one said under her own roof that Charleston ought 
to be razed to the ground and sowed with salt. Her amiabil- 
ity and self-command were equal to the occasion. As soon 
as the speaker had gone, she brought out a little photograph 
album containing counterfeit presentments of many valued 
friends engaged on the Confederate side; and, pointing to 
one, she said with a gleam of fun in her eyes: 

"0 Ednah, this is the loveliest rebel, the very loveliest 
rebel that you ever saw! " 

Come with me in the year 1884 to the Thompsons' country 
home with its sixty acres of pleasure grounds at Milford, 
Connecticut, near New Haven. The only other guest is Mr. 
Henry Barnard, a septuagenarian. He is kinsman of our 
hostess, and a warm educational co-worker of Horace Mann. 
Some of his works on juvenile education are of international 
value. He has crossed the ocean fourteen times. On his 
first voyage, fifty years earlier, he, a quite young man, carried 
letters of introduction, which soon became superfluous, as 
he passed from one English home to another, unconsciously 
recommending himself. He was already familiar with every 
line of Wordsworth, and enjoyed many a walk with the poet 
in the charming Lake country. He was a guest of Thomas 
Carlyle, and liked that invigorating Scotch talker. His life 
in London was a series of dinner parties where each man 
present, like the Duke of Argyle, was known beyond the 
border of his own land. Crossing to France, Mr. Barnard, 
in the day of Louis Philippe, met Guizot, and especially 
Thiers. Imagine the pleasure of a visit in a country house 
three miles from a postoffice, where leisure abounded as 
in Milford, where we might listen to the excellent talk of a 
man like Mr. Henry Barnard; a man worthy of his delightful 
niece, the hostess. 

I will close by relating a bit of psychological experience. 
A friend once said that she had heard the theory that two 
people make one, but that she never saw three people that 


make one until she saw the Silver family. This statement 
was elucidated unconsciously on a certain evening. We, the 
three Silvers, were sitting in our parlor, while the wind 
moaned, and howled, and whistled, outside. We were pretty 
much talked out, when I suggested that we all remain in 
perfect silence for five minutes, during which time we should 
each select, from among any or all the people we knew in 
the world, the person whom we would prefer to see entering 
our parlor. 

And we all selected Mrs. Henry Thompson. 

Anna La Motte, my fidus Achates, and I agree upon our 
formula of comparative values: 

" The very inmost place in the heart is for the Lord alone." 

The inner shrine is for marriage. 

The court just without is for friends, many and varied." 

But there is reserve even in the outer court. Only mo- 
mentarily do I get glimpses of her hidden reservoirs of feel- 
ing. Let the reader therefore imagine her rich, highly en- 
dowed nature, and our half -century of friendship. 

Mrs. Joseph Kennedy Smyth is preceded by her sisters. 

Louisa Ogden (Mrs. William Turner), disciplined by the 
transition to another life of all her home treasures, writes 
New-Church books of earnest conviction. 

Matilda Ogden (Mrs. William A. Wellman) at her mar- 
riage takes to her heart her husband's six motherless chil- 
dren, and adds four more. And when on one of my visits, 
several of the eight fine lads rush in at the front door like 
King Boreas himself, and play parlor games with terrific 
strenuosity, she is as tranquil as an Indian summer, saying, 
" Ednah, I love boys, and I have no nerves." 

Anna Cora Ogden (Mrs. James Mowatt) enters a public 
dramatic life with her husband's approval, and, with the 
sincere desire to elevate the stage, she never lowers her 
standard. She loves her Smyth nephews, and I recall her 
asking them, '^ Qui est Vange de la maison?" And the 
smallest golden-haired cherub replies with childish grace, 
" Cest moir 

Mrs. Anna Cora Mowatt, actress and author of the play 
''Fashion," first presented in 1845, revived in 1917 

Mrs. Julia Ogden Smyth 


Mrs. Lucy Lazelle Hobart Cutler 


Mary Ogden (Mrs. Cephas G. Thompson), like Matilda 
and Anna, was born near Bordeaux, France, where, from 
1814 to 1825, their father, Mr. Gouveneur Ogden, had a 
beautiful estate of thirty acres, all vineyards, orchards, gar- 
dens, and pets. Mary marries an artist, enjoys the beautiful 
visions belonging to her husband's vocation, and supplements 
them by solid practical achievements. 

(i) Julia Ogden, a little histrionic maiden under four, 
helps to celebrate her father's fifty-third birthday in the 
Ravenswood drawing-room at Astoria, Long Island, opposite 
New York. She recites the prologue of a drama, Alzire, and 
the Spanish and Moorish players must look out for their 
laurels. When the curtain fails to descend promptly, she 
tactfully helps out the situation by repeating the last line as 
she curtsies and kisses her hand to the applause, backing 
off the stage. 

(ii) Julia is a bride of seventeen, standing at the altar of 
Grace Church, New York, as the marriage blessing descends 
upon her head and that of her New-Church husband, Mr. 
Joseph Kennedy Smyth, to whom she is romantically attached. 

(iii) She is hostess in their spacious home, Boscobel, 
in the extreme norlhern part of Manhattan Island. Gen. 
Ulysses S. Grant and family are guests of honor in the large 
assemblage. The hero of Appomattox is taciturn by nature, 
and is saved from current small talk by the tactful hostess. 
In a large upper room, built for dramatics, she presents a 
play wherein a susceptible young man during his country 
visit meets successively four sisters; and Mrs. Smyth repre- 
sents with consummate success each of the four strongly 
contrasting maidens. Gen. Grant reciprocates. The visit 
being prolonged by previous arrangement, he enters spirit- 
edly the next morning into eight-handed croquet, a game 
wholly unknown to him; and he suffers defeat in a soldierly 

(iv) Heaven sends Mrs. Smyth eleven children, and she 
might well represent the most devoted " Mother-love " in 
Maeterlinck's Bluebird. Observe her in October, 1867, play- 
ing anagrams, wherein she cleverly eclipses us all. Her 
youngest little golden-haired boy is included in the game; 


and as he spells out his g-o, go, and his t-o, to, his fond 
mother pats him on the head and calls him her brave little 

(v) She is loyalty itself to the Church. However appre- 
ciatively she enters into social life in Paris during their 
eight years there; however gifted and accomplished in her 
interchange of amenities during her leisurely, opulent life; 
however alluring the world; her darling wish is this, that 
one of her eight sons may be a New-Church clergyman; and 
the Rev. Julian K. Smyth more than satisfies her mother's 
heart. You should read her rapturous letter that lies before 
me. I put her and Mrs. Cutler side by side as noble types 
of rare and gracious women. 



" The days are never quite so long 

As in Virginia; 
Nor quite so filled with happy song, 

As in Virginia; 
And when my time has come to die, 
Just take me back and let me lie 
Close to the Blue Ridge Mountains high 

Down in Virginia." 


The baronetcy of Cameron dates back to 1627, and was 
created in the Scottish peerage for the Fairfaxes by King 
Charles I. Readers should remember that there were in 
Virginia two New-Church titled Fairfaxes of the same name: 

Lord Thomas Fairfax, sixth baron of Cameron, bachelor, 
living at Greenway Court, an estate twelve miles from Win- 

Lord Thomas Fairfax, ninth baron of Cameron, benedict, 
living at Vaucluse, an estate eight miles from Washington. 

The earlier Lord Thomas Fairfax (1692-1781) was reared 
in his ancestral home in Leeds Castle, Kent, which was built 
in feudal times with eight solid towers, and a dark, grim 
donjon. He lived under good Queen Anne, graduated at Ox- 
ford, took a commission in a crack regiment, "The Blues," 
wrote for the Spectator, was intimate with Steele, and a good 
friend of Addison. One day, after carriages, trousseaux, and 
jewels had been ordered for Fairfax's marriage to a lady of 
rank and beauty, she suddenly broke the engagement. Lately, 
his musty marriage contract made ready for signature and 


seals, has been found in Virginia. The lady's name is care- 
fully effaced, but his remains, in grim defiance of fate. 

Lord Fairfax sailed in 1746 for the American Colonies 
to look after his 5,700,000 acres lying on both sides of 
the Blue Ridge inherited from his maternal grandfather. 
Lord Colepepper (or Culpepper).* He soon discovered the 
mathematical talent of George Washington, aged sixteen, 
and he employed him and another lad to survey his estate. 
With red-skins for their guides ihey were to reconnoiter re- 
gions haunted by bears, lurking panthers, elk and deer, and 
they were to fill their slender purses with Fairfax silver, each 
receiving "a doubloon, and sometimes six pistoles (about 
twenty dollars) a day" (see Washington's Diary). 

Lord Fairfax never erected his grand manor-house, but 
spent his life at Greenway Court near Winchester in his lime- 
stone hunting lodge, having a pillared veranda its entire 
length, and wooden belfries above with vibrant tongues to 
sound an alarm against raids by savages. Within were 
racks for guns and shelves for fine old books. Here the 
abstemious host dispensed good cheer lavishly and reaching 
outside, helped the backwoodsmen to adjust boundaries, and 
give quittances. 

We recall in Thackeray's Virginians that at Lord Castle- 
wood's funeral my Lord Fairfax followed immediately after 
the mourners; and that Lady Castlewood ordained that " Lord 
Fairfax was the only gentleman in the colony of Virginia 
to whom she would allow precedence over her." 

Fairfax was grieved when Washington, whom he had 
trained and moulded, became a rebel. And when he heard 
of the surrender of Comwallis at Yorktown, his poor old 
Tory heart was broken. 

" Take me to my bed," he said, turning to Joe, his faithful 
black body-servant, " it is time for me to die." 

Lord Fairfax, an excellent Latin scholar, owned a copy 
of Swedenborg's Principia of 1746, the folio of which, with 

* I am pleasantly indebted to Moncure D. Conway, himself a Virginian, who 
writes pictorially and with scholarly knowledge in his Barons of the Potomac 
and Raopahannock: The Grolier Club, N. Y., 290 pp. 1892. Also to Scrib- 
ner's Monthly of 1879, vol. xviii, pp. 715-728, containing My Lord Fairfax of 
Virginia by Constance Cary Harrison, his distant kinsman. 


the Fairfax inscription, the Rev. Frank Sewall has seen (Lon- 
don New-Church Young People s Magazine, vol. vi, p. 65, 
New Series, 1910). It is known that his Lordship possessed 
himself of some of the theological works of Swedenborg, 
and quietly distributed them. M. D. Conway, after exten- 
sive exploration of facts and traditions, declares that " Lord 
Fairfax had the distinction of being the earliest Sweden- 
borgian in America." This is true, as he did precede James 
Glen, although he did not, like him, make public, adver- 
tised proclamation of the Writings to hearers in a hall. 

In 1912 I was a guest near Bluemont, Virginia, in the 
family of the late Charles G. Smith, a New Churchman who 
had enriched during his long life the Societies at Chicago, 
Urbana and Washington; and I found that his estate of 116 
acres on the Blue Ridge was a part of the old Fairfax prop- 
erty; and the family told me that Swedenborg's works are 
still found scattered among the mountain farms. 

Lord Fairfax was a great land-magnate, with early lux- 
urious training, but he kept his poise. We read that " his o^vn 
wants were few and his habits almost ascetic." There is 
much in the Fairfaxes which made them intense in their con- 
victions and loyal to their interpretation of right. It is em- 
bodied in the noble old motto of the family: 

Mon Dieu je serverai tant que je vivrai. 

(I will serve my God as long as I live.) 

After the death of Lord Fairfax, sixth baron, the Cameron 
coronet crossed the Atlantic to his brother Robert at Leeds 
Castle, making him seventh baron, returning later to rest 
near the end of his life on the brow of Rector Bryan Fairfax, 
eighth baron, father of the second New-Church Thomas Fair 
fax. Bryan's sister, Anne Fairfax, married George Washing 
ton's older brother Lawrence, and the families were intimate 
The Father of his Country loved all the Fairfaxes, even the 
Tory of Greenway Court, and the Tory Bryan. The latter 
was reared on the opulent estate, Belvoir-on-the-Potomac, op- 
posite Mt. Vernon; and he went wooing Elizabeth Gary in 
her opulent home at Ceelys-on-the-James; and he took her as 
a bride to his opulent new home, Towlsten-on-the-Potomac. 
She is described as sitting in " a highbacked, harp-shaped 


tapestry chair in a mouse-colored brocade dress, with ruffles 
and pigeon-bertha of finest Mechlin lace." And her culinary 
skill was equal to her social charm. , ^ , , , 

When fifty-two, Bryan Fairfax took Holy Orders and be- 
came Rector of the quaint Christ Church, Alexandria, where 
we love to visit, to see George Washington's pew, to go over 
the cobble stones, apparently not relaid in a hundred years 
on Cameron Street, to see the old Fairfax rectory with its 
carved woodwork, window panes of curious patterns, and 
brick-walled garden of roses. Bishop William Meade 
(1789-1862) in his book. Old Churches, Ministers and 
Families of Virginia, says: 

" I take pleasure in recording the proofs o± genuine piety 
in Reverend Bryan Fairfax," and he testifies to his sweetness 
and dignity when endeavoring to dissuade Washington from 
war with England. 

All Rector Bryan Fairfax's children became strong ^lew 
Churchmen except the short-lived Sally, who remained, 1 
infer, an unwavering Churchman. She was a quaint, pre- 
cocious child, and considered herself " especial regulator ot 
her big brother Tommy." And when he went to London with 
his father, she wrote the latter: 

" Honor'd Sir, give my love to my Brother, I hope he wiii 
acquire the polite assurance and affable chearfuhiess of a 

gentleman. ^ .r m t^ i c 

Your truly and most unaffectedly dutifull Daughter, ^. 

Washington, from his towering height, looked down ap- 
preciatively on the fascinating Sally. Here is a sketch of her 
by Mrs. Burton Harrison's pictorial pen (m A Little Centen- 
nial Maiden) as she looked at Washington's birthday ball, 
in 1776, he forty-four, she seventeen: 

" Sally wore a dress of white patnet over white satm, the 
patnet trimmed with a vine of rose-colored satin leaves, a 
pink rose in her hair with one white ostrich plume. She was 
verv beautiful that night, and in high spirts, General Wash- 
ington devoting himself to her especially and leading ott in 
a minuet with her, when they were the observed ot all ob- 


Lord Thomas Fairfax, ninth baron of Cameron, and son 
of Rector Bryan Fairfax, is thus described by Mrs. Burton 
Harrison of New York and Bar Harbor in her Recollections 
Grave and Gay, pp. 389, 303 : 

"Grandpapa was a devout Swedenborgian and had his 
children baptized in that faith, some of them being subse- 
quently rechristened in the Episcopal Church by their own 

And again: 

"He was in religion an advanced Swedenborgian; and, 
one of the first Virginia gentlemen to do so, liberated all the 
slaves belonging to his patrimonial estate and established 
them in various trades." 

Thomas Fairfax developed marked individuality. Observe 
his success, in spite of heredity and environment. Cradled 
in Toryism, he became a staunch American patriot; waited 
upon by bond servants, he became a distinct opponent of 
slavery; bearing an old name many times graced with heraldic 
honors, he became democratically indifferent to titles of 
nobility; sung to sleep by maternal lullabies issuing from 
Episcopalian lips, he became a tenacious New Churchman. 

George Washington, on December 11, 1796, says of the 
beautiful Belvoir estate in full view across the Potomac from 
Mt. Vernon: 

"At present it belongs to Thomas Fairfax, son of Bryan 
Fairfax, the gentleman who, as I say, will not take on him- 
self the title of Baron of Cameron." The Cameron coronet 
became buried in oblivion for more than a century, but was 
resuscitated in 1908 by an act of Parliament, and reappeared 
on the head of Thomas's English great-grandson, Albert 
Kirby Fairfax (twelfth baron of Cameron), who has been a 
guest in Boston drawing-rooms I am told. - 

Thomas Fairfax of Alexandria was one of the first New 
Churchmen in that region in 1790 according to the New- 
Church Messenger, vol, xlvii, p. 187. Daniel Lammot named 
his eldest son for Thomas's New-Church brother, Ferdinand. 
Wilson M. C. Fairfax was the son of Ferdinand; and Neill, 
a writer on Virginia, tells us that Wilson served in 1840, 


1841, on a surveying expedition under the Board of United 
States Commissioners. At the institution of the Society of the 
New Jerusalem at Washington, April 12, 1846, among the 
nine members who signed the constitution were Nathaniel C. 
Towle, Eunice Makepeace Towle, his wife, and Wilson M. C. 
Fairfax {Neiv-Church Messenger, Jan. 22, 1892, vol. kii, 
p. 402). 

Rector Bryan Fairfax, through his second marriage became 
father of Anne, who, as Mrs. Charles J. Catlett passed to 
the other life December 28, 1849. The Medium, vol. ii, p. 
272, gives a long tribute: public New-Church worship was 
" the chosen resort of her spirit, and she breathed an atmos- 
phere suited to the respiration of her inmost life." As a wife 
she was above all praise, and children bear testimony to 
her self-sacrificing love. 


"King Carter" at Corotoman on the Rappahannock was 
the first income collector on the 5,700,000 Culpepper-Fairfax 
acres. This principality, largely a piece of royal favoritism, 
whose owners were sometimes non-resident, was wholly tilled 
by the colonists; its income seemed an example of unearned 
increment, and Culpepper might have been haunted by the 
ghost of Henry George, if that political economist had lived 
earlier. "King Carter," as income-collector, shared the op- 
probrium. Bishop Meade, although giving some admirable 
moralizing in his Old Churches, vol. i, p. 32, on " the need- 
lessness of great landed and other possessions," defends Car- 
ter on pp. 113, 114, saying that he, personally, was "not 
oppressive or overbearing." 

Councillor Robert Carter, grandson of " King Carter," re- 
tained the family home, Nomony Hall, on the Corotoman 
estate in the Tide Water region of eastern Virginia. He 
was independent in spirit, and frank in speech. Conway re- 
cords Carter's reception of Swedenborg's Writings, declaring 
in the Open Court of September, 1889, that he knew of the 
New Church in 1778. But the Rev. W. H. Hinkley points to 
original papers by Col. Carter, published subsequently, which 


have mucli historical value, and establii-h the fact that he 
became acquainted with the doctrines in 1790, by means of 
a small work, the " Treatise on Influx," sent from Baltimore 
to one of his neighbors. (See New-Church Messenger, May 
6, 1891, vol. Ix, p. 281; also, for Carter's death in 1804, 
vol. Ixii, p. 251.) Bishop Meade in his own work, page 
111, says regarding Carter: 

"Early in life his disposition was marked by a tendency 
to wit and humour. Afterwards he was the grave Councillor, 
and always the generous philanthropist. At a later day he 
became scrupulous as to the holding of slaves, and manu- 
mitted great numbers. The subject of religion then engrossed 
his thoughts. . . . After a time he embraced the theory of 
Swedenborg. . . . All the while he was a most benevolent 
and amiable man." 

Councillor Robert Carter opened up a correspondence on 
July 17, 1792, with Rector Bryan Fairfax of Christ Church 
in Alexandria, three of whose children, Thomas, Ferdinand, 
and Ann, became New Churchmen. The Rector had already 
knowTi Swedenborg, and received gladly the Carter gift of 
the first volume of the Francis Bailey edition of the True 
Christian Religion, and other works. Carter's Diary presents 
their extensive interchange of letters, and the Rector's in- 
tensely interesting theological views. For fourteen years 
previously he had been studying certain doctrines. Regard- 
ing Swedenborg's statements, he "heartily adopts" some 
points, seriously questions others, endeavors to analyze 
widely, never accepts them as a whole. And throughout he 
shows conscientious regard for the Scriptures, and an earnest 
desire to be led aright. (See extensive extracts from Carter's 
Diary in article by Rev. John Whitehead in Neiv-Church 
Messenger, June 13, 1917.) 

Let me lead you down the Carter genealogical path, (i) 
"King Carter," (ii) John Carter, (iii) John Carter of Ludley, 
(iv) Edward Carter of Cleveland, (v) John Hill Carter of 
Faulkland, (vi) Charles Shirley Carter married Lucy Meade 
Hite, (vii) Miss Jane Loughborough Carter, a New-Church 
lady and a niece of Rev. Lewis F. Hite, was in 1918 matron 
in the Urbana University. 



Go with me on a December Sunday in 1903, and witaess 
a scene worthy the brush of an Old Master. Let us enter 
the beautiful little blue granite Church of the New Jerusalem 
at Wilmington, Delaware. The central stone arch enclosing 
the chancel is the frame of the picture. Within it is the 
tall courtly figure of the Rev. Phillip Barraud Cabell. His 
patrician head, touched with the silver of his sixty-seven 
years, is bent over his manuscript, as rain clouds tone down 
to a duller tint the dim religious light through leaded win- 
dows. Over against the suppressing effect of the sky from 
without is a radiance not of this world. The clergyman's 
strikingly fine countenance is illumined by the spirit from 
within, as he presents his Master's message. He is nearing 
the other world as he gives his last Christmas sermon. 

He points out the pagan festivals of the past which only 
throw into high relief the beautiful Christian observances 
associated with the Holy Child, and His subsequent glorified 
life. The Divine Humanity of our Lord and His vivifying 
redemptive work are forcibly set forth on that morning as 
Mr. Cabell leads us on and upward to the celestial heaven 
of the highest angels. I never saw him again, but I have never 
forgotten that he opened to the eye of our souls a glimpse 
of the supernal glory above. 

I have sketched Mr. Cabell's saintly picture in an ecclesi- 
astical setting. Let us now, in May, 1917, see Edgewood, 
his early married home at Warminster, Nelson County, Vir- 
ginia, situated on the winding James river with its richly 
wooded banks. As we approach the house we traverse a level 
lawn shaded by locusts and maples which, conscious of their 
minor stature, pay tribute to the gigantic oaks majestically 
dominating the scene. Feathered songsters warble us a wel- 
come, and among them we detect the oriole, the crested wren, 
and the robin. 

The Cabell mansion is of wood of a pale indefinite yellow 
tint with slatted or Venetian blinds. It is set on a high brick 
foundation punctured with frequent windows which amply 
light the seventeen compartments of the spacious cellar. The 


central part was built about 1808 by a grand-uncle, Senator 
Joseph Carrington Cabell (1778-1856), an ardent worker 
for the University of Virginia, a visitor to institutions of 
learning at Milan, Padua, Rome, Naples, Leyden, Oxford 
and Cambridge, a guest of Pestalozzi, and a student of 
Cuvier at Paris. 

We will now return to Edgewood. The central two-story 
division of the house is flanked by short wings about eighteen 
feet square. Adjoining these lateral wings are long trans- 
verse wings two stories high, running at right angles with 
the front of the house. Before us is the eastern porch, twenty 
by ten feet, and on it stands our hostess, Mrs. Philip Cabell, 
as we are driven up behind her mules, white Kate, and brown 
Beck. She says, 

" Miss Ednah, a warm welcome! You will find a Damascus 
rose awaiting you in your room. I placed it there for you. 
And," she continued, as we entered the great hall, or living- 
room, " there your father stood when he baptized my little 
two-year-old son, Joseph Hartwell, during his missionary 
visit in December, 1865." 

This central hall, about nineteen by twenty-five feet is bi- 
sected by a three-arched screen of fluted hand-carved wood- 
work, through, and over which, we see the opposite wall, and 
the central door opening into a duplicate pillared porch on 
the west. An arched door on the left leads us, called by the 
most musical of Japanese gongs, into the dining-room rich in 
the famous Virginia good cheer. An arched door on the 
right of the hall leads into the music room, seventeen feet 
square, where Madame stands before her foreign harp of 
satinwood with a bit of beautiful inlaid work in rosewood. 
The instrument is crowTied by angels in low relief with harps 
in their hands. Just below, in high relief, are other angels 
— coroneted and winged — carrying wreaths. At the base 
are spirited angels in the act of flight bearing their harps aloft. 
The instrument was, in Bible phrase, "a pleasant harp" to 
Rev. Philip Cabell, as his wife soothed his last weeks of 
illness. We greatly enjoyed her rendering of Hausselman's 
Lullaby Song, where sweeping arpeggios across the strings by 
the left hand represent the rocking of the cradle which grows 


slower and softer as the baby falls asleep to the mother's 
song rendered by the right, after which the singer gently steals 
away. Next comes The Russian Exile s Lament full of the 
sorrow of homesickness, followed by the gay and merry 
Humoresque of Dvorak. Her height and erectness as she 
stands before the harp remind us of her ancestress. 

The bronze-colored Princess Matoaca of Werowocomoco, 
otherwise known as Pocahontas, was married in 1613, at 
the little Episcopal Church at Jamestown, to John Rolfe. He 
obtained Gov. Dole's consent, by saying that she was one 
"to whom my heartie and best thoughts are and have been 
a long time intangled and enthralled in so intricate a laborinth 
that I was even a wearied to unwind myself thereout." 

Thomas Rolfe, son of John and Pocahontas, married Jane 
Poythress, and their daughter Jane married Col. Boiling of 
Boiling Hall near Bradford, England. The unbroken line 
of Boilings brings us down to the ninth generation, Julia C. 
Boiling, who, at Boiling Hall on the James in Virginia mar- 
ried, in 1861, Philip Barraud Cabell. His wedding gift 
to her was a spray of roses and buds in pearls, and a wealth 
of noble personal qualities. 


Let us visit Liberty Hall where a Campbell will come for 
his bride. This mansion, near Edgewood, is on a part of the 
" 26,000 acres of picked land " handed down from the Eng- 
lish emigrant. Dr. William Cabell. (See The Cabells and 
Their Kin, 641 pp., Houghton Mifflin Co., 1895.) Liberty 
Hall was spacious, and tree-embowered, with a pillared semi- 
circular porch, surrounded by acres which had been in the 
family 150 years. 

Here lived Nathanael Francis Cabell, a Harvard Law 
School graduate, enjoying his library of more than 3,000 
volumes, and eagerly accepting Noble's Appeal as "a pure 
and living stream." At twenty-four he married Anne, daugh- 
ter of Brig.-Gen. John Hartwell Cocke of the War of 1812, 
who lived at Bremo, Fluvanno Co., on the James, on an es- 
tate of imperial acres still retained in the family. 


Mr. Cabell was of commanding stature, with a patrician 
bearing, and a certain reserve which fenced off intrusion, 
although Liberty Hall was graciously hospitable to guests, 
especially New-Church missionaries, as Revs. Frank Sewall, 
Willard H. Hinkley, Abiel Silver, and Richard de Charms 
could testify. From the latter, Mr. and Mrs. Cabell, and 
their little son, Philip Barraud Cabell, received the sacra- 
ment of baptism. I have met Mr. and Mrs. Cabell during 
their visits to the Lammots. I looked up to his wisdom, was 
awed by his personality, and loved his wife. 

A little before Mrs. Nathanael Francis Cabell's departure 
to a higher life, heaven sent her a little daughter, Frances 
Grace, who was educated at the famous Edgehill school near 
Monticello, founded by the Randolph granddaughters of 
Thomas Jefferson. As Miss Cabell will add Campbell to her 
name, we will follow that family; and as all roads lead to 
Rome, so many a New-Church Virginia line leads back to a 

Dr. John Jordan Cabell, before the year 1790, made a 
discovery, recorded in the New-Church Messenger for Febru- 
ary 17, 1904. 

" In passing one day an auction shop, where at the moment 
was being sold a small table with a book upon it, the doctor 
made a bid, 'Twenty-five cents!' and hurried on. . . . The 
book proved to be a copy of ' Heaven and Hell.' Struck by 
the title, then strange to him, he at once began to read, and 
became so absorbed that it was daylight in the morning be- 
fore he retired to rest. To his wife's repeated remonstrances 
during the night, he would say: 'This is what I have been 
looking for all my life. I cannot sleep yet.' " 

Dr. Cabell's daughter Judith married Richard K. Kralle, 
identified with the New Church in Baltimore; and the Doctor's 
granddaughter, Mary Kralle, married Nathanael Campbell 
(1824-1867), a brilliant lawyer, and a member of the New 
York Society under Rev. Abiel Silver. The latter christened 
Nathanael's young son, Richard Kenna. 

Richard Kenna Campbell, whose family had been identified 
with Virginia a hundred years, carried away Frances Grace 
Cabell from Liberty Flail as his bride. As a lawyer he was 


appointed by President Roosevelt as member of a commission 
for investigation and reform of the immigration service. Out 
of it grew a distinct bureau, which the press has called the 
fountain head of a new citizenship, with Mr. Campbell as 
Commissioner of Naturalization, a position he still holds 
(1920). We, at the Philadelphia New-Church Convention 
in 1917 recall his admirable address on The Soul of America, 
which, with a high ideal outlook appealed to us concretely 
to use our consciences in choosing financial securities. Mr. 
Campbell's son, Lieut. Philip Barraud Campbell, is the fifth 
New Church generation from Dr. John Jordan Cabell. 


The Earlys are descended from the Irish on the Isle of 
Saints in the ancient pentarchate of Ulster. Their story is 
warlike, fiery, tumultuous; did you ever know an Irish story 
that was dull? The Gaelic title of this Ulster clan was 
O'Moalmocheirghe. Now names like this were not pleasant 
to the royal ears of the English kings — the Henrys and the 
Edwards. Sometimes the names were abbreviated; or were 
simply translated; and as "moch eirigh" meant "early to 
rise," the name Early sprang into existence (see S. S. Early's 
History of his family, 1896). 

Jeremiah Early of this clan came to Virginia before the 
year 1700: and Samuel Henry Early, a direct descendant of 
Jeremiah, married, in 1846, the daughter of John Jordan 
Cabell, the eighteenth-centur\^ pioneer of our faith. Samuel's 
brother, Major-General Jubal A. Early (1816-1894) we rec- 
ognize as a prominent Confederate guerrilla chief in our Civil 

Mv father visited Samuel Early at Lynchburg late in 1865, 
and baptized his son John Cabell Early ( 1848-1907). The 
latter's wife, Mrs. Mary W. Early, has been known to us 
for forty years through her articles — thoughtful, earnest, 
and lucid — in the New-Church Messenger. Mr. Early went 
to the other Avorld years ago. greatly esteemed and beloved. 

Go with me to Lynchburg, Virginia, and visit the widowed 
Mrs. Mary W. Early. By carriage we reach the suburban 


house of soft-colored gray wood contrasting well with the 
dark red slated roof. She meets us with the handsome Vir- 
ginia hospitality, and we accept proffered seats on the gener- 
ous south-western porch. A small portion of the one hundred 
Early acres lies enclosed before us. In the foreground, 
throwing slanting afternoon shadows on the shaven lawn, are 
linden, locust, catalpa and Norway maple trees. Around 
the garden space is the universal, utilitarian wire fence de- 
vised by man; but God, who made the lilies of Canaan, and 
who loves beauty, has completely hidden the prosaic wire 
with a magnificent mass of rambler roses, and pale yellow 
honeysuckles. Let us linger a moment for the amber and 
scarlet of the sunset behind the Blue Ridge at our right 
fading into the bluest of blue shadows; and then, entering 
the hall, lined with books at the left, and armorial devices 
in front, we pass on to the dining-room, giving evidence 
of the modern Virginia ladies' practical qualities in superin- 
tending orchard, garden, dairy and kitchen. 

We will spend Sunday morning, June 3, 1917, in Mrs. 
Early's spacious living-room, where she conducts her habitual 
simple service weekly. Today, she reads aloud Rev. Clar- 
ence Lathbury's excellent sermon on Moses, Aaron, and Hur, 
which is preceded by Bible reading, responses, and the Lord's 
Prayer, in which we participate. Her daughters, with no New- 
Church public service nearer than Richmond, have been kept 
in our faith, and have received the rite of confirmation. 

I accepted the proffered hospitality of Warminster and 
Lynchburg with grateful esteem for my hostesses, whom it is a 
great privilege to know; and with a historical desire to breathe 
a bit of pre-war plantation life. I heard from them a descrip- 
tion of Confederate experiences a month before Appomattox. 
Strong in Union sympathies over the Civil War myself, I yet 
saw some of its aspects through their eyes. They had a cer- 
tain breadth of spirit; and there came over me a wave of 
conviction, that, in the Divine economy of the universe there 
was something larger than the blue and the gray. I had gone 
to see, in retrospect, plantation life; I had had a glimpse of 



Earlier pupils in the Waltham New-Church School learned 
to love Miss Ella F. Mosby; and readers of our various 
periodicals recall her thoughtful, gentle-spirited essays, 
verses, and reviews. Her book, The Ideal Life, gives us her 
high standards, and her aspirations. 

Again the Cabell refrain: Mr. Campbell and Mr. Early 
were descended from Dr. John Jordan Cabell. Mrs. Early 
and Miss Mosby were descended from Dr. John Jordan 
Cabell's brother Frederick. 

John Ware Mosby, Ella's father, was near kinsman to 
Col. John C. Mosby, the Confederate guerrilla leader of 
"Mosby's Rangers." In the golden October days of 1831 
John Ware Mosby brought his Cabell bride to their perma- 
nent home. Valley Farm. Later, you may picture him read- 
ing the Arcana on his broad porch, or receiving baptism from 
Rev. Abiel Silver, or assemljling his negroes on the lawn in 
1859, that Mr. Silver might talk to them about the Good 
Massa in heaven, and what they must do if they wanted to go 
and live with Him. They paid eager attention with shining 
eyes, called it " mighty good preachin'," and gave plantation 
songs in return. 

Mr. Nathanael Francis Cabell was a neighbor of the 
Mosby s, as distances go in rural Virginia, and near Liberty 
Hall he erected a Chapel after the manner of Messrs. Cary, 
Green, Smith, Steiger and Worcester, who built similarly 
on their own land. In this quiet forest Chapel of the Cabells, 
Ella Mosby, with strong appreciation of the solemnity and 
high significance of baptism, received this sacrament from 
Mr. Silver in 1865. 

Miss Mosby visited us in Roxbury in 1888. Because of 
her studious and loving companionship with flowers, I bor- 
rowed an herbarium of representative Colorado flora col- 
lected by a scientist. Dr. George G. Kennedy (himself splen- 
didly equipped and the peer in this respect of any Harvard 
professor) joined us; and our two valued guests turned 
over the leaves, and greeted the flowers again and again with 


familiar recognition. It is a pleasure to recall Miss Mosby's 
dark eyes glowing with enthusiasm, and 'he essential sweet- 
ness of her voice. 


Edward M. Greenway was reared in Abingdon oif in nar- 
row pointed, southwestern Virginia, and he grew up tall, 
like the Virginia oaks and the heroes of Homer. When he 
was an old man with white hair and a lonely hearthstone, I 
heard him descant, in inadequate human language, on the 
beautiful commingling of the rose and the lily in a certain 
maiden's cheek of long ago; and he told us how he appealed 
to her father. He recited to him all the wrong things he 
had done from his boyhood up, and then asked him for his 
daughter Mary Taylor. His frankness won. The marriage 
took place in Bakimore on January 21, 1817, the bride being 
nineteen. They settled in New York, and five children gath- 
ered around their hearthstone, and were brought in 1832 for 
baptism to Rev. John Doughty. Later, they became Mr. 
Silver's parishioners. Mr. Greenway was tall, stately, re- 
served, punctilious, rich in capacity for warm friendship, 
and immovable in his loyalty to his religion. She was em- 
bodied unselfishness. Her faith was so strong, and her knowl- 
edge so clear, that she met death as one might welcome a 
dear friend. 


The Rev. Lewis F. Hite, Professor of Philosophy in our 
Theological School, and Editor-in-chief of the New-Church 
Revieiv, represents another Virginia family which was en- 
riched by the light of our faith. We will go back to his great- 

Baron Hans Joist Hite (1685-1760) lived in Alsace. The 
spelling of his surname varied — sometimes Heydt, and some- 
times even Hydhdt; by which we recognize the union of 
French and Dutch stock. Having married Anna Maria Du- 
bois, he quitted Strasburg for America in 1710; and he took 
with him a little colony of sixteen families in his own good 
ships, the schooner " Swift," and the brigantine " Friendship." 


These emigrants were to be settlers on his prospective lands. 

After tentative efforts, Baron Hite finally spelled home 
with a capital H when he settled in 1730 on the northern 
side of the Virginia Blue Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley. 
He shortly bought a land grant of forty thousand acres, and 
also obtained an "' order of Council " for one hundred thou- 
sand acres more, on certain conditions of settlement which 
he fulfilled handsomely, having kept his original sixteen 
families with him, and winning later immigrants, until his 
settlers numbered fifty-four households. 

Sixteen years after Baron Hite settled on his 140,000- 
acre estate. Lord Thomas Fairfax came as a neighbor at 
Greenway Court to look after his Culpepper inheritance of 
5,700,000 acres. The Blue Ridge Mountains still echo with 
traditions of Fairfax's distribution of Swedenborg's Writings. 
Imagination pictures Fairfax, the religious pioneer, convert- 
ing Hite as his disciple. 

But alas! their relation was that of "Joist Hite versus 
Fairfax," in litigation handed down to descendants, and 
lasting thirty-seven years. In 1786, when the spiritual ears 
of the original contestants were deaf to earthly contests, the 
final decision of the court was for Hite: "that Fairfax had 
no claim against settlers who held Minor Grants for land 
west of the Blue Ridge prior to 1738." As I understand 
the matter, there were two kinds of British emigrants — one 
received vast tracts as an expression of royal favoritism; the 
other held the land for the sake of real colonial development; 
and Baron Hite filled out the latter requirement. 

From Baron Hite, who so honorably aided, by his fifty- 
four households of settlers, in developing our new country, 
we come down to his great-grandson, Hugh Holmes Hite 
(1816-1887), who, by his moral courage, asserted his con- 
viction of right. This was tested after his reception of 
Swedenborg's Writings, which he discovered through an at- 
tack upon them in the New York Observer. He had come 
into close association with the Episcopal Church through his 
marriage with Anne Randolph Meade, niece of Bishop Wil- 
liam Meade, who was a spiritual power in the state which 
he had diligently traversed in the interest of his Church. 


In order to realize the stamina of character in Hugh 
Holmes Hite which enabled him to espouse the New Church 
openly, it is necessary to picture the environment in those 
days. The Episcopal Church in which he was bred had 
strong power and prestige, and exerted a pressure often 
unrecognized. Social intercourse between plantations was 
delightful, the " Virginia Gentleman " being the product of 
rural life, leisure, education, and public spirit; good private 
libraries were found on the large estates; Mr. Hite, who 
loved books and pursued history, biography, and religious 
literature, also loved social life; he added high intelligence 
to the interchange of amenities; social ostracism threatening 
his adoption of our faith was not easy to bear. But he had 
the intellectual independence, the high courage, and the 
moral determination, to espouse the cause of the New Church. 

Thus ends the story of the Virginia Fairfaxes, Carters, 
Cabells, Campbells, Earlys, Mosbys, Greenways, and Hites. 
Except the Fairfaxes, I have personally met New Churchmen 
representing all of these families, and directly bearing their 






Acer, Rev. John Curtis .... 178, 180, 186, 197 
American Indians, Michigan aspects of . . 145-147 
Animal Magnetism, aspects of ... . 160, 161 

Arthur, T. S. . . 161 

AsBURY, Bishop Francis 7, 40 

Bailey, Robert 15 

Mrs. Robert (Margaret McDill) ... 15 
Francis, first disciple of Glen, 15, 16, 18-22, 26 
Mrs. Francis (Eleanor Millar) . . 15,24 
Abbe (Mrs. John Hough James) ... 21 
Jane (Mrs. Frederick E. Eckstein) . . 22 

Beardsley, Dr. Havilah 170 

Bell, Judge Digby V 156, 157, 159 

BiGELOW, John 197, 257-259 

Bishops, see Asbury, Carroll, Chase, 
Meade, Seabury and Swedberg. 

Blanchard, William Lazelle 206 

BowEN, Rev. Duane Vinton 214 

BuLFiNCH, Charles 72, 198 

Burnham, Edwin 153, 154, 171 

Daniel H 248-250 

Cabell, Dr. John Jordan, of Virginia . 299, 300, 302 

" Nathanael Francis 298, 299, 302 

" Rev. Philip Barraud . 40, 296, 297, 298, 299 

Campbell, Nathanael 298, 299 

" Sir Francis Joseph .... 269, 270 

Carlyle, Thomas, pays tribute to Sampson 

Reed's book 83, 84 

Carroll, Bishop John 43, 44 

Carter, Counsellor Robert .... 18, 42, 294, 295 

" Timothy Harrington .... 78,93,94,95 

Cary, Margaret 24, 27, 32, 56, 58-63, 103, 107-110, 117 

Cate, Dr. S. M 199, 201, 202 

Cerqua, Agostino E 191, 192 

Chamberlain, Judge Ebenezer E 159 


1775-1865 Chandler, Mrs. Esther Parsons 37, 38 

1807-1886 " Theophilus Parsons 36,37 

1816-1889 " PelegW 105,106,107,111 

1842-1919 " Horace Parker 204, 267, 268 

1775-1847 Chapman, Jonathan ("Johnny Appleseed") . 47-51 

1775-1852 C^tASE, Philander, Bishop of Ohio and Hlinois, 147-149 

1790-1855 Chauvenet, William Marc, from Lanquedoc, France, 34 

1820-1870 " Professor William, U. S. N. . . . 34 

1836-1917 Church, Col William C, of Army and 

Navy Journal 197 

1767-1850 Clark, Captain John 74, 75 

1794-1848 " Alice (Mrs. Thomas Worces- 
ter) 75,76,108,109 

1801-1890 " Calvin 91 

1803-1886 " Lydia (Mrs. Nathanael Hobart) . 91-93, 109 

1805-1876 " Catherine (Mrs. Sampson Reed) . . 84,94 

1808-1870 " Martha (Mrs. Timothy H. Carter) . . 93,94 

1810-1884 " Dr. Luther 94 

1746-1831 Collin, Pastor Nicholas 29,30 

1815-1894 Cutler, William J 98 

1818-1904 " Abram 99 

1826-1896 " Waldo 99 

1821-1915 Davis, George B 107 

1826-1920 " Mrs. George B. (Marie Louise Greenman) 107 

1835-1899 " Walter Scott 174 

1818-1893 Dearborn, Mrs. Henry (Sarah Maria 

Thurston) 208,209 

1809-1879 De Chazal, Edmond, of Mauritius 214 

1804-1814 Demerara (British Guiana), aspects of . . 10-12 

1815-1899 Dike, Rev. Samuel F 112,178 

1837-1912 Doliber, Thomas 90 

-1878 Dorr, Rev. Susan M. H 109,170 

1739-1798 DucHE, Rev. Jacob 31, 32 

1767-1835 " Esther (Mrs. William Hill) 32 

1820-1895 Dunham, Cornelius T 206 

1823-1916 " Mrs. Cornelius T. (Ann B. Poyas) . . 285 

1739-1817 Dupont, Chevalier Pierre Samuel, friend of 

Franklin and Jefferson .... 280, 281 
1743-1797 " Madame Nichol Le Dee de Ren- 
court 280,281 

1771-1834 " Eleuthere Irenee, of "E. L du Pont 

Powder Co." 182, 282 

1775-1828 " Madame Sophie Madeleine Dalmas . . 282 

1798-1856 " Alfred Victor Philadelphus .... 182 

1808-1903 " Mrs. Margaretta Lammot 182, 183, 280, 283 

1827-1914 " Paulina 283 



Early, Samuel Henry, of Virginia 300 

1848-1907 " John Cabell 300 

1846-1917 " Mrs. John Cabell (Mary W.) . . 300,301 
1736-1817 Eckstein, John, sculptor to Frederick the 

Great 22,24 

Frederick E 22 

Mary (Mrs. Alex. Kinmont) . . 22,23 
Charlotte (Mrs. Daniel Thuun) . . 24 

1815-1916 " Frances, of Glendale 24 

1823-1915 Edgerly, Mrs. James (Sophronia Wilder) . 99, 100 

1815-1896 Ellis, Dr. John 224, 225 

1803-1882 Emerson, Ralph Waldo, pays tribute to Samp- 
son Reed's book 82-84 

Exiiics IN Business, ideal and perverted 16,28,91, 
144, 168, 176, 177, 221, 251, 264, 277, 279, 304 
1791-1869 Evans, Rev. Charles, Baptist missionary to 

Sumatra 165-167 

1692-1781 Fairfax, Thomas, sixth baron of Cam- 
eron 289-291,304 

1737-1802 " Rector Bryan, eighth baron 291, 292, 294, 295 

1765-1849 " Thomas, ninth baron .... 289,293 

Ferdinand 293 

Wilson M. C 293, 294 

1784-1849 " Anne (Mrs. Charles J. Catlett) . . . 294 

1810-1884 Field, Rev. George .... 79, 156, 159, 160, 171 
1804-1869 FoNERDEN, Dr. John, of Baltimore .... 40, 41 
1831-1917 Foster, Mrs. Amos (Annie Seavey) .... 208 

1817-1898 Fox, Rev. Jabez 158, 170 

1706-1790 Fr.\nklin, Benjamin 3, 16-18, 44. 

1752-1832 Freneau, Philip, writes poem on True Christian 

Religion 20 

1825-1912 Gates, Adelia, flower painter and Sahara 

traveler 250-^256 

1807-1864 George, Captain Paul 174-179 

1803-1876 Gilpin, Chief-Justice Edward W., of 

Delaware 183,217,218 

1750-1814 Glen, James, New-Church torchbearer . 1-3, 7-16, 52 

1833-1907 Gould, Rev. Edwin 100, 178 

1799-1885 Greene, Simon H 277-279 

1827-1909 " Henry 279 

Greenway, Edward M 303 

1884 Grolier Club of New York 190 

1822-1909 Hale, Rev. Edward Everett, a good inter- 
Church friend 209.210 

1750-1839 Hargrove, Rev. John, of Baltimore . . . 40-46, 49 
1820-1898 Harris, Dr. John T 198, 203, 206 



Harvard a century ago 68-71 

1804r-1864 Hawthorne, Nathaniel 190, 197, 198 

1797-1878 Hayward, Rev. Tilly B 72, 73, 77, 86 

1763-1804 Hill, Rev. William, donor of 

Arcana to Harvard in 1794 . . 24, 32, 63, 70, 102 

1748-1814 HiLLER, Major Joseph 52,57,198 

1775-1841 " Margaret (Mrs. Samuel J. Pres- 

cott) 53,54,57 

1814-1870 " Rev. O. Prescott 54-56 

1731-1812 HiNDMARSH, James, the first ordained New-Church 

minister in the world, . (footnote) 40 
1759-1835 " Rev. Robert, of England, son of 

James 8, 9, 15, 26, 41, 45, 102 

1831-1909 HiNKLEY, Rev. Willard Hall . . 44, 46, 186, 218, 299 
Hitchcock, Thomas, of New York . . . 189, 196 

1685-1760 HiTE, Baron Hans Joist 303, 304 

1816-1887 " Hugh Holmes 304, 305 

1828-1908 HiTZ, John, of Washington Volta Bureau, first 

New-Church instructor to Helen Keller . . . 272 

1781-1877 HoBART, Benjamin 98 

1817-1897 " Lucy Lazelle (Mrs. William J. Cutler) , 98, 201 

1820-1910 " Amelia (Mrs. William H. Dunbar) , 98, 99, 201 

1794^1840 " Nathanael 91,92 

1839-1916 Howard, Samuel F 206 

1807-1894 HowELLS, Hon. William Cooper, New- 
Church editor, and father of 

novelist 265-267 

1837-1920 " William Dean, comments on 

Swedenborg 265,266 

HoYT, J. K., of New York 189 

1845-1916 Ingell, Mary Anna 208 

1827-1911 Jackson, Mrs. William Francis .... 202, 203 

1800-1881 James, John Hough 21 

1743-1826 Jefferson, President Thomas . . . 3, 6, 44, 45, 299 

1840-1913 Jewitt, Jesse 207 

1799-1873 " John L 193, 194 

1775-1847 "Johnny Appleseed," see Chapman. 

1866-1916 Josselyn, Professor Freeman Marshall . . 235-238 

1838-1913 Keene, Simeon H 206 

1839-1911 Keith, William, gives paintings to Rev. 

Joseph Worcester's Church 122, 123 

1880- Keller, Helen, testifies to value of Sweden- 
borg 271,272 

1841-1918 Kennedy, Dr. George G 205,302 

1799-1836 Kinmont, Alexander 22,23 

1860-1909 Knapp, Adeline 261-265 























* Lammot, Daniel 32, 33, 40 

" Daniel, Jr., Father of the New-Church 

in Delaware . . 33, 40, 180, 181, 183, 187 
" Margaretta (Mrs. Alfred du Pont) 

33, 182, 183, 187, 188, 280-283 
Mary (Mrs. Hounsfield) . . . 183, 188 
Eleanora (Mrs. Edward W. 

Gilpin) 183,188,218 

Dan 185 

La Motte, Major Robert 185, 186 

Col. William A 185, 186 

" Anna Rebecca 286 

" Brigadier-General Charles Eugene , 186 

Lathbury, Mary A., author of Church hymns, 

and "A Song of Hope" 210 

Little, Captain William McCarthy, U. S. N. . . 193 
Long, Enoch, Illinois pioneer of 1819 .... 152 

Lyon, Hon. Lucius 158, 159 

MacDonald, Donald 204 

Marriage, dual spiritual nature of man and 

woman in 124, 125 

1794, first New-Church union ... 27 
" 1797, second New-Church union . . 27 

Marston, Rev. George H 178, 271 

Mason, Albert, Chief-Justice of Massachu- 
setts 218-220 

" William, pianist 196, 246-248 

McClean, Abby 239-242 

Meade, Bishop William, of Virginia 292, 294, 295, 304 

Meday, Christian Henry 191 

Mercer, Rev. Lewis P 186 

MosBY, John Ware, Virginian 302 

" Ella Floyd, Virginian 302, 303 

Moses, Dr. Thomas 231-233 

MouLTON, Maria, our "Sister Dora" . . 269, 271 

Negendank, Dr. August 187, 223, 224 

Nichols, Mrs. Henry H 85, 273-275 

Noyes, Mrs. Horace P. (Eliza Withington) . 77,208 

Ogden, Samuel Gouveneur, of New York . . . 287 

" Louisa N. (Mrs. William Turner) ... 286 

" Matilda (Mrs. William A. Wellman) . . 286 

Anna Cora (Mrs. James Mowatt) . . . 286 

* The two Daniels and their descendants to Dan inclusive spelled their 
family name as one word; later members divided it. 



1823-1897 Ogden, Mary (Mrs. Cephas G. Thompson) . . 287 

1829-1909 " Julia (Mrs. Joseph Kennedy 

Smyth) 191,287,288 

1699 Old Swedes' Church of Wilmington . . . . 2, 30 

1700 Old Swedes' Church, Gloria Dei, of Philadelphia 29 

1824^1913 Page, Anna L., kindergartner 242-244 

1812-1907 Paine, Albert W., "Nestor of the Penob- 
scot Bar" 37,220-222 

1824-1895 " Timothy 0., studies and illustrates 

Scripture Holy Houses .... 233, 235 
1716-1783 Parsons, Moses, Orthodox parson . . 104, 105, 227 
1750-1813 " Theophilus, Chief -Justice of Mas- 
sachusetts 105,227 

1797-1882 " Theophilus, Harvard 

Dane Professor . . 71,104,105,227,228 

1824-1880 " Emily Elizabeth, Civil War nurse 228, 229 

1819-1886 Perry, Rev. John P 90, 91 

1808-1897 Phelps, Francis 56,86,88,90,106 

1818-1897 " Arthur 89,90 

1837-1912 " James R 207 

1595-1617 Pocahontas, the Indian Princess 298 

1805-1873 Powers, Hiram, of Florence, Italy 22, 54, 85, 90, 193 

1828-1885 Pyle, Mrs. William (Margaret Painter) ... 259 

1853-1911 " Howard, and his art pupils . . . 259-261 

1797-1854 Reed, Caleb 84,85,86,109 

1800-1889 " Sampson 71, 81-84 

1839-1917 " Helen 85,86 

1841-1915 " Arthur . 85 

1843-1895 Reeves, Thomas, blind musician 271 

1792-1834 Richer, Edouard, Nantes, France 34 

1799-1871 Riley, Edward C 191 

1882-1914 Roeder, Elsie 260, 261 

1812-1898 Ropes, Joseph 199 

1833-1896 " George 87, 90, 199 

1836-1901 Safford, Professor Truman H 225-227 

1820- Schack, Otto Wilhelm Christian .... 192, 193 

1685-1748 Schlatter, Paulus, of St. Gall, Switzerland 34, 35, 38 

1716-1790 " Rev. Michael 35,38 

1753-1787 " Gerhard Richard 35, 38 

1784-1827 " William 36 

1809-1892 " Elizabeth (Mrs. Theophilus 

Chandler) 36,38 

1836-1902 ScociA, Signor Loreta, of Florence .... 85, 273 

1729-1796 Seabury, Bishop Samuel 7 

1837-1915 Sewall, Rev. Frank . . .46, 99, 100, 119, 178, 199, 

210, 232, 233, 250, 291, 299 


















SiLSBEE, Nathanael Devereaux 206 

" Mrs. Nathanael Devereaux (Mary Stone 

Hodges) 206 

Silver, Rev. Abiel . . 23, 97, 117, 129-216, 302, 303 

" Mrs. Abiel 129-216 

Skiushushu, Chief Red Fox 146, 147 

Smith, Charles G 291 

Robert L 275, 277 

Smyth, Joseph Kennedy 190, 191 

" Mrs. Joseph Kennedy (Julia 

Ogden) 191,287,288 

Spiritism, phases of 162, 163 

Strong, Rev. Horatio N 157, 158 

Sullivan, Charles, of New York 189 

SwEDBERG, Bishop Jesper, father of Emanuel 

Swedenborg 1, 30 

SwEDENBORG Documents 30, 230 

Swift, William H 185, 187 

Tafel, Dr. J. F. Immanuel, of Tubingen . . 55, 229 

" Professor Rudolph L 30, 229-231 

Thackeray, William M., mentions Lord Fairfax 

of Greenway Court 290 

Thielson, Hans, from Denmark 156 

Jhompson, Cephas Giovanni 89, 97, 190 

Henry G 189,190 

Mrs. Henry G. (Louisa Barnard) 283-286 

John A 206 

Thuun, Daniel 24r-26 

TiCKNOR, Mrs. William D. (Emeline Stani- 

ford Hok) 95,96 

Howard Malcolm 120,193 

Tryon, Francis, and family of New York . . . 190 
Van Dyke, Rev. Henry, pays tribute to John 

Bigelow 259,261 

Wagar, Mrs. Israel D. (Elizabeth Pyle), knew 

"Johnny Appleseed" 50 

Ware, Dr. John, Harvard, 1813 207 

" Mrs. John (Mary G. Chandler) .... 207 
Washington, George . . . 1-3, 31, 39, 40, 52, 265, 

290, 291, 292, 293 

Webb, George James 78, 81, 244-246 

Webster, David L 100, 101 

John G 101 

Weeks, Rev. Holland 25, 153, 154 

Wheaton, Charles A 207, 208 

Whitney, Mrs. A. D. T 106 



1794^1861 WiLKiNS, John H 71, 96, 97 

1758-1837 Worcester, Rev. Noah 67, 68 

1795-1878 " Rev. Thomas . 22,52,64,68,69,70-80 

86, 103, 107-111, 117, 171, 173 
1822-1896 " Miriam (Mrs. S. F. Dike) . ; . . 112 

1824^1911 " Benjamin 91,92,112-114 

1831-1897 " Catherine (Mrs. Thomas 

Thacher) 93,107,114 

1834-1900 " Rev. John, 72. 109, 114-117, 169,205, 215 

1836-1913 " Rev. Joseph . . 109, 117-126, 256, 262 

1793-1844 " Rev. Samuel 102, 103 

1793-1883 " Mrs. Samuel (Sarah Sargent) 103, 104 

WoRCESTERS of the main HoUis stem: 
1761-1834 Worcester, Jesse, father of nine sons . . 238, 239 
1799-1879 " Oilman, fourth son of Jesse ... 238 

1802-1841 " Rev. Henry A., sixth son . 34, 222, 238 

1808-1893 " David, ninth son, and fifteenth 

child 238,239 

1842-1911 " Henry of Maiden 238 

1844-1916 " Professor Sarah Alice .... 64, 238 
1848-1910 " Judge Francis J., of New York 197, 238 
184S-1914 " OeorgeW .239 

Wright, Rev. John, historian of American Liturgies, 80 
1845-1907 " Rev. Theodore F 115, 207 

Yale students in 1784 5, 6 

1762-1840 Young, Judge John 27-31, 41 

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